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PPEStNTEO By THSMAS WELTSAI. STANF9RD. 



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THE 



SYDNEY MAGAZINE 



OF 



SCIENCE AND ART. 



CONTAINING, BY AUTHORITT, THE PROCEBDINOS OP TUB 



AUSTRALIAN HORTICULTURAL AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 



AND 



THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 



VOLUME I. 



EDITED BY MR. JOSEPH DYER. 



> » 



SYDNEY: 
JAMES W. WAUGH, PUBLISHER. 

286, Geobge Stbebt. 



1858. 













/?,3i-T?0-. 



PBEFACE. 



The first volume of the Sydney Magazine of Soienoe and Art is now before ova^ 
Subscribers. We trust they will allow that — considering the difficulties that must 
' attend such an undertaking in a community where politics, professional occupations, 
or mercantile pursuits engross nearly the whole population— «we have fairly fulfilled 
the promises contained in our Prospectus. 

New South Wales can yet boast but fMfc|gentlemen of leisure who feel pride 
and interest in pursuing science for its oH^Kake, and are ready to devote both 
time and money to its advancement. Such a class will doubtless arise, especially now 
that scieiice is becoming fashionable under the auspices of our energetic and saga-* 
cious Governor, Sir William Denison, to whom we beg to express our grateful 
acknowledgments for the encouragement he has afforded us by his advice, his patronage 
and his contributions. 

To the members of the Philosophical Society of New South Wales and of the 
Horticultural Society we are also indebted for their patronage, and trust we have 
repaid the obligation by presenting them in a concise and convenient fonn with a 
record of their Transactions, which would otherwise have been buried in the columna 
of a daily newspaper. 

The Editor is quite conscious of numerous deficiencies ill the plan and execu- 
tion of his work, and would avert the severity of criticism by the consideration that his 
efforts, feeble as they may have been, were sincerely intended for the advancement of the 
Colony, and that, but for this periodical, many valuable suggestions and much statistical 
information would have been lost to succeeding labourers in the same field* At any 
rate we have the satisfaction of knowing that many residents in the interior have 
derived valuable information from our pages, and have acknowledged their obligations, 
in the local journals. 

We are proud and happy to say that we have received promises of assistance from 
gentlemen interested in scientific pursuits who have not hitherto contributed to om* 
columns, while we hope to retain the support of those gentlemen who have so kindly 
helped us during the past year. 

It is only just to the enterprising Publisher to say, that at present, the MAGAZINE 
has not paid the expense of its production. We appeal to the members of those 
Societies whose proceedings it retords, and who are not already subscribers, to yield 
it a more liberal support. We shall thus be enabled to add to its attraction by more 
frequent illustrations, and by engaging competent correspondents on scientific subjects. 

To the country, and especially to the metropolitan press, we beg to express our- 
warmest thanks for its appreciation of our efforts, and assure our kind critics that wq 
Imve a resolute will to merit a continuance of their approbation. 




JbitrodactieD 
AoAraliiui Hot 

Bihibidon hb, am 

Ditto Ditto TrmiEiictiaiis g, 48, 74. 1 06. ISO. ^ H 

18t, 217, 3lS,2M.aiS 

EiitQtJ- of rnrnj:ilion 2 

Idit of KpBni read :. .,.,. 2 



By-LawB 

InBugora 
W.Dei 



Addr™ hy Hia EieelUncv 8u 

a™, K.O.B 

the niiHcarea BiMtta 

Native FlaDfJi, Pastoral and AgricalEuraJ B^ 

fonrw* of Australia,' b; T. W. Shep- 

herf 51, 110, 185, IBS, 297, 

Shephitd'a Rsply to Oritio m Native Fl»nt« 

On tlie Advantages of Changing Seeds 

Aaaljiia of Die Boil of the Hunter, hj 

TluwdDto West ' 

Gcanses (two speiaeB) inlrodnoad into the 

Colonj bj- B. W. Rndder 

Tho Bitter Aloo— Ransom Woftd 

I riigalaon of Vinejarda^ A ugustusA pjilefbrd 
ThiAeniniiof Wine— AognwnsApi^efcrd,., 
xTheLaap," (tuith IlZiatratiom) Theoiore 

WM 

Artesian Wells. Letter to Seraetarf of Horti- 

cnltural Sodrly. Br&tr.Lewis Markbam 217 
Ite&ovatioD of Ojlotual Futures, by Robert 

Merton 107 

Eradicating Bars and Thistles growing in the 

ColonVih; liiudeiay Bbofilierd 

On ibe DestcnctioD of CoIoniaJ Weeds, bf B. 

Muslon 123 

Italian Wheat SHaw, by P. Creswiek :.., 124 

Paragroles. By E, Merton ..? """ 

Avricultonl Associatioiu sod IraprovemenC 

Soiiietiei ...*. 

Improvement of Pastoral Lands ............... 

Extract— Iodine in the Dnited States 

NamingorNumheringofFiaals. ByF.L.C. 

ahepterd. With 111 nitration 

Hbo Potato— its Cnlture. Disease, and Prs- 

Tentivo. By Mr. Lenis Harkbam 

imnle Mode of R»i«ng Water hy Cattle 

Ttl^^^ Il-U..lir C,.».*w. TT.-il. III.... 



Powe 



!y Ur.W. Etomrt, With lUos- 



Council Meeting.. 

The Pastoral lBtere8t,by Robert Mfslon 326 

T. W. Sliepherd'a B«i1y to Mr. Robert 
Mestonuntha Pastoral Intareet ucidOaneral 

Exhibition of Live Stock 

Clianthns Dampierii. By P. L. C. Shepherd 
On Bone MonureaDdSunerphiieplialo of lime- 
By Mr. BenryWayi ■ 
On the Origin of Vege 

HarkhuD 

Bodely's Model Farm 

L -pultMphical Society 

"-(tferyuid Buleaor. 

Mgural Address, by His BxcollenEy 
Klr<DauHi],K.C3„ on Bail Roads . 



ofVegetatJD 



iwns and OitiiiB. 

_ '41,65 

BySiFW.Denisou 

in-gnage (/Wui&vtffJlbyW.S.Jevons 

Bwlroads, by Sir W. Derdson 

Railways, finftocially vionod— W. O. Pen- 

parramatta Wato/Worka— K.o!'Moriiirtif 

Colonial Bailffttys— Sit W, Dbiuboii 

Waiud Paper Process of Photogmpliy, by 
Frank Haes 

Iron Making Kesoorcea of NaiT South Wales, 
by J. H. Thomas, C.B - 

Action of Lead upon Sydn»T Water, by Pm- 
iissor Smith ItM 

On the ajiplication of certain Principles of 
Political Economy to the ^uestioo of Itul- 
wajB, by Professor Pell I 

On the Meteerolegy of Neff South Wales, 
by Rev. W.Scott, M.A „ ; 

Od the Structure and Knnctions of tiie Yenom 
Avpacatus in Serpent*, byA.Babarts,Esq., 
mth lUmlraliom 180 

Irrigation. BvSirW. Denison 

On Clouds— tliaii T^iuus Pornis and Pro- 
ducing Causes ; with Uiperituental fUuS' 
trations. ftn. ByW.Q.Jevons 

Sanitary Reform. By Isaac Aaron, Esq. ... 

The Necessity for a Farther ELiploratioD of 
the Interior of tha Australioa Oonlinent. 
By John ThompsoB, Esq Sffl. 

Science of Statistics, By Christot^ Bol- 
IffltoD, Esq 234 

Strength of Colonial Timber. Report of Ei- 
penmenla. By Caplain Ward, B. B 858 

Stronrthof Now Zealand Tirabor. Report 
of E^orimenls. By Captain Ward. R.E. 201 
Philosophical Society. Eleciioa of OSco Bearers, 

and Financial Statement for the year ondini; 

April, 1858 - aa 

^bitran Betnn 



Friiee... 

The MegBthon, with iHiMlTotiiMi 

Woolnar's Bust of TennysDQ , 

Labour-saving Machinery 

On Lime 

Stomping Trees 

Colonial Casks for Colonial Wine. ByH. Car- 

micbsel. Esq 

ChemisCcr in the Wme CelUr. By F. Muspratt, 

Esq. 

i..,.,^^.. „r sjlli — an Eiueriment with Silk 
By F. Baah^td.tEsq., Sutdak, 

Bast Indies — 



Pnidn>.ti 



Page, 

The Patent Law 47 

Agricultural Societies 73 ! 

Iimuenoe of the Australian Climate upon Euro- i 

peans — P. Divorty, M.D., 11th Regiment 83 

Railways United States— Capt. Douglas Galton 91 , 1 14 
Correspondence. ' 

Marble and Limestone Quarries 93 

Silurian Fossils 135 

Letter from Rev. W, Scott, Colonial Astro- 
nomer .' 2G4 

Report of a Lecture, by Mr. Grove, at the 
Royal Institution, on ]\Iolecular Impres- 
sion?, by Light and Electricity 265 

Letter from London Correspondent on the 

Leviathan 206 

Mr. John W. Giles on the Steam Plough ... 266 

Mr. Meston on Palmer's Patent Railway ... 269 

Analysis of Australian and New Zealand Coal... 94 

The Exploration of the Interior 97 

List of Prizes given 113, 114 

Notices to Correspondents ,, 116 

Education in Science 119 

Internal Communications 139,150, 159 

Mr. Markham's Letter to Alfred Denison, Esq... 148 
Markham's Digging Machine 156 

The Rivers of Australia. By Mr. F. S. Pepper- 
come, C.E $59 

The Action of Sydney Water upon Lead • 183 

The Horse -Locomotive and Power-Engine. By 

Mr. p. S. Peppercome, C.E 190 

Sorghum Saccharatam, Mode of Making Sugar 

from .7... 199 

Architecture for New South Wales 203 

On the Vitality of Seeds. By Dr. Daubeney ... 211 

Popular Recreations 223 

Age of Discovery • 243 

Inaugural Address delivered at the Annual 
Sleetinjf of the British Association in Dublin, 
1857. ^By the Rev. Humphrey Lloyd, D.D., 
president Elect 204 



Page 

On the Improvement of Tidal Rivers. By Dr. 

Strang 211 

Remarks en the Steam Pumping Engine of 

Cornwall. By F. S. Peppercorne, C.E. ... 212 

Remarks on Motive Power and on the Application 
of Power to Machinery. By F. S. Peppercome, 
Esq., C.E 235 

Colonial Endemics amongst Grazing Stock. By 
Mr. R. Meston 239 

HealthTablos 19, 41, 72, 95, 117, 137 

15^ 202 222 242 272 
Meteoroic^icii Tabies".*.*.'." .*.'. 20,' 46, 71, 96, 118, 138 

158,182,201,221,241,271 

Meteorological Table for Svdney, New South 
Wales, for 2 Years, from July,18^5,to June,1857, 
MeansandSums 45 

Extracts — 

Photography 156 

Extract from the Address of the President, 

Sir F. Poikck, Lord Chief Baron 55 

Edible Nests of Swallows 156 

Preservation of Animal Substances 16 

Extraction of Fatty Matters 17 

Sulphuric Acid Barometer 17 

Negretti's Self-Registering Minimum Ther- 
mometer 17 

Photography— The Plioto -Galvanic Process 

of Engraving 17 

Mayall's New Material for the reception of 

Photographic Images 17 

Substitute for the Potato 18 

New Tele^aphic Wires in India, by Thomas 

Allan, C.E 115 

Preservation of Fresh Meats, by George 

Hamilton, 1:1.0. L. 116 

Filtration of Water, by H. M. Witt, F. C. S. 1 1 G 
Improved Ships' Masts, Tuxford's Traction 

Engine, Anaesthetics Destroying Insects, 570 
Hay Tea, Causes of Fires 273 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



i*G9oltttions were recommended* for submission to a general 
Meeting of the members of both Societies : — 

1. Tliat the objects of the Australian Botanic and Hor- 
ticultural Society and the Horticultural Improvement 
Society, being substantially the same, and the competition 
of the two Societies having in some respects proved pre- 
judicial to the accomplishment of the aims of both, it is 
desirable that the friends of Horticulture and its kindred 
pursuits should unite and form an Association for the en- 
couragement and extension of such pursuits, on a broad 
andjiberal basis. 

2. That in order to carry out the above resolution, it is 
expedient that the Societies before named, be now declared 
dissolved, and that an Association be formed uflder the 

^itle of '' The Australian Association for the promotion of 
Agriculture and Horticulture^" such Association to have 
for its objects the promotion, in every way, of thd pro- 
ductive capabilities of the soil. 

3. That the Members appointed to conduct this confer- 
ence be appointed a Provisional Committee, to carry the 
foregoing resolutions into effect. 

That such general meetings were held and agreed to by 
the members of the said Societies, respectively, and in 
consequence thereof a General Meeting of the Members 
of both Societies was held on the 8th of December, 1856, 
when His Excellency the Governor General presided 
The following resolutions wer^ adopted, and a new Society 
raised up from both : — 

1st. That the Australasian Botanic and Horticultural 
Society, and the Horticultural Improvement Society of 
New South Wales, be and are hereby declared to be dis- 
solved, and that a new Association be formed under the 
title of ** The Australian Horticultural and Agricultural 
Society," and that all property, effects, and liabilities of 
the said two Societies bd assumed by the association hereby 
formed. 

2nd. That the following be adopted as the rules of the 
** Australian Horticultural and Agricultttral Society": — 

RtTLESv 

I. That the objects of this Society shall be the en- 
couragement, improvement, and developement of Agri- 
culture and Horticulture, and the promotion in every way 
of the productive capabilities of the soil, and with a view 
to the carrying out of these objects the Society shall, first 
— Hold meetings monthly, or otherwise, for the purpose 
of reading essays or papers, and lecturing on and discuss- 
ing the various subjects connected with l£em ; 2nd. Es- 
tablish an experimental garden or farm as soon as cir- 
cumstances will permit ; 3rd. Institute periodical exhi- 
bitions, at which prizes shall be awarded for superiority 
in all kinds of produce, stock, and manufacture, iso far as 
connected with the aims of the Society ; 4th. Promote 
the periodical publication of its transactions, and other 
useful information of a kindted li^ture, in a convenient 
form ; 5th. Promote the establishment of affiliated insti- 
tutions in the country districts, where practicable, and 
where not, endeavour to form local corresponding com- 
niittees ; and 6th. As far as possible, promote a friendly 
intercourse with kindred institutions in other countries, 
and particularly in the fleighbounng colonies. 

II. The management of the Society shall b6 vested in 
a President, Vice-Predldents, and a council of twenty- 
four members, elected annually by ballot at the annual 
general meeting of the Society, and a Secretary and Trea- 
surer, who shall be elected by the council and be ex-officio 
members of it. Should any vacancy occur in the council, 
by resignation or otherwise, the council shall fill up such 
vacancy. The council shall have power to make by- 
laws and rules for the conduct of its business, and the 
business of the Society generally, provided no such by- 
laws or rules shall he repugnant to the objects of the 
Society, or to any rules made by the Societ}' at any of its 
general meetings. Five members of the council to form 
a quorum. 

III. The Society shall, in addition to the existing 
members of the two dissolved Societies, consist of Mem- 
bers constituted as follows : — Members to be proposed at 
any meeting of the Society, and at any subsequent meet- 
ing, to become members, unless a ballot be demanded by 



a member through the Secretary, when such ballot shall 
be proceeded wim, and to pay one guinea entrance and 
one guinea per annum to the funds of the Society. 

IV. The annual general meeting of the Soae^ shall 
be held in the month of July, each year, for the purpose 
of auditing accounts, altering or amending rules, if re- 

auired, and such other business as may be necessary for 
lie welfare of tlie Society. 

v. At least thirty clear days' notice must be given» 
through the Secretary, to the council in writing, before 
any proposition for altering the rules of the Society can 
be entertained at any general meeting : such notice to set 
forth tiie proposed alteration. 

VI. AU Life and Honorary Members of the two dis- 
solved Societies shall continue to be Life and Honorary 
MembeiH of this Society, with the same privile^ as are 
now or may hereafter be, declared by the council of this 
Society. 

After the passing of the above resolutions, a President, 
two Vice-Presidents, and a Council of twenty-one were 
elected by the united members of the two dissolved 
Societies, out of an equal list of names of members chosen 
from the roll of either Society, who have since carried on 
the Society with all the vigour evinced by the Council of 
the Horticultural Improvement Society, nave since witli- 
out omission held their monthly meetix^js, andhavepa sed 
the following By-Laws for their government. 

BY-LAWS. 

t. Election of Comicil. — On or before tiie 21st of June 
in each ^ear the Secretary shall cause a ballot paper to be 
printed, mcluding the names of the Council for the time • 
oeing, and of any other members of the Society who may 
be proposed for election by wiitten notice to the Secretary, 
on or before the 14th June, a copy of such ballot paper to 
be furnished to any member on application. 

II. Vacancies. — Should any vacancy occur in the 
Council, the Secretary shall announce the same at the 
next Council meeting, and any member of the Council 
may then or at any other meeting propose a member of 
the society to fill up such vacancy ; and the Council shall 
at the next meeting, after such proposition, proceed to fill 
up such vacancy from the name or names proposed. 

III. Councd Meetings. — ^The ordinary meetings of the 
Council shall take place on the last Tuesday of each 
montii, but t^e Secretary may at any time call a special 
meeting. Notice of all Council meetings to be given b/ 
circular. 

IV. Committees. — All Committees of the Council shall 
consist of three members at least, — ^the President, Vice- 
Presidents, and Honorary Secretary, to be at liberty to 
attend any Committee. 

V. Monthly Meetings^ — ^A meeting of members will be 
held on the first Tuesday in each month for the purpose of 
reading essays or papers, and discussing all subjects con- ' 
nected with the objects of the Society. 

VI. Chairman.— At all meetings of the Society, in the 
absence of the President and Vice-Presidents, a member 
of the Council shall be appointed to act as Chairman. 

VII. Visitors. — ^Every member shall have the privi- 
lege of introducing two friends as visitors to the monthly 
meetings of the Society on condition that they shall not 
already have attended two meetings of the Society in the 
current year. Ladies and non-residents maybe intro- 
duced by members as visitors to all monthly meetings. 

VIII. Selection of Subjects. — Members desirous of 
reading papers, must give notice to the Coundl at the pre- 
vious meetmg. 

IX. Member* s Cards. — Each Member shall be supplied 
yearly with a card of membership, and shall be entitled 
to two transferable tickets of admission to all exhibitions 
of the Society. 

X. Subscriptions. — Annual Subscriptions shall become 
due on the 1st day of July, for the year then ensuing. 
The entrance fee and first year's subscription of a new 
member shall become due on the day of his election, and 
he shall not be entitled to attend the meetings, or to enjoy 
any of the privileges of the Society, until his entrance 
fee and subscription for the year have beeci^^^. 'VL^ov- 
bers who have not ^^"\ ^«« V3Xs&"tYv\^ciSst!a^ vsv '^^ «aw.v«*. 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART* 



year shall be informed of the fact by the Treasurer. If 
thirty days after such intimation any are still indebted, 
their names shall be formerly laid before the Society at 
the first meeting. 

XI. Honorary Members* — Anir person not residing in 
the colony, who may be distinguished as a scientific pro- 
moter of Botany t Horticulture, or Agriculture, or who 
ishall become an approved correspondent of the Society, 
may be a[)pointed by the Council, an Honorary Member 
of the Society. 

XII. Honorary Life Members. — ^The Council may 
award honorary Life Membership to the writers of the 
best papers or essays on subjects of importance, due 
notice of the oompetition for such a prize having first been 
given. 

XIII. Life Members. — ^Any member paying the sum 
of ten pounds to the General funds of the Society, at one 
tune, snail be a Life Member, 

'XIV. Secretary. — ^The Secretary shall summon and 
attend all meetinp, and shall cause a minute book or 
books containing the proceeedings and transactions of the 
Society to be kept and laid upon the table at all meetings 
of the Society, (other than Committee meetings) for in- 
spection. 

XV. Under Secretary. — ^The Council shall appoint a 
paid Under Secretary, who shall be under the control and 
direction of the Honorary Secretary, Such Under Sec- 
retary may also be appointed Collector. 

X VI. Treasurer. — The Treasurer shall receive pay- 
ment of all monies due to the Society, and shall deposit 
the same as often as they amount to £20, in the Bank of 
New South Wales, to the credit of the Society. A finan- 
cial statement shall be laid before the Council when 
required. 

XVII. Payments. — Claims against the Society, when 
iipproved by the Council, shall be paid by cheques signed 
by the Treasurer and countersigned by the Secretary. 

XVIIt. Auditors. — Two Auditors shall be appointed 
at the General Meeting to audit the Treasurer's accounts, 
The accounts as audited to be laid before ^e Annual 
Meeting in July. 

XJX, Admission to MzhibtHons. —TheFuhlic shall be 
admitted to all Exhibitions by cards, on payment of such 
diarge as shall be agreed on by the Council. 

XX. Additional By-Laws. — A standing By-Law Com- 
mittee shall be appointed to whom all proposed alterations 
to or additions to the By-laws shall be referred for their 
report. 

Amongst other great advantages which the members of 
this societv possess, is their union with the Society of 
Arts, which was established by the Horticultural Improve- 
ment Society, one of the terms and conditions of union is 
that—" Whenever any member of an Associated Colonial 
Institution, bearing a letter of introduction from its 
Secretary, shall visit London, he may enjoy the usual 
privileges of a corresponding member of the Society of 
Arts, during his stay, ahd may have his letters addressed 
to him at the Socie^'s house in the Adelphi.'* 

On the 20di of January this Society held its opening 
Meeting, when the following pa{>er was read thereto by 
His Excellency the President ; since which time many 
papers of a very interesting and useful character have 
been read at the monthly meetings, and will in due course 
appear in our columns^ 

ADDRESS 

To Members of Australian Agricultural and 

Horticultural Societies. 

It is usual for the President of Societies, such as this 
which 1 am now addressing, to give to the Members, on 
their first meeting, a general outline of the objects for 
which the Society has been constituted, and of the means 
by which such objects can best be carried out. 

Kow, although the present cannot, perhaps, in strict- 
ness, be said to be the first meeting of this Society, which 
is, in fact, but an amal^ramation of two Societies, which 
have hitherto been working for the same objects, though 
not in unis<ni with each other ; yet, as I cannot but hope 
that tiiis union will give additional encouragement to the 



Members, and be the means of extending the sphere of our 
usefulness, I will avail myself of the present opportunity 
to give a brief sketch of the present state of Horticulture 
and Agriculture in this Colony, and will then call the 
attention of Members to the various modes in which the 
exertions of the Society may be made available towards 
the improvement of both. 

I have given precedence to Horticulture, not on ac- 
count of its relative importance, but on being the parent, 
in some measure, of Agriculture — ^the first step taken by 
any individual when placed in such a position as would 
compel him to minister to all his own wants, would be to 
cultivate just so much land as would suffice for himself 
and his family, and this he would do by mere garden cul- 
ture ; when population springs up around him the division 
of labour takes place, and as the demand for agricultural 
produce increases beyond the amount which mere horti- 
cultural labour can supply, animal labour is brought in 
to assist and to lighten tnat of man, the jilough takes the 
place of spade, the harrow of the rake, and the produce of 
one man's labour when thus combined with that of 
animals becomes adequate to the maintenance of forty of 
fifty of his fellow creatures. The return, however, if 
measured by the produce of equal areas of ground, is 
diminished, the work is done in a more hasty and slovenly 
manner, and the ground does not yield that amount, 
which, under the careful working of the gardener, it would 
be made to produce. After a time, the proportion which 
population bears to the land which has to sustain, it be- 
comes greater, labour becomes cheaper, and it becomes 
desirable to increase the acreable yield of the soil ; the 
processes of the Agriculturist then becomes more and 
more assimilated to those of the Horticulturist ; better 
instruments are used, every kind of mechanical appliance 
is called into action, more labour is bestowed on the soil, 
it is reduced to a better tilth, its chemical qualities are 
investigated, manures, in greater quantity and of the pro- 
per kind are applied, and the child. Agriculture, when it 
nas arrived at its perfect growth, will be very closely 
assimilated to its parent Horticulture. In combining 
these kindred objects, therefore, I cannot but conceive 
that the Society hlas acted wisely — looking to the present 
state of the colony ; and I will now proceed to investigate, 
first, the condition of the parent, which, when determined, 
will enable us to guess pretty well the condition of the 
child. 

What, then, is the condition of Horticulture in New 
South Wales? 

A reference to the market price of Horticultural pro- 
duce would almost be a sufficient answer to sucn a 
question. 

I do not, of course, mean that these market prices 
would be in any way a test of the amount of our Horti- 
cultural knowledjBfe, but they are a fair index of the state 
of practical Horticulture. I believe, indeed, that we have 
amongst us many scientific Horticulturists, many whose 
knowledge of the Botanical classification of Plants, their 
qualities, uses, modes of cultivation, &c., is both accurate 
and extensive, but we are deficient in what may be termed 
the economy of Horticulture. The cultivation of the 
ground is slovenly, weeds are allowed to absorb much of 
the nutriment which should go to the plant, and though 
this slovenly system may be attributable to a certain ex- 
tent to the deficient supply of labour at the disposal of the 
gardener, yet, few or no efibits have been made to devise a 
remedy for this evil, or to place at the disposal of the 
Horticulturist, machines, which might ease his toil and in- 
crease the produce of his land. 

If this be the case with regard to the parent, what may 
we expect with regard to the child ? If Agriculture be 
but a slovenly system of Horticulture, what can we ex- 
pect when those who should show a better example, do, in 
fact, content themselves with applying to their gardens a 
system which is more slovenly tnan ought to be tolerated 
even in a moderately conducted farm. 

If the crops in the garden are smother ed with weeds, 
what right have we to expect that the land of the farmer 
should be kept clean. If the gardener has not been 
stimulated by the high rate of wages to an attempt to in- 
troduce some substitute for manual labour, what light 



MAGAZINE OF hMENCi. AM) ART. 



have we to expect that the Agricultarist will be moro en- 
ergetic ? We do, in fact, find that the system of cultiva- 
tion, whether applied to green crops or cereals is of a veiy 
slovenly description, the land is never properly cleaned, 
it is never properly cultivated— that it is never adequately 
worked, or reduced to a proper tilth ; it is seldom or never 
properly manured, I may indeed say, with re^d to 
nine-tenths of the land in this Colony, that it is never 
manured at all. A constant succession of the same kind 
of crops is taken off the same land year after year, and 
the result is exactly what any person who has thought 
upon the subject would anticipate, namely, that the crops 
are bad in quality and deficient in quantity. The eartn, 
which is grateful for any attention bestowed upon it, and re- 
stores ten and twenty fold that which it receives from man, 
is also sensible of neglect and inattention, and leaves the 
slovenly farmer to groan over dimished returns from his 
land, for which, though he is very ready to blame the soil 
or the season, he has in truth no one to blame but himself. 

A reference to the ordinary annual returns of the 
land under cultivation, and of the quality of produce 
raised upon such land, will give a fair indication of the 
character of our Agriculture. In 1855, it would seem 
from these returns, that there were 86,369 acres under 
wheat, and the produce is put at 1,335,446 bushels, which 
is at the rate of 15^ bushels per acre. On referring to 
thd returns for former years, I find that in the bad 
season of 1847, the average fell as low as 10} bushels to 
the acre, while in 1849, it rose as high as 21 bushels ; the 
yield of 1855 is, however, as near as possible a mean of 
that of the last ten years. 

Barley and oats' are not cultivated to any ^at ex- 
tent, and the crops are light, lighter in comparison than 
that of Wheat. 

The yield of Barley, on an average often years, ap- 
pears to have heeaa. 16^ bushels to the acre, and that of 
Oats, 15 bushels. Maize is cultivated largely, but the 
average yield does not exceed 25 bushels per acre, and 
that of Potatoes amounts to about 3^ tons. I do not 
imagine that these returns can boast of very great ac- 
curacy, but the error, if any, is probably in exaggeration 
of the amount of produce ; and, I think, that I am justi- 
fied in taking the numbers above stated, as the yield per 
acre on an average. I do not, of course, mean to say tnat 
there are not many farms which yield much more than 
the amount stated, but, if this be the case, there must be 
many which yield even less. 

Now looking at these numbers, and bearing in mind 
that the land under cultivation is probably the best por- 
tion of each separate farm, I think, I am iustified in 
stating that the land throughout New South Wales does 
not produce more than half a crop. Let us see what the 
amount per acre would be, were we to couble the 
averages; — 

Wheat would give 31 bushels. 
Maize „ 50 

Barley „ ^ 

Oats „ 30 

Potatoes „ 6^ tons. 

If this be contrasted with t^e produce of a farm in 
America, not cultivated according to the best system, we 
shall be better able to judge of the comparative value of 
our system. In a &rm in the State of New York, as 
stated by Professor Johnston : — 

Wheat yields from 18 to 35 bushels. 
Barley „ 20 to 55 

Oats „ 40 to 100 

Maize „ 50 to 80 

Potatoes „ 2i to 7i tons, 

so that, with some trifling exceptions, the yield in 
America is moro than double that of this Colony. 

I must not however state this too broadly ; in the 
particular instance given, the yield is, as I said more 
than double of the average of New South Wales: but in 
professor Johnston's work — " Notes on North America," 
thero is ample evidence to prove to us what must be the 
result of our slovenly farming. 

The system in force here has also prevailed for many 
years in America, and the result has been a reduction in 
the crops to an extent wliich renders competition with 



ti 



«» 



»» 



t* 



«i 



yiitvi- parts of the country, or with the foreign producer 
impossible. Take the average of the state of New 
York :— 

Wlieat 14 bushels. 

Barley 16 „ 

Oats 26 „ 

Maize 25 ^ 

Potatoes 1^ tons per acre. 

This is about on a par with our present averaffes. But in 
America the farmer has a recource of which me settler in 
this Colony does not think of availing himself. In 
America local ties are so little felt or cared for, that, m 
soon as a man finds that his crops are diminishing in 
quantity and quality from the exhaustion of the soil, he 
sells his farm and settles up<»i another in the great West- 
ern Country, from whence, owing to the unequalled faci- 
lities of communication, either bv water or by railwaya, 
he has no difficulty in sending liis produce to market. 
Here, however, the settler who has purchased his land, 
cleared and fenced it, and built his house upon it, is loth 
to leave it to encounter tiie work of the Bush ; neither 
can he in the present state of the means of communica- 
tion venture to settle himself at any great distance firom 
his principal market, for fear that his produce should be 
left on his hands. The farmer in New Sootii Wales hsH 
therefore, two alternatives before him, he must either con- 
tinue his slovenly system of cultivation, and submit to 
the gradual deterioration of the property which he has 
purchased, and to a certain extent made, or he rnuat, lijjr 
the adoption of a better system, secure to himself and kw 
children this possession of an Estate, whose value will 
increase from year to year, and upon which he maj 
reasonably expend both labour and capital in the certainty 
that either he or his children will reap the benefit of the 
outlay. 

If our Agriculture is at a low ebb, what have we to say 
of that which forms in these Colonies a distinct brancn 
^together of rural economy, I mean the breeding ef Stock 
—Sheep, Cattle, and Horses ; here evidence is shewn of 
the greater attention which has been paid to the improve- 
ment of breeds, especially as regards the sheep; but there 
is much yet to be done even as regards these, for which 
the encouragement and assistance which can be oflfered 
by the Society will be most valuable : while any person 
who inspects the cattle which are brought into Sydney for 
the supply of the population, or who looks at the miserable 
animals which compose the teams of tiie carriers on the 
different roads, will be forced to admit that there is much 
room for improvement in the breeds of both cattle and 
horses. 

I will not, however, enter at greater lengdi into an ex- 
amination of the results of our Agricultural system. I 
have said enough to prove that there is room for very 
great improvement, and I look hopefully to the efforts of 
uie present Society, in furtherinp; the introduction of such 
improvements of the nature of which I propose now to 
attempt a sketch, 

I may remark, however, as an introductory caution, 
that the Agriculturists and Horticulturi^ must be looked 
upon as pi^ucen of articles for sale, that is, as men who 
having invested capital in a certain trade, have a right to 
look to the profits of that trade for a return of the usual 
interest upon that capital : Any improvement, therefore, 
which may be suggested must oe submitted to an arith- 
metical test; the result of the improvement must be 
shewn in such an increase in the quantity of the produce, 
or in such a diminution in the cost of bringing it to mar- 
ket, as may fully recompense the gardener or farmer for 
any additional outlay of capital or labour which he may 
have expended in introducing it. Subject to this proviso, 
I will now point out the various modes in which the 
agency of the Society may be made useful to the Horti- . 
culturist and Agriculturist. 

Labour is very scarce, and wages are consequently 
high ; it becomes, therefore, an object with every <Hie en- 
gaged in cultivating the ground to economize in the appli- 
cation of labour in every way. 

This is too often done by dispensing with the services of 
individual servants, and lessening thereby the ackaaL 
amount of labour allied \jci ^!a%\MA^\^^«was^,'^^ ^aa»fc- 



MAGiVZx Oi' SCIEKCE AND AtlT. 



ter of the cultivation and reducing the crops ; but the 
most profitable mode would be to follow the example of 
the English and the Americans, and to substitute for the 
labour of men that of machines, some worked by animal 
power, some by steam, or by some cheap mechanical 
agent. 

In England, the attention of farmers has been directed 
of late years towards these mechanical appliances, and 
consequently, the inventive powers of mechanists hate 
been taxed to supply every variety of machine at the 
cheapest possible rate consistent with the efficient per- 
formance of its work. In America, where labour is 
dearer than in England, though not so high as it is in this 
Colony, and where produce is low in price, in comparison 
to what it is either iiere or in England, the same system 
has been canied out, and mechanical appliances of every 
kind have been multiplied to an exteht of which we in 
this Colony have no idea. 

The experience of our kindred should not be lodt tipon 
ns, either as a warning or an example ; we should avoid 
that destructive s^stein of cropping our land, which has 
produced such evil results with them, and we should turn 
our attention to the application of every kind of 
mechanical substitute for manual labour wHich we can 
discover. The fruit of such application will be greater 
"^th JOB than with them — wageii are hi^her^ and the price of 
produce is higher ; any increased facilities for cultivation 
will therefore insure a higher return. The agricultural 
portion of thii community, has, therefore, every induce- 
ment to turn its attention to the introduction of such 
machinery as may cheapen production, and it is evident 
that every consumer in this colony has a direct interest 
also in assisting the Agriculturist in this. 

The demand, however, for such machinery, is hardly 
at present suffici^it to induce the establishment of a 
manufactory here^ or even the iniportatioh of a large 
quantity on speculation; and in the absence of tne 
machined — ^how is the farmer to ascertain what means 
ire available for the shppiy of his wants ? 

Here, I conceive, the preseht Society may offer most 
useful assistance. In the first place, through its publica- 
tions it may make known the character and cost of 
tile various machinery in use in England and America. 

In the second place, it ina^ offer prizes for the best 
machinery of various kinds exhibited at its shows. 

In the third place, it may, should it be thought 
advisable to establish a model farm, intr^uce and ex- 
periment upon the various kinds of machines^ and report 
tiie result for the benefit of the public. 

In the foui|th place, it may press upon the Government 
and the Legislature the advisability of appropriating a 
certain sum annually towards the importation of 
machinery of various kinds, which machinery, after being 
publicly exhibited for a certain time, might be sold by 
auction, and the proceeds applied to the importation of ad- 
ditional and different machinery. It would, indeed, be of 
the utmost importance in this Colony where mechanical 
skill owing to the limited di^mand for it, has not developed 
itself to any extent, that a mechanical museum should be 
fbrmed, where working machines niight be deposited for 
inspection, and where tiie mechanics of the Colony, having 
before them the principles of the various machines, may 
learn to modify tliem to suit the peculiar circumstances 
of the Colony. 

In England, Science has been called in to the aid of 
cultivation. The character of the different soils has been 
investigated by the chemist, their applicability to different 
descriptions of produce determined, their aefects made 
known. Science has shown to the farmer the reasons for 
many of the practices for which he was indebted to ex- 
perience, and it has also in many instances shown him 
the folly of persisting in a course of action, which, 
although warranted by prescription, had nevettheless, in 
many instances, most injurious effects. 

It will be for the Society to make known to the public 
the results which have tieen already obtained in other 
countries from a skilful adaption of the discoveries of 
science to the wants of the cultivator of the soil, and to 
press upon the colonists in general the advantages which 
»jJl result from their adoption. 



Manure is scarce, the labour of applying it is great. 
It will be for the Society to call the attention of the gar- 
deners and farmers to the different chemical substances 
which contain in a small bulk (and which are therefore 
easy of transport) all the elements in which their soil may 
be deficient. It will be for the Society to call the atten- 
tion of the public to the wasteful manner in which many 
of the substances which are most powerful restorers of 
land, such as bones and other animal refuse, are allowed 
toVaste their fragrance, if I be allowed to use such an 
expression, to get rid of that ammoniacal element which 
is so pleasant to the plant and so very distateful to man, 
in a manner which would shock an English farmer. I 
am almost certain that the refuse of some large boiling- 
down establishment might be condensed into such a form 
as would make it worth while for farmers in England to 
pay the cost of transport, while we allow it to remain fes- 
teiing and rotting in the ground, vdthout bestowing a 
thou^t on the benefit which would result from its appli- 
cation to the worn out lands, of whose poverty we are 
annually complaining. 

l^he Society might, with propriety, expend a portion of 
its income in importing samples of different mineral ma- 
nures, and in making experiments u]>on tlieir application 
to different descriptions of soil, beaiing in mind tliat the 
results in this colony, wljere the climate is very different 
from that of England, vdll probably be very much modi- 
fied by this differehce. 

In a paper, which 1 read to the Philosophical Society 
some time ago, I entered at some length into the advan- 
tages to be derived from a proper system of irrigation. 

The climate of this colony is so very dry, that com- 
plaints of the effiBcts of drought are common. To say 
notliing of the results of a dry season as affecting tlid 
cereal crops, what ruinous effects to the stock owner have 
followed^ when the grass has been burnt up by the scorch- 
ing rays df an unclouded sun, and the streams and water- 
holes dried up by its evaporative power. 

It would well beiseem the society to call the attention 
of the owners and occupiers of the soil to the means which 
exist of relieving themselves from an evil, which forms 
the main drawback to the advantages arising from the 
beautiful climate v»dth which this colony is blessed. 

Information should be sought from other countries, ex- 
periments made in this, the results of these experiments 
when carefully tested should be made known, and when I 
say the results, I must be understood to mean the econo- 
mical results, the balance between expenditure and return . 
I have alluded to this before, and I may be allowed to 
say a few more words upon a subject which has a far more 
extensive practical bearing than is often allowed. 

It is too often the case that an experiment made under 
one s^t 6f circumstances, is referred to as an authority 
for adopting the results as applicable to a set of circum- 
stances essentially different from the former. This is a 
course both unwise and unfair — ^unwise as ignoring, in all 
probability, some, if not,* all of the characteristics which 
secured the success of the original experiment — unfair as 
as inducing a prejudice against the adoption of that which 
might, and indeed would, in many instances, prove most 
advantageous. For instance, it is by no means an uncom- 
mon practice to make experiments upon a small scale 
under a svsteih of garden culture, and upon the successful 
results of such experiments, to found an argument for 
their application at once to the farm — ^this, as I said be- 
fore, is both unwise and unfair, an experiment upon which 
one would be justified in attempting to establish a general 
rule, should be made with as few differing elements as 
possible. The system of cultivation, the character of the 
soil, the amount and qu&lity of the manure employed, 
the character of the season, all form elements in the suc- 
cess of an experiment to which marked attention should 
be paid, and, as it is impossible to estimate these many 
unknown quantities in a smgle equation, it follows that 
before an experiment can be considered conclusive, it 
should be rei)eated unddr as many varying circumstances 
as possible. 

1 muist not be supposed to be arguing against experi • 
ments, oh the contrary, I wish to press u|>on agriculturists 
generally the absolute necessity of making experiments, 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



and upon the society the dutv^which it will have to per- 
form, of suggesting those which it will he desirable to 
make, of watching over them while in progress, and of 
analysing the results in order that proper conclusions may 
be drawn from them. 

I have hitherto alluded principally to the action of the 
jSociety in inducing a better preparation of the ground for 
the crops, and in contributing to the introduction of me- 
chanical substitutes for manual labour in the various pro- 
cesses througji which the crop must go before it is prepared 
for the use of man. 

But the assistaiice of the ^iety will be quite as u^ful 
in directing the attention of the Agricultuiists to the 
character of the crops to be raised as in making the sug- 
gestions before alluded to. It is hy no means desirable 
that we shoi^ld, Ui a climate so different from that of 
England, stereotype the systems pursued there ; for in- 
stance, oats and barley are grown here, though not, I 
admit, to a great extent, still, however, as regards the 
former, it is evident, from the amount of the produce per 
acre, that either the climate or tjie soil, or perhajus both, 
are not adapted to this crop ; varieties of cereal produce 
should be sought for by the Society ; experiments should 
he made either with farms belonging to the Society, or 
what would be better still. Members of the Society living 
in different parts of the Colony might be requested to 
undertake the trouble of experimenting, as is otlen done 
in England, the results being reported to the Society ; by 
the latter mode the return of different soils and varieties 
of climate upon the particular crops will be more accu- 
rately shown. What has beeyi said of cereal cropswill mani- 
festly hold good with refc&sd to the green crops and pasture 
lands of the Colony. Tittle attention has as yet been 
paid to the introduction of different kinds of grasses capa- 
ble of standing the climajbe, and adapting themselves to 
tlie soil. But when we coiudder t)ie development of our 
pastoral system, and the influence which the expprts of 
the produce of the pasture lands #f the Colony have up<m 
our commercial prosperity, spirely it would be but wise to 
turn our attention specially to me improvements which 
Plight be made in the quantity as well as the quality of 
the grass upon which our flocl^s ^d herds must feed. It 
is hardlv necessary for me to point out to the members of 
this Society that the land occupied for pastoral purposes 
would, under more favourable circumstances, carry five 
times the quantity of stock which now is supported on it. 
And if we look to the value of our present exports of 
wool and tallow, we may form some idea of the enormous 
increase to the resources of the Colony which might be 
made, should we discover a better description of grass, pr 
by application of capital to the land, be enabled even to 
double its grazing capabilities. If, for instance, the wool 
may be considered as the measure of the profit of the 
ilock-owner, and the valup of the wool of lOPO sheep be 
put at £180, it would be to the advantage of the fiock- 
owner to expend ftom £1000 to £1500 in improvements, 
which would enable him to koep 2000 sheep when he for- 
merly could )ceep 1000, — such an outlay would not only 
return him a large interest upon his outlay, but would be 
productive of advantages to which it is unnecessary to 
allude. 

J do not, of course, mean that such improvements can 
he looked for immediately, or that they can be general 
for many years to come. The distance, however, of the 
object, ought not to make us less zealous in our efforts to 
obtain it, and he wil I deserve well of the colony who'will 
lead the way to results of so b^ieficial a character. There 
is one branch of native industry to which I think the So- 
ciety is called upon to devote special attention — I mean 
the cultivation of the vine, and the manufacture of its 
products. 

The character whicl^ was given to the wine of this 
colony at the Paris exhibition, was such as should encou- 
rage both the grape-grower and the manufacture of wine, 
the former should be stimulated to efforts to improve the 
character and increase the amount of their produce, while 
tiie latter should continue the efforts which have already 
led to such favorable results, and which may eventually 
make New South Wales one of the great wine producing 
countries of the world. 



I shall lay before you later in the evening some sug- 
gestions which I have received from England, with refer? 
ence to the action of the soil upon the grape, in producing 
the peculiar bitter taste which characterizes many of the 
wines of the colony, and I propose, with the help of gen- 
tlemen who are interested in this branch of industry, to 
set on foot such enquiries into the character and constitu- 
tion of the soil of ^e vineyard, in connection with inves- 
tigation into the quality of the wine produced, as may, 
perhaps, enable us to establish some relation between the 
two, and lead eventually to attempts to modify some of 
the elementary principles ii; tl^e soil, by addition of par- 
ticular manures, &c. 

I am afraid that I have already trespassed too long oi^ 
your time, I will, therefore, deal briefly with the remain? 
der of my subject. I have sj)oken of the work which U 
ready to our hands. Of the many and various matters tq 
the investigations of which I am most anxious that the 
Society should devote its best energies. How, however, 
is this to be dojie ? It would certainly Ije far bevond the 
powers of the ISociety as at present constituted. (The fouf 
or five hundred members of which it is composed, could 
neither find time or means to work out even one of the 
many important subjects to which I have alluded ; my 
ho]>e and wish would be to interest the whole Agricultural 
and Pastoral community in the existence and progress of 
the Society ; to call for the support of the Wine pro- 
ducers, of the Merchants interested in our export trade ; 
to each and all of t)iese are the objects of the Society of 
special importance, and each man may be sure that ii| 
becoming a Member of thp Society, and exerting his in* 
fluence in promoting the success of its efforts, he is not 
only extending its power of ui;efulness, but probably 
furmering l)is own special interest^ to afar greater amount 
than can be measured by his Annual Subscription. 

Every Member of the Society, therefore, who has it? 
interest at heart, should do his best to induce others to 
loin, for the number of Members may almost be said to 
be the measure of the xuefulness of the Society. 

With increased Members the power to make experir 
ments, to give prizes, to encourage application will be 
augmented, and 1 can but express a hope that at tlie next 
Annual Meeting I may be able to point to our roll of 
Members, as affording us j^qt oiily the ipducemcnt to, but 
but the means Qf ^xte^ding our usefulness. 

There is one subject to which I have more than once 
alluded, and I piay take the present opportunity of again 
stating n)y opinion as publicly as possible. It is, that the 
usefulness of the Society will depend very much upon its 
ppwer of recording the results of its experience, or the 
views of its Members with relation to the various subject^ 
with which it has to do. Right glad am I that the news- 
papers should publish all that is submitted to the Mem- 
bers at their monthly meeting ; should recorjd all that is 
read, and all that is said on suclv occasion^— l)ut for the 
purposes of this Society, and for the use of the Members 
we require soipe n^ore permanent record, either in the 
shape of a volume of Transactions^ published by our- 
selves, er what would probably be more lively to answer 
a Magazine of a more general character, wuich would 
embody not only subjects connected with Agriculture, 
Horticulture, &c., biit also those having reference to 
Science and Art generally. 

I believe that such a publication would answer in a 
pecuniary point of view, and I feel equally certain that 
it would be a n)ost valuable addition to the literature of 
this colony, supplying a want which is mqst i^riously felt 
by all who take an interest in science. 

Long as I have detained you on the present occasion, I 
feel that I have left much unsaid which might properly 
have formed a part of this introductory discourse, but the 
very vastness of the field which i^ oppned to the So«iety 
must be my excuse for these omissions. 

On future occasions, mep whose practical experience is 
greater than my own, will, I trust, deal with the details 
of subjects to which I have alluded in a general manner. 
I need hardly say that my services will always be gladly 
rendered to a Society in whose objects I feel so great a^ 
interest. 



8 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



TRANSACTIONS X OF THB 

AUSTRALIAN HORTICULTURAL AND AGRI- 
CULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Fifth Monthlt Mbbtino, June 2, 1857. 

Held at the Royal Hotel. 

Members of Council present — Rev. George E. Turner, 
Vice-President; Messrs. F. Mitchell, 0. Ottley, Wm. 
Mc Donell, M. Guilfoyle, Wm. Carron, F. Creswick, J. 
G. Mc Kean, W. 8. Wall, R. Driver, T. W. Shepherd, 
and H. R. Webb.— The Rev. George E. Turner, Vice- 
President, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

The Secretary read a letter from his Excellency the 
Governor-General, President, excusing attendance, and 
enclosing a copy of his address, read at the opening meet- 

Sl, together with two circular letters, which have been 
dres^ to the magistrates of the colony and the clerks 
€f the bench. 

The following resolution was proposed by Mr. F. Mit- 
chell, and seconded by Mr 0. Ottley, and carried una- 
nimously — ^That the thanks of the Society be presented to 
His Excellency the Grovemor-General for his kindness in 
having his address printed, and forwarded with a circular- 
letter to the magistrates and clerks of the bench through- 
out the colony. 

Mr. W. Shepherd read a paper on Native Plants, and 
the Pastoral, Agricultural, and Horticultural resources of 
Australia — ^being No. 5 of a series on the same subject. 

The Vice-President stated, that he could substantiate 
the fact mentioned by Mr. Shepherd, with respect to the 
production of our land during wet sea.sons, having known 
fifteen tons of stalk, and eighty bushels of millet seed to 
be produced to the acre, and this on land of a very in- 
ferior character. 

Mr. J. E. Blake read a paper on Australian wines, 
which he prefaced by remarking, that he only intended 
this to be an introduction to the subject, 

Mr. Shepherd spoke of the desirability of having our 
wines exhibited in a proper way. 

Mr. Blake had considered this matter, and mentioned 
the mode adopted by the Hunter's river vineyard asso- 
ciation. We nave no wines for sale — I cannot get enough 
to supply the demand. 

In answer to a question, respecting the keeping quali- 
ties of our wines, Mr. Blake said — The fermentation does 
not cease in two years. I have no difficulty in keeping it 
sound. I do not think there is any bad wine made now ; 
aH|r«y«tem is to ferment in tubs, holding about a hogshead. 
iS^Leve that this will be a splendid wine country. 

*She Secretary read a pajper from Mr. John Gelding, 
written in answer'to a question respecting the Dioscorea 
J^^Kmica, asked by one of the members at the last monthly 
meeting. 

A communicadon was read from Mr. D. Dunlop, on 
stamping, advocating the burning out process, which Mr. 
Shepnerd thought impoverished we land in the vicinity of 
the stamps. 

Mr. Douglas ^ve notice of a motion for the appoint- 
ment of a committee to consider the advisability of com- 
piling a manual of Agriculture and Horticulture, by the 
members of this society. 

No ballot being demanded. Captain Johnson, R. N., of 
Armandale, was declared a member of this society. 

Mr. M. Guilfoyle proposed Mr. G. D. Lange ; Mr. Gey 
proposed Mr. Ridley ; Mr. Webb proposed Dr. James 
FuUerton, as members of this society. 

The following notices of papers were given for the next 
meeting: — Mr. S. E. Blake, continuation of paper on 
Australian wines ; Mr. L. W. Shepherd, continuation of 
paper on Native Plants, and the Pastoral, Agricultural, 
and Horticultural resources of the colony. 

The next monthly meeting will be held on Tuesday, 
7th July. 

The paper on Australian Wine, read by Mr. Blake at 
this meetmg will be found at page 16. 



THE PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 

As it is intended to form a permanent record 
in the pages of this journal of the proceed- 
ings of the Philosophical Society of New 
South Wales, it would appear to be desirable 
in the first number to give a short account 
of its foundation, with a list of its officers, 
and a copy of its fundamental rules. 

The present Governor-General, Sir Wm. 
Denison, on his arrival in the colony and 
assuming the government, feeling the im- 
portance of such a society, made enquiries 
whether there was any association of the 
kind in existence, and found that there had 
previously been a society called the Austra- 
lian Society. This, however, had discon- 
tinued its operations, and was esteemed 
extinct. 

By the exertions of his Excellency, in 
connection with some of the old officials, a 
new society was organised, which received, 
at a public meeting, held on May 9th, 1856, 
at the School of Arts, the name of the Phi- 
losophical Society of New South Wales. 
At the same meeting, the following gentle- 
men were elected office-bearers : — President, 
His Excellency Sir W. T. Denison, Go- 
vernor-General ; Vice-Presidents, Sir Chas. 
Nicholson and E. Deas Thompson, Esq., 
C. B.; Treasurer, R. A. A. Morehead, Esq.; 
Secretaries, H. G. Douglass, M.D., Profes- 
sor Smith, M,D., and Captain Ward, R.E. ; 
Council of Management, G. K. Holden, 
Esq., Professor Pell, John Thompson, Esq.^ 
the Rev. G. E. Turner, R. J. Want, Esq., 
and Professor Woolley. These gentlemen 
remain, now the office-bearers of the society, 
with the exception of the Rev. G. E. Tur- 
ner, who retired at the last annual meeting, 
in consequence of his residing some distance 
from Sydney. The Rev. W. Scott was 
elected to supply the vacancy. 

The Society now numbers 178 members. 

The following are the fundamental rules 
of the society : — 

Obfect of the Society.— The object of the Society is 
to receive, at its stated meetings, original jiapers on sub- 
jects of Science, Art, Literature, and Philosophy. 

Offke-Bearers. — The office-bearers to consist of a Pre- 
sident, two Vice-Presidents, a Treasurer, and two or more 
Secretaries. 

Council of Management. — ^The Council of Manage- 
ment to consist of the office-bearers and six ordinary 
members ; three to form a quorum. 

Ordinary Members. — Candidates for admission as ordi- 
nary members to be proposed and seconded at one of the 
stated meetings of the society The vote on their admis- 
sion to take place, by ballot, at the next subsequent meet- 
ing ; the assent of the majority of the members voting at 
the latter meeting being requisite for the admission of the 
candidate. 



.„) 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



9 



Homyrary Members. — Honorary members to be nomi- 
nated by tnree ordinary members at one of the stated 
meetings of the society. The vote for their admission to 
take place, by ballot, at the next subsequent meeting: 
one adverse vote in five to exclude. 

Flection of Office-Bearers and Council. — ^The office- 
bearers and the other members of Council to be elected, 
by ballot, at a meeting of the society to be held annually 
in the month of May. A majority of votes to decide the 
election. 

Vacancies during the year. — ^Any vacancies occurring 
in the Council of Management during the year, to be filled 
up by the Council of Management. 

Fees. — The entrance-money paid by ordinary members 
on their admission to be one guinea ; and the annual sub- 
scription to be one guinea, payable in advance. 

Fees may be compounded. — ITie sum of £10 may be 
paid at any time by a member, as a composition for the 
ordinary annual payment for life. 

Ordinary and Special Meetings. — Ordinary meetings 
to be held once a month, during eight months in the year ; 
special general meetings may be held at any time, under 
the authority of the Council of Management. 

Confirmation of Bye-Laws. — Bye-laws propbsed hj 
the Council of !Nmnagement shall not be binding until 
ratified by a general meeting. 

Alteration of Fundamental Rules. — No alteration or 
addition to the fundamental rules of the society shall be 
made, unless carried at two successive general meetings. 

His Excellency inaugurated the Society 
by reading the following paper : — 

BAILROADS. 

A Brief Outline of the development of the Railway 
System in Frigland, with Suggestions as to its Appli- 
cation to the Colony of New South Wales. 

A history of the last thirty years would be very in- 
complete which excluded from consideration the vast 
changes which have been wrought in the state of society 
by me introduction of railroads. Socially, politically, 
and morally, these changes have been very great ;'and it 
would be a curious and an interesting study to trac» the 
effects whidi have resulted from the introduction of this 
^asy and rapid system of locomotion, — some of wliich have 
originated directly from die forces put into action for the 
completion of the railways themselves, and for maintaining 
them in effective operation, but more of which must be 
traced to feelings and motives lying deep in man's nature, 
but which have been stimulated into activity by circum- 
stances connected more or less intimately with the 
physical changes of which the railway system has been 
productive. We are as yet in the infancy, or, at all 
events, in the youth of this system ; and if the past 
presents much of importance to the historian and moralist, 
the future offers as wide or a wider opening to tlie specula- 
tive philosopher. With questions such as these, however, 
it would be premature to deal. If railways are in their 
youth elsewhere, here they are in their infancy, and it 
will be more immediately interesting and useful to in- 
vestigate the steps by which other countries have arrived 
at a position so far in advance of ourselves, than to specu- 
late upon the possible changes which may take place nere, 
when we have availed ourselves of the experience of 
others, and by the exercise of skill, energy, and per- 
severance have brought these causes into action, which 
have produced so marvellous an effect elsewhere, but 
which for the present are in us dormant. 

In the short compass of a paper like this, it would be 
impossible to give anything like a history of the various 
steps by which the common cast iron tram of the coal dis- 
tricts, on which horse traction only was used, has 
developed itself into the wrought iron railway, traversed 
by steam engines of great weight and power. A sketch is 
all that can be attempted, and is indeed all that is re- 
quired, for our object in this colony should be rather to 
avail ourselves of the principles which have been estab- 
lif^ed during the course of a long series of experiments, 
than to follow blindly in a track which would lead to 



waste of both time and money, and very much check the 
development of the resources of the colony. 

In tracing the extension of tlie railway system In 
England, it may be as well to look back some one hundred 
and fifty years, and to enquire what was the state of the 
roads about the end of the seventeenth centuary. From 
all the accounts which have been handed down to us, it 
would seem that roads in England at that time were very 
similar to those tracks which are in this colony dignified 
by the name, — ^badly laid out with reference to the countnr 
through which they passed, and worse constructed. In 
the year 1700, however, the demand for increased facili* 
ties for transport forced the Legislature to consider die 
means by which an improvement could be made in the 
condition of the main lines of communication, and tite 
system of turnpike trusts commenced, \fhich, in the conne 
of little more than a century, covered England with a 
network of roads, the aggregate length of which was niqt 
less than 24,000 miles. 

Under the turnpike system, however, the improvement' 
in the state of the roads was very slow. The introductioii 
of a better scheme of management produced, of coarse, 
some beneficial effects ; but Uiis could not com])ensate for 
the want of experience in the construction and manage- 
ment of the roads, or of a knowledge of the general prind* 
pies which have been the result of many experimoits, 
some of which have proved successful -* others, most 
unsuccessful. We must not be surprised, therefore, to 
learn that in the year 1800, after the labour of a century 
had been bestowed upon the roads, they were in an 
indifferent state, that the rate of travelling upon them was 
slow, and the cost of transport great. 

In the middle of the last century, attention was drawn 
to the advantages afforded by water transport, and a very 
large capital was expended upon canals leading from the 
great manufacturing towns to the metropolis, and to the 
sea-ports. The effect of the ch^ipaess of this means of 
communication was very visible on the increase and 
development of manufacturing industry, and in the en- 
hanced value of land in the vicinity of these great 
channels of trade. 

The necessity of adopting some means by which the 
traction on ordinary roads could be lessened, was first felt 
in ihe northern colliery district ; and wooden tramroads 
were first laid in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, at the 
end of the seventeenth century. These after a time, were 
exchanged for cast iron, which was found, from its 
durability, to be cheaper than wood. Wrought iron rails 
were subsequently adopted, when the demand for in- 
creased supplies of coal made it necessary to substitute 
steam for horse power. 

In 1826, — ^The commencement of the railway era — the 
condition of England, so far as regards the means of inter- 
nal communication, may be summed up as follows :*-The 
country was traversed by about 25,000 miles of turnpike 
roads, upon which coaches travelled at a speed of from 
eight to twelve miles per hour, and on which goods were 
conveyed by waggons, at an average cost of about 9^. per 
ton per mile, in addition to these, there was a network 
of canals, the aggregate length of which exceeded 3,000 
miles, upon which goods were conveyed at the cost of 
about ^d. per ton per mile. There were, in the coal and 
some of the other mineral districts, several hundred miles 
of iron tramways and railways, for the conveyance of 
minerals to the port of shipment or to the principal mar* 
kets. 

At that time, however, the demand for increased faci- 
lities for communication between Manchester, the centre 
of the cotton manufacture, and Liverpool, the port of entry 
of the raw material, was so urgent as to induce the form-< 
ation of a company, for the purpose of constructing a 
railway between the two towns, upon which passengers 
and goods should be conveyed by carriages propelled by 
steam power ; and after some delays on account of the 
new and expensive character of the work, the Liverpool 
and Manchester Railway was opened in 1830. 

The length of this line is 32 miles — the original cost 
about £840,000, or, at an average of £26,250 per mile. 
The returns during the year I83I was sufiicient to give a 
dividend of about 10 ^e\ c^xA.xsL^vsa.'Ovift ^^^'t ^^^^*5^-^ 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



itofitMlftodiDwtliat 
c beC««n tbe two to< 
.hibita tJie peculiar fp^i 
r the pataeagn Ikaa of i 



developing 

ThUancc 
t«r aod Live 

the sipeiience wbicti had been gained dui 
itf tbe works U Liverpool, ami of the daily iinpiui-fL 
nuda in the macjuneiy of the locomolivea, an^ in ul 
odLOT details of railway engineering, linea worG nt 
eomiDenced from the metropoliB lowarde every jiart c 
cotmtr; ; and in 1S55 the Icnjrth executed aiiiduiiii 



[■ilwi 



miilio 



All diis 
about 25 yeim— so that about 300 
B been coOBtmcted annually, at a Fn«^ 
r at the rate of about £30,000 j.t 
■ ^ngth intu il 



It would he 
ot ^ modifieatioTu and 

made in the conMraction of tbe Locomotive en^.'inf, bikI in 
th* wrangementa which have been iutroducod hn- oj-.mm- 
Eaodating the different deacriptiona of traffic. It will hi: 
fttnlr nndentood diatthe stimulus given to the mccb anii'» 
of tlie whole world bj the introdnction of lotomaiivi 

tJona and improvemenCa have been made, and sr^' idaiiv 
making, not only in the construction of the enginca, hu'l 
in all die minor details of the railway. Most of tlits< 
have (br their object the development and eilension of lbs 
peculiar adcanttiiiea of ateam tractdou — namely, ihc in 
ereaae of speed and of power, for the pnrpoHe ef mi^irtinj 
^le enormonaly incrcoaed amcnnt of tr^c. A few l'.^. 
amplea will suffice to convey an idea of the nature o. 
then slteratloni. 

The locomotive which suned the priie of £.-iOO. offered 
by tbe directora of the Liverpool and Manchpstor Rail- 
way, w^faed 4 bma G cwt-, and the tender with waiter snd 
ndie, mglied 3 tons 4 cwt. The conditions of the ei|^- 
rimoit wen tbattheengineahonld. not weigh more than 
rixtonit that if it weighed more than 4} ton.s. it should 
nat npon aij wheeli j that it should draw thn.ii tiiiif?s ils 
own weight Bt a rale of ten milee per hour, and shonlii 
not coat more than £550. In the eiperimeut tlio Buiki^t, 
built by Mr. Bobert Stephenson, drew a grow bad of IT 
torn, iacloding ita own weight, at the average rate of 14 
mllca per hour. When, however, engine power wa-s prac- 
t icalty applied to railway purpoees. it was uwu found 
that toe wboeli cf the engine were apt to aUp on the r:u1 
in wet weather with even an ordinary load, ;uJli in all 
weathem when the load was increased bevoni! a. CRitain 
proportjon to the weight of the engine, to rL'rueily thi.s, 
the esginei were made heavier, w aa to aunuent the fric- 
tion upon the rail, and the addition to tiie weight was 
accompanied by a corrwunnding increaw of power and 

These additions to weight and velocity involvi^ altera- 
tioUB in the conatmctioii of the railway. Th:i lii,'ht nils 
Bsed on the Liverpool and Manchester line, which weiiihcd 
35 lbs. per yard, were not, of courao, stnnig cqonirh to 
support the increased load bronght npon the'm ; and rails 
weighing 45, 60, 75, and BD Iba, per yard have crradu^lly 
been introduced. The increased power of the-?n;dne, aiiil 
the hold on the rail obtained by throwing ariditional 
waiaht on the driving wheels, enable the tram to asiijnd 

auxiliary engines ; bat, on the other hand, the iciTi^W'il 
velocity'has made it advisable to pay greater atWnti-in lo 
the plan of the road, the curves of which arg dcECj'ibuil 
with a larger radius ; for when great speed i^ rcqiiiivd, 
eorae sacntices mnst be made, in order to secare a linu as 
atrmght as poeuble. 

This is a brief sketch of what has taken place in 
England. The different stages in the scale of progiesuou 
may be snmmed op as follows :— 

1st. Muddy tracks. 

Znd. Tnmpike roads. 

Srd. Trammads of wood. 



Railroads, with light rails, vwked by locomotiva 
t, at low speed. 

Railroads, with heavy rails, traversed by engines 
of great wright and power, drawing load) of 15U tons, at 
■ of fram 25 to 50 miles per hour, 
jinst not, however, be aaanmed that these changes 
lither general or simnltaneons ; that the muddy lane 
I to eiist when die turnpike road was put in opera- 
OT that these latter have been altogether banished 
I railroad ; on the contrary, every change had lo un- 
„ the most determined opposition. At the first intro- 
duction of railways, the owners of property, who are now 
lerly Biriving to get the lines as near them as possible, 
irted all their inHuence to keep them at a distance It 
iniy within the laat fifteen years, that more enlightened 
as have prevailed, and tliat people baie been made 
ire that every additional facility given to locomotion 
fcra a most important benefit upon the coontrj It la 
e that in many inilances the works of the railwavs 
re been eiecnted at a cost whirh the returns haie not 
justified, and tbe capital expended has yielded but a 
:anty i-etnm of ioteiest : but this has been ])nnciiialty 

fie, thouih sufficient to pay die eipcnses of working the 

line, aod maintaining the road, is not adequate to thepay- 

nt of intereat npon the capital laid out. 

rhe eiporiments which have been carried on for the last 

yean, in various paJts of the world, have been nntform 

certain reaulta, whii-h, may, therefore, be safely laid 

ivn as general principles for our guidance in discussibg 

the policy of adopting railroads as our principal means ot 

internal communication. It lias been shown that increased 

facilities of commnmcation have an immediate tendency 

to augment traffic. The augmentatjon, however, takes 

place to a much greater eitenl in passongerB than in goods i 

diat increased facility of communication is in all cases 

the transit of goods than of passeogeia. In the case of 
the latter, though there is often an actual reduction in the 
cost of conveyance, yet the principal saving is in time. 
With regard to goods, the actual reduclian in the coat of 
transport is enormous, while the benefit is still further 
enhanced by the certainty and rapidity with whii 



.veyed, A referei 



.ese facts beyond a dou 



,f English 



from other countriea, the result would be the same, 
ief sketch of the introducdon of the railway srs- 
England, and of its extraordinary and rapid de- 
ment, will not. I trust, be noinleresdng i and it 
most usefiil if it should have Che effect of intrtt. 
_ B more close investigation of all the causes which 
have had an inffnence in producing such a state of things, 
a view lo tbe application of the results of such an 
idgadon Co the circnmstaDccs of the colony, 
carrying out an investigation of this kind, however, 
most be taken to keep constantly In view the very 
marked difference!, between the atate of things in the 
colony and the mother country. 

iDgland the population is densely packed together, 
le manufacturing and u^licultnral interests are 
insly developed. In this colony, on the contrary, 
nulation is thinly scattered, and the agricultural 
ifacturing interests are yet in th^r infancy. 



There 






of dlings in the two countries, a 



naWy h 



n the. 






ecanse it has been found advisable in England to 
3 some three hundred millions in improving means 

e to one benefit to eipend a tithe of that sum for the 

cial I Sjiply believe. The very marked differences 
which eiist between dje mother country and this colony 
appear to me to strenghen rather than to weaken the 
groundwork upon which this belief is based j and I trust, 
before I conclude, to bo able to make yon partakers of mv 
nvictions. In order to diis. It will be necessarv. in the 
It place, diat a clear and definite idea should b^ fomiaJ 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



n 



of the nature of the benefit which the country is supposed 
to derive from improved means of commumcation, more 
especially from railroads ; and it would be desirable, if 
possible, to make some approximation to the amount of 
this benefit, as measured according to some pecuniary 
standard. Now, the benefit which the proprietor of a 
■ railway derives from it is measured by the clear annual 
return of profit resulting from the payment made for the 
conveyance of passengers and gooos, after all the cost of 
transport, and mat of the maintenance and repairs of the 
road nave been defrayed ; but while this is a correct re- 
representation of the benefit which an individual or a 
private company can derive from the ownership of a rail- 
way, the case becomes very different when the Govern- 
ment, acting for the community at large, undertakes the 
construction of such works. 

In this case the direct benefits which are measured by 
the profits of the railway as a speculative investment of 
capital, and the indirect benefits which are those resulting 
to society at large from the use of the railway, are merged 
together, the community beiuff both proprietor and em- 
ployer of the railway ; and Sie amount of these latter, 
takmg their monetary value only into consideration, is 
very far in excess of the former, as I shall be able to 
prove. 

Take for instance the English railroads. The direct 
return to the shareholders is estimated to be on an average 
from 50 to 55 per cent, of the gross receipts, that is t£e 
cost of transport and management, together with that of 
keeping the road in repair, absorbs about from 45 to 50 
per cent, of these receipts, leaving the above balance as 
profit. It is now found, however, that while the traffic is 
continually increasing, as is shown by the annual returns, 
t]ie shareholders are receiving but a verv small interest 
on their capital, — ^that is, the direct benefit^ as before de- 
fined, is small. With regsurd to the indirect benefit, we 
have luckily the means of arriving at the amount of the 
saving in the cost of conveyance of goods in the fact, that 
the average cost of cartase upon a good turnpike road was 
9^d. per ton per mile, while on the railway it varies from 
2d. to 3d., — that is, there is a saving of upwards of 70 per 
cent, in the cost of transport of goods, — while in the con- 
veyance of passengers, if the actual money saving be not 
so great, the saving of time is fully 70 per cent. Now, 
the actual returns on the English railways, in 1855, 
amounted to upwards of twenty-one millions; and the 
saving on the above assumption, would amount to forty- 
nine millions ; while the direct return of interest did not 
exceed eleven millions. It may be said, however, that 
these returns can only be expected in a country thickly 
peopled, with an enormous trade already developed, and 
that in this colony we must pass through all the various 
of road-making before we can hope to arrive at similar 
results. This, however, I conceive to be a mistake. The 
advantage to a community of any improvement in the 
means of communication must be measured partly by the 
idifierence between the cost o{ transport upon the old roads 
and upon the new, and partly by the increase given to the 
value of property. Now, the annexed table, which is an 
abstract of tne returns furnished by the different benches 
in various parts of the colony, shows the present cost of 
transport throughout the colony ; and it vanes, as may be 
seen, from about one shilling to eleven shillings per ton 
per mile. The average, however, may be taken at from 
two to three shillings per ton per mile. 

Abstract of the Returns furnished by the different 
Branches in various parts of the Colonv, showing the 
nresent cost of Transport throughout tke CJolony (al- 
luded to in the foregoing paper) : — 



Names of Places to 

and from which 

Traffic takes place 



Murrunfndi to 
Haitland... . 






I 






mile 
100 



Cost of 
Tramport 
per Ton. 



£7 



Cost of.Trans- 

port per ton 

per mile. 



Is to 4}d 



No. of 
tons 
con- 

veved. 



Names of PI aces to 

and from which 
Traffic takes place. 



Maitland to Mur- 

rurundi 

Stroud to Glouces 

ter 

Stroud to Kay- 

mond Terrace. 
Bathurst to Tam- 

baroora 




Grafton to Tenter- 
field 



Cooma to Sydney 
Sydney to Uooma 
Orange to Sydney 
Sydney to Orange 
Orange toBathurbt 

Bathurst to Orange 
Warwick to Ips- 
wich 

Ipswich to War- 
wick 

Tumut to Gunda- 

gai 

Gundagai to l*u- 

mut 

Tumut to Tarcutta 
Tumut to Adelong 
Gundagai to Ade- 

long 

Melbourne to De- 
niloquin 



Maitland to Nnn- 
dle 



Dubbo to Sydney 



Sydney to Dubbo 
Campbelltown to 

Sydney 

Sydney to Camp- 
belltown.' 

Albury to Mel- 
bourne 

Sydnev to Albury 
Penritli to Sydney 
Braidwood to Ara- 

luen , 

Shoalhaven to 

Braidwood 

Maitland to Tam- 
worxn »•••••.. N>.. 

Svdney to Molong 
Moiong to Sydney 
Windsor to Syd- 
ney 

Sydney to Wind- 
sor 

Eden to Maneroo 

Rylstone to Mud- 
gee 

Rylstone to Syd- 
ney 

Sydney to Ryl- 
stone 

Raymond Terrace 
to Maitland ... 

Maitland to Wari- 
alda 



mile 
100 
30 
33 
70 

130 

250 
250 
160 
160 
35 

35 

75 

75 

25 

25 
30 
26 

36 

180 

150 

260 

260 

33 

33 

200 
380 
34 

10 

85 

175 

163 
163 
36 

36 
55 

30 

150 

150 

5 

300 



Cost of 
Transport 
per Ton. 



Cost of Trans- 
port per ton 
per mile. 



£9 to £6 
£3 0s6d 

£3 
£10 to £15 

£13 10s to 
£16 16s 

£20 
£20 to £30 

£10 

£20 
£310sto£5 

£5 

£5 

£7 16s 9d 

£5 

£5 
£8 
£8 

£8 

From £16 
.to £100 

From £8 to 

£20 
£17 to £20 

£25 to £30 

£3 to £4 

£2 10s 

£15 
£45 
£3 

£3 

£12 

£10 



£30 2s 



£18 to £30 
£18 to 

£2 

£3 

£4 



£2 
£15 

£3 

£8 

£18 to £21 

£1 

£23 10s to 
£2& 



Is9idtols2^ 

2s 

IslOd 

2s lO^d to 

2s to 2s 7d 

ls7d 

Is7dto2s4^ 

0s3d 

2s 6d 

2sto2sl0d 

2s. lOd 

2s Id 

2s 

4a 

4a 
56 4d 
66 Id 

4s 5d 

From Is 9d to 
lis 

Is to 2s 6d 
Is 3d to Is 6d 

Islldto2s3d 

0sl0dto2s5d 

ls6d 

ls6d 
2s 4d 
ls9d 

6b. 

Is8d 

Is 3d 



2s2d to3s8d 

2dto3s8d 

Is Id 

IsOd 

2s 2d 

Is Id 
5s Od 

2s 

Is Id 

2s5dto^9d 

4s 



No. of 
tons 
con- 
veyed. 



500 
100 



800 



282 

137 
350 

24 


28 

810 

660 

110 

140 

75 

180 

100 

Not 
known. 



312 
Not 

known. 
Not 

known. 
3000 
375Q 
2Q0Q 

400 
200 



Not 

nown. 

Not 

known. 
Not 

known. 

415 

500 

2000 

100 

2250 

2800 
2000 

126 

120 

120 

400 



l\'«.*l\\ft\^X^ V«^ 



12 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



Names of Places 
to and from which 
Traffic takes place 



WarialdatoMait- 
land 

Melbourne to 
Monlmein .... 

Wollombi to Mait- 
land 

Maitland to Wol- 
lombi 

Mfiswellbrook to 
Maitland 

Maitland to Mns- 
wellbrook ...... 

Piaytontolpswich 

Ipswich toDrayton 
Kcton to Sydney 
Sydney to ricton 
Xaverpool to Syd- 
ney 

Sydney to liver- 
pool 

BerrimatoSydney 
tiydney toBerrima 




Cost of 

Transport 

per ton. 



mile 

300 £12 to £i4 

260 £18 

40 £2 

40 £2 Os 6d 

70 £3 to £7 

70 £6 
75 I2s. per bale 
96s per ton 
75 £7 
50 £4 
50 £4 

20 £2 

20 £2 
84 £4to£ 
84) £9 



Cost of Trans- 
port per ton 
per mile. 



9^ to ll^d 

ls5d 
Is 

Is Id 
10^ to 2s 

ls8id 

Is 3d 

2s 
ls7d 
ls7d 

2s 

2s 

Is to Is 3d 

2s Id 



No. of 
tons 
con- 
veyed 



270 
120 

200 

564 



2500 
353 
560 

2200 

8000 
560 
318 



Were the cost of conveyance per ton per mile upon a rail, 
road the same as in England, the saving would be at least 
90 per cent. It will be safer, however, to take the actual 
charge upon the Parramatta railroad, which is sixpence 
per ton per mile, aa a measure of the probable future 
charge throughout the colony, and in this case the saving 
will he 75 per cent. As an instance of the actual amount 
of benefit conferred upon a particular locality, the returns 
from Campbelltown may oe taken : — Campbelltown is 
about thirty-three mil^ from Sydney, upon a road to 
which a good deal of attention has been paid. The return 
states the actual amount of traffic backwaiids and forwards 
to be about 8700 tons per annum, and the average cost to 
be two shillings per ton per mile, or £28,710 per annum 
as tho whole charge for transport. Now, by railway, at 
sixpence per ton per mile, the whole charge would amount 
to £7177 ; and the difference between this and the former 
amount of £28,710, or £21,538 per annum, is but a por- 
tion of the indirect benefit conferred upon this district by 
the substitution of a railway for a turnpike road — I say 
but a portion ; for, in the first place, I have made no al- 
lowance for the saving of money and time to the passengers 
on the road; I have not calculated on the increased 
amount of traffic, which will most assuredly be the result 
<of the introduction of railway communication ; neither 
have I taken the increased value given to property into 
csnsideration. I have merely taken the present amount 
lof goods* traffic, and have shown that the saving in the 
cost of transporting it for a distance of 33 miles amounts 
to upwards of £21,000 per annum — a sum which, at six 
per cent., represents a capital of upwards of £350,000. 
As, then, the present cost of transport in this colony far 
exceeds that by turnpike roads in England, the savin? to 
the inJiabitants by the introduction of railways will be 
larger in proportion than in England. I am not in pos- 
.session of any data which could enable me to form an 
opinion as to the number of passengers, or the probable 
cnarge for their conveyance; but it is evident that the 
.same reasoning will apply to these as to passengers in 
England, and mat the savmg of time, owing to the rapi- 
^ty and certainty of conveyance by railway, will be 
relatively as great. 

The next question for consideration in forming an esti- 
mate of the indirect benefit resulting from railway com- 
munication is the increase in the value of property. 

In many parts of the colony, the land, of which the 
<}ovemment is in the possession, thirty-nine fortieths is 
unsaleable. The distance from a market, and the enor- 
mous cost of transport, would render land at a distance of 
100 miles from Sydney, almost valueless, even were it 



of the richest description. Take, for instance, a farm of 
100 acres, at 100 miles from a market, and assume the 
produce available for sale to be 800 bushels of grain of 
some sort. This, which would weigh about 20 ton.s, 
would, at the rate of 2s. per ton per mile, cost for trans- 
port only, £200, or 5s. per bushel ; and the farmer would, 
of course, be utterlv unable to compete with the foreign 
producer. Even the .farmer in Michigan, who has to 
oring his grain, or the flour produced from it, a distance 
of nearly 2000 miles to New York, and from thence 
12,000 or 14,000 miles by sea to New South Wales, would 
be able to undersell a farmer living not more than 100 
miles from Sydney, whose only communication is 
by the ordinary roads of the colony. Put, however, 
the farmer within a few miles of a railway, and 
everything is reversed : his produce is conveyed to 
Sydney for £50 instead of £200, or for Is. 8d. per bushel 
instead of 5s. He is therefore in a position to undersell 
the foreign producer, and a market being insured for the 
produce of his fiirm, the land in the neighbourhood 
assumes a value proportionate to its quality ; and a rise in 
the price of land of from 300 to 400 per cent may fiurly 
be expected. 

With regard, however, to these calculations as to the 
amount of indirect benefit, it will be seen that they are 
based upon the assumption that the cost of transport upon 
the railroad will be 6a. per ton per mile. It is true tnat 
this is the charge at present on the Parramatta Railway, 
but it is to be observed that, out of this sum of 6d., the 
(Government receives upwards of 2^. as interest of 
capital. If, then, the charge for transport were reduced 
by this amount, the benefit to the community would be 
enhanced to an equal, if not, to a greater extent, by tiie 
stimulus given to production, and the increase to the 
value of property. 

The inference which I am disposed to draw from what 
I have here stated is, that in undertaking the construction 
of railways by the Grovemment upon a large scale, it 
would perhaps be wise to relinquish altogether the i&a of 
obtaining any direct benefit from them in the shape of in- 
terest of capital, and to be content with the indirect 
returns accruing from the saving in the cost of transporti^ 
and the increase in the value of property.^ With r^ard 
to the former, it would give evidence of its existence in 
the general development of business of every kind ; but 
the latter would assume a tangible shape, and would pour 
more money into the Treasury than would compensate for 
the capital sunk in constructing the railway. If, for in- 
stance, the (Government, being the owner of 200 millions 
of acres of land, were to sii^ the value of one-fourth of 
this in the construction of railways, by which the value of 
the remaining three-fourths would be doubled, the actual 
money profit to the colony by the transaction would be 
equivalent to the present value of 150 millions of acres of 
land, irrespective of all other advantages. 

In advocating a large outlay upon the railways as the 
only mode by wnich this colony can ever be made capable 
of supporting a dense population, and therefore as the 
only means oy which it can be made prosperous and 
powerful, I must not be understood as pledging myself to 
the adoption of any particular scheme. It is a matter of 
comparative unimportance, whether we adopt the wide or 
the narrow gauge. I do not think it is necessary, under 
our present circumstances, to insist upon uniformity of 
gauge as a matter of necessity, although it would, I 
admit, be desirable to establish some uniform system. 
What we do require is, the railway or tramway (Jot in 
principle they are identical) ; that is, the hard uniform* 
and comparatively level surface upon which carriages can 
run without much friction or resistance. The nature of 
the road is altogether independent of the power which is 
to be used to transport goods and passengers upon it. 
This may either be steam or animal power, the character 
being determined by the nature and amount of the traffic 
on the road, or by peculiar consideration which may make 
it more economical to use one kind of power than another. 
It is true that, in the consideration of any particular 
scheme, the description of power to be employed must 
have much influence upon the details, but a railway is 
still a railway, though tne carriages are drawn by horses. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART, 



13 



and the benefit to the country through which it passes 
may be quite as great in such a case as were locomotive 
power employed. It may be asked, what power will it 
be desiraole to employ in this colony? To this the 
simple answer would seem to be, that which is the 
cheapeA provided it be sufGlcient. In England the 
amouKof traffic upon the different lines, and the demand 
for speed on the part of Uie passengers, has made tlie 
universal adoption of steam power a matter of necessity. 
But before we assume this to be the case in New South 
Wales, a proper calculation must be made to the relative 
cost and efficiency of the different kinds of motive power. 
I do not, of course, mean to infer that cheapness is to be 
the only consideration ; but I do mean to say that, in the 
present condition of tiie colony, it would be unwise to 
incur any great additional expense for the purpose of in- 
creasing the speed of transit beyond ten or twelve miles 
per hour for passengers. If^ then, horse power can be 
shown to be cheaper than steam, and thou^n slower, com- 
petent for the conveyance of the traffic which is likely to 
come upon the line for some years to come, I should 
certainly recommend that it should be employed. 

In discussii^ the question of the relative expense of 
the two systems of locomotion, the actual cost of working 
the line in each case is not the only matter to be con- 
sidered. The cost of constructing the road in either case 
must enter into the comparison. For instance, for steam 
power the line must be straighter in plan, less steq> and 
abrupt, and less undulating in section ; the rails must be 
heavier, and all the work upou the road mero massive 
and substantial, while even upon the more solid road the 
wear and tear of the heavy locomotives going at speed, 
will be far greater than that caused by horse traffic. 
Taking all thinas into consideration, I should be disposed 
to believe that we line prepared for locomotive power 
would cost at least douole of that laid down for horse 
power $ and the wear and tear will probably be larger in 
the same proportion. This, however, as 1 said before, 
must be determined by calculation and exjperiment ; and 
I hope on some future occasion to be able to lay before 
you the results of some which are now in progress. 

I have in the present paper conimed myself as much as 
possible to the general question, on the satisfactory eluci- 
dation of which the adoption of railroads as the ordinary 
means of communication must depend. Hereafter, J 
trust full accounts will be laid before the Society of the 
practical working of the different systems which may be 
tried, and the members will then be in a position to ren- 
der valuable service to the Government, by classifying and 
analyising tiiese returns, from which only we can hope to 
deduce results applicable to the peculiar circumstances of 
the colony. 

W. DENISON. 



AUSTRALIAN WINE. 

Though wine has been made in New South 
Wales, more or less, for thirty years past, 
and though vineyards of ten, twenty, and 
even thirty acres in extent, have reached the 
ripe age of fifteen to twenty summers — 
though men not stinted in capital, or deficient 
in general education, have been engaged in 
the production of the wine, and though Eu- 
rope has been ransacked to supply the best 
varieties of wines, and travellers from this 
country have purposely examined, and 
minutely described French, Grerman, and 
Spanish methods of wine-making — still our 
wines have been no better to us than a re- 
proach, and the bitterest sentence that could 
be passed on the poor ** vigneron ** was, that 
*' he should drink his own sour wine." The 



whole quantity made was very small. The 
last official returns of vineyards in the set- 
tled districts gave 9831 acres, producing 
112,744 gallons of wine, and 1426 gallons 
of brandy. These figures prove to what 'a 
great extent the vineyards had been allowed 
to go out of cultivation, — the produce of 
well-attended vineyards, in this country, 
will average 400 gallons to the acre, so that 
the produce in this case, was only one-third 
of what it should have been, and so great 
was the disheartening effect of neglect and 
bad management, that about two years ago, 
many, mistaking the cause of failure, rooted 
up their vineyards in despair, and many more 
were on the point of following the bad ex- 
ample. It was not, however, very much to 
be wondered at; their cellars were fiill of 
wine (so called), that no one would pur- 
chase — every effort to effect sales in Sydney 
had failed, and the popular prejudice ran 
very strong against what was nicknamed, 
after a very imsightly little island in the 
harbour. 

It was very strange that, with all the ad- 
vantages they possessed, there should have 
been so great a failure, — the climate is most 
suitable, the summer heat lasts sufficiently 
long, for even the latest varieties of grape 
to become thoroughly ripe, and no year is an 
exception to this rule — ^liow superior to the 
climate of the Rhine, where one such year 
in every six is all they can hope for ! The 
fermentation could have given them no trou- 
ble, for the temperature of our vintage-time 
seems so exactly to suit its requirements, 
that to let it have its own way was the surest 
means of success. 

But the after management of the wine was 
wherein they failed, they thought, when they 
got the juice of the grape into their 
casks, that their wine was made, 
whereas in truth it could not fairly be enti- 
tled to the name of wine, until it had passed 
the following summers heat, and been care- 
fully guided through the various chemical 
changes that are in active operation in new 
wines, and past that which did them more 
harm than all the rest, viz., the strong ten- 
dency to acetus fermentation. 

But the making of wine was undertaken 
by rich men — pride had more to do with the 
planting of vineyards than profit, and pride 
and profit, as we know, cannot agree. 

Had the settlers, poor and striving, been 
the wine growers, they could not have af- 
forded to neglect what they depended upon, 
and in neglect dwelt every cause of failure :, 
neglect of oxdiaaa:^ e.^rcKK^'orc^ ^^"^^afc. — ^^ws^*^ 



14 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



nesa, neglecting to rack, and keep their casks 
full. But for this, Australian wine would 
now have been the pure and wholesome drink 
of the country, and we should not have to 
deplore the sad effects of the " bucket of 
rum and pannekin.'' 

Among the desperate means resorted to, 
for getting rid of stocks, was the unjustifi- 
able one, of trying to palm off their wine 
upon the public as European produce, 
Champagne was got up — ^false stamps burned 
on the corks — Sydney made imitations of 
French labels, and the like ; and even those, 
too honest and honorable for this, were fool- 
ish enough to call their wines sherry, hock, 
claret, &c. 

But amidst all this mismanagement, there 
existed clear evidence, that a wine could be 
produced in no way inferior to the ^pwth 
of any country. There were few vineyards, 
where a pet cask or two had not received 
the necessary care, and developed such rich 
qualities, as excited the wonder ^nd admira- 
tion of those competent, by an experienced 
^nd cultivated taste, to judge. The flavor 
was ample and pure, the bouquet fiascinating, 
while at the same time it possessed that 
greatest quality of all — ^it was light, and 
only very slightly intoxicating. 

The very small quantity that reached this 
desirable state was only to be found at the 
tables of the growers, shown at exhibitions, 
or sent home as presents, — the public knew 
nothing of it. 

It is a matter of congratulation to the 
wine growers to know, however, that 
pince the Paris Exhibition two years ago, 
the cloud which had shadowed the poor 
spirit seems to vanish, and the sun shines 
out o?i pleasanter prospects. Since then, 
the appearance in the market, for sale, of a 
little really fine wine, has gained more con- 
sideration for the subject, and won more 
friends than all the bad wine made in the 
previous twenty years. 

Twp all-important steps have been won — 
first, we now know, that all our wine may 
be made good, and next, that we have a 
profitable market for it. 

Our beginnings are, however, very small, 
so small indeed, as to be hardly discemable 
by the eye of commerce ; half our make is 
consumed in the neighbourhood of the vine- 
yards, at vintage time, and the rest, if 
divided among the population of New South 
Wales, would leave us only the sorry com- 
fort of a bottle each, to drink on our 
birthdays. Europe need not, therefore, 
look towards Australia to make up the defi-' 



ciency caused by the disease, under which 
their vines now suffer. 

We may, by resuscitating the present vine- 
yards, obtain 400,000 gallons per aanum ; 
but beyond this we cannot go, withou^^ant- 
ing new vineyards, which would not bear 
sooner than the third year after planting, and 
then three years mor? are required before 
the wine is sufficiently matured to go before 
the consumer. 

Such, however, has been the encouraging 
experience of the last two years, that 



that not less than 100 acres of new vine- 
yard are about being planted in the Hunter 

river district alone this season. 

To he continued^ 



SYDNEY MECHANICS' SCHOOL OF 

ARTS. 



We purpose to record in this periodical 
the more important transactions of this 
highly useM Institution. Those acquainted 
with its history must be gratified to observe 
the great progress that it has made within 
the last three or four years. It now num- 
bers upwards of one thousand members on 
its roll. Its reading-room is most comfort- 
ably furnished, and is fully attended, and 
during the last season the lectures, which 
embraced a large range of subjects, attracted 
very numerous and respectable audiences. 
We understand that a highly talented corps 
of lecturers will contribute to the entertain- 
ment and instruction of the members during 
the approaching season, the opening lecture 
of which will be delivered to-morrow even-, 
ing, June 16, by the Rev. Dr. Woolley, 
Principal of the University. 

We would call the attention of our readers 
also to a new development of the usefulness 
of the Institution. The Committee have 
determined to oflfer for competition gold and 
silver medals for the production of works of 
art and general utility. There are to be two 
large gold medals and two large silver 
medals, of an aggregate value of £50. In 
addition to these, the Rev. Dr. Woolley has 
also offered a large gold medal, of the value 
of £10, for the best English essay on the 
following subject :« — " The characteristic dif- 
ferences of the British writers of the 16th, 
17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. 

In order to put our readers in possession 
of all the details of the competition for the 
institution medals, we print the report of 
the sub -committee, to which the matter was 
referred, and we hope that the liberal offer 
of the committee will be rewarded by an 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



15 



active competition. The subject of the first 
gold medal is highly important in a young 
country, where it is so desirahle that the 
first steps taken should be well grounded, 
and worthy of imitation. 



Tour Coo 
to tbem bj thd genenl body 
diructod to the ipodflc obJ4 
nboald beo&rcd. 



REPORT. 

lidered that the enquiry delegated 



. _ rioiu obj«t» forwhichlhey 

might with propriety be appropriated. It H>peaTed to ibMo 
that among tb* Bnt in importaiice wne jilaiu sad modeli 
fur tbe coni^etion of dwellii^ for the mdutrul cImki. 
'I'hey apportiaiied the Kcond pl<ce to the production of a 



They , _ 

ditioiH which ahonld be impoeed on competiton, to eoablt 
the relaliTe meriti of the vsrion* plana to be campared. 

For the plana and modaU of hnildingi tiwy ~ 



thai two pnva be offered — the tint conotting of a gold 
medal, and the ucond of a nlver medal. 

The gold medal jhould be awarded to the best plan, 
accompanied by a model of a boilding or block of build- 
ing! ; a apecificadon and eetimate of eipenae (the economy 
of which will be a desideralum) should also be toqnired. 

Thn' recommend also that tbe prize plan ahonld be a 
jndged wiUi t«la±ion to the materials already existing 
the colony, lo its beauty of design and lo the conTeniec.. 
tof it* proTiiioni for Ventilation and drainage. Oiban 
boildiius iboald have the Jiretentace. thongh residencw 
adapted to the coimtry districts should be allowed to enter 

The lifTer modal ahonld be appropriabid to tht — 
plan of a Imilding of a amilar description to tLe fore- 
going, but the plui may be nnaccompanied by the medal 
or the specification and otimale. 

With rsard to the competitian in ait, A»f Ncom 

that a gold modal ibonldte awarded to Iba beat orl, 

— ' ' — - "n other irf ll» following bniichs,Tiz. — 



recommend that there shonld be no restriction imposed on 
the competiton, either in material, oze. or style of the 
woili of ait eihibited. with the exception that architecto- 
ral or enfiineeriiig designs shonld be ineligible, 

They USD recommend that a ailrar modal shonld be 
awarded for the beet copy of a standard work of ait, in 
either of the branchn of art above specified. 

Tboy recommend that compedtors should be required 
to declare that any work offered bv them shall have been 
eiccntsd nnce the pnblicition of the adrertiaements call- 

lliat each design ahonld J>e accompanied by a motto, 
and that no name* of ci^petitoM be allowed to transpire 
previous to the declaration of the prize. That tho designs 
should be sent in on or before the 1st of September, and 
that the final award of the judgn abould be made at some 
pnblic ceremony, to tike place about the second week in 
October, The Judges to be neiAinatad by the general 
committee, and not to be ICai than three or more tbui five 
in nnn^r. 



BOYDELL'S PATENT ENDLBSS 
RAILWAY.— THE MEG^THON. 
At the present time when the pul)lic mind 
is most anxiously directed ta the wretched 
condition of the roads of the colony, and 
when even the streets of the metropolitan 
city are in a Btat« of dangerous decay, it is 
Very desirable to investigate the appliances 
Vhich ingenious scientific men have devised 



for overcoming the difilculties of locomotion 
under such circumstances. The arrival in 
this colony of a locomotive steam engine, ■ 
which carried ita own railway with it, 
created, therefore, a great amount of excite- 
ment, and for some weeks past the name of 
the "MegEethon" has been almost a "house- 
hold world." In order to give our distant 
readers some idea of this machine, we b&ve 
had the iao6i striking feature (that is tlie 
endless railway) engraved, and we extract 
the fallowing description &om the XiondoB 
Mechanict' Magazine. 

Mr. Boydell has bnmght forward an invention «Udi 
eltiled Coilsiderrble attention at the recant Ckrflila 
meeting of the Royal Agricultural Society in England. 

It coiiaiata in attaching to the wheels of a vehicio a 
number of shoes or sleeper*, on which are fixed short 
lengths of iron rail, so that u the vehicle advances, dieaa 
portion* of rail are snccesavely brooibt beneadi the 
heel, and thus Tirtnally form an endless railway on 
tiich the carriage mns, the connection between the whoel 
id each shoe or aleeper being of such a character, that 

mdent of each other, for the time that the wheel is 
averring the nil. The len^ of the ahoea or aleepars 
course dependa upon the me of the wheel, and the 
jmber of them is generally abont five to each wheel. 
It is plain, that vehicles fitted with this endteH railway 
~ ~~iy bo used where alow motion alone is requiaita, fbr 
tiievelot'- ^ . - . - . .-, .. ., 



produce a 



iderable, tha cen- 

be railway would 

igement, Thia eircumatance, bow- 



ttifagal force applied to the pacta of the railway 
- -- ■--- -QTtain derangement, Thia eircu"""""" "" 
itility of the 



it should be ftat^. 



applied to Bgricultnral purpose*, or to many other 

oration* in wfiich a greater rata than four or five miles 

I hoar is DC* requisite. 

Mr. Boydell-* attention hu n 

__ai confiuad lo the simple prinnple of connecting lo tb« 

wheel an endless railway, bnt rather to the m^hod <d' 

uplying this ptindple, ao aa to obtain > pncticsble and 

cAcisBt amngsmeat to the paita. Iha method adoplad 

by him will be nodentool mm tin 



, lyin* en- 
graiiug and the fiiUowing dveription, 'iba latter being 
taken itam the Mark-Umt Bxpr*$i : 

" A itrong bar of iron is beot into the form of a rery 
(harp pointed or Qothtc arch, and bolted to the sleeper 
with fouritrong bolls. At the lop of the arch or bar will 
L_ -L..,rf ed a strong pivot, analogoiu to that of the beam 

_. rger balance. This bar works in a strong iron 

box, curved at the top, and having b groove at eadi side 
of the curve in which Ihe pivc* works when ralnng or 
lowering tho laiiway from and to the ground. Tba curve 




the two aide* of tho arch ia cvcloidal. alw*y« cor' 
iponding to the diameter of the wheel ; in other word*, 
..J curve which each *ide of the bent bit Ca™L^.™.Yy~»:j. 
It aUnc.uaam^iiA «,(?jt\>iAtetTO(^M *'<™*- "^ 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



riTfgn 



circumrerente o( the wbeel, In agrendiag and deaceni 
Irom and to the l;TODnd i and the length of each arc 
BOih, tlist wboD thti two bottom aleepen &' 
freely from their reipective pi rots, thvit rai 
tangonta to tbe point wbere the line of directioD of ^i 
vitv of tbe wtBel intersects the citcomfofHoca, anppoeipg 
the* wheel elevated on a. jack, or tho point of iinpMt. 
TbobiH again in which thebeuvdoidal bars work is bolied 
to ^e ftUoeg parellel u tbe tire of the wheel, and eqi 
dinant fioni each other, 

" The eleepein ire conajderably- longer than tbe rai 

titojeding beyond tliem at each end on thealtenmte iidr 
ornuiH^ a joint anala^'ouH to that of rihi]i-bDildinB ; 
tiuU, although (he ends of the rails meet at the point 
impact LiumediUelr Dodet the wheel, yet tbe back and 
axterioT projection, or Aerf, ef the &ont sleeper eKtenda 
behind this point ; while the front and interior projecuon 
ef the back sleeper eitenda before it, thoa forminii s 
aleeper or bearing to the point of impact itself, which other- 
mae wonld ho wuliont, Bui:b sleepen may bo of any 
braaddl 1 aufh, for instance, as to anpiart a londed cart 
thraugb newly-ploufhed luid. if denred i or. say from 6 
to Id inches, and are attached to the aolside of tbe felloes 
by mechanical contrivanoeB not so easily described." 

Considering the reputation this machine 
had acquired in England, and the high 
pectatiouB that were rained previous to its 
performance here, we are inclined to think 
that the apecinien that has been imported 
into this colony must he considered a partia] 
faOure. The enterprising owner, Mr. Clark, 
of Bundarra, is now endeavouring to take it 
to hia station on the Darling Downs ; hut we 
hear that it had not travelled three mill 
its journey before it broke down, and great 
doubts are entertained that it will ever reach 
the remote interior. The great difficulty is 
found in traversing a sideling, from the un- 
even pressure of the wheels on the conical 
arches in the sleepers, which are bent by the 
weight. We shall, however, watch anxiously 
the progress of the machine, for the probli 
which it professes to solve is one of vast ii 
portance to the community at large. 



FINE ARTS.— SCULPTURE. 

About three years ago, a young artist, of 
the name of Woolner, arrived in this city 
from Melbourne, where he liad been un 
cessftil in finding patrons, and engaged in 
the practice of his profession, which was that 
of a sculptor. Few would have predicted 
snccess, for at that time Mr. Nichols, 
talented man, also a sculptor, was leaving 
the colony, disheartened at the want of ap- 
preciation that he had experienced. Mr. 
Woolner happened to have soine good let- 
ters of introduction, and the late speaker, 
Sir Charles Nicholson, Mr. Wentworth, Mr. 
James Macarthur, Mr. Martin, and others of 
the more distinguished membcra of the com 
munity, took him by the hand, and he com 
menccd to modil medallion portraits. H 



1 



extremely successiul in obtaining 
les of his sitters, and employment soon 
crowded upon him. Many of our readers 
have doubtless seen the extremely spirited 
bronze medallion of Mr. Wentworth, which 
ow published by Mr. J. D. Clarke, of 
George -street, from the original executed 
by Mr. Woolner. We happen to know that 
Mr. Wentworth himself was so gratified by 
this work of art, that he insisted on paying 
the artist a double fee for its execution. 
Encouraged by the success he met with, the 
artist indulged the hope of being selected 
to execute the bronze statue, for which such 
a handsome subscription had been collected 
in the colony. He, therefore, abandoned a 
most lucrative practice here, and proceeded 
to England shortly after Mr. Wentworth 
left the colony, in order to urge his clMina 
in person. We have not yet heard who is 
the artist that is selected to execute the 
work in question, hut as an encouragement 
to those who advocated Mr. Woolner's fit- 
ness for the task, and as a proof that this 
colony does sometimes discover and reward 
true talent, we extract the following critique 
from the London " Spectator," a, publication 
remarkable for the sobriety of its praise, as 
wel! as for the talent with which it is 
written : — 



ieo anything done tborongbl^ wel I is always i 
and daublv so when the thing is of liigli ii 
or importance in ilBclf. ■ •■ ■ ■ -■■- ■' 

"itedb; ... _ _ 

idin in Albort-stres 



of Alfred Tenn 

leted by Mr. Thomas Woolaer, and is now on view at 1 
" ' ' '■ * icton CrcSTEnt, is in C 



. The sitter hM oi 






man who smootlii down and touches up, Sut tbe work of a 
band onifoimly controlled by thonght, and whose evecy 
Btrolie aims at giving some additional shade of meanings 
or character. 

We nnderstand that the hnst— which apraan in Mr. 
Woolner's ntndio in rompanr with a fine fall-lenph statna 
of Bacon for the Oxford Univeiait^' Museum, and with 



public eihibitibn at 



EXTRACTS. 

Under this head we hope will be found 
from time to time valuable information, ex- 
tracted from the English and Foreign Scien- 
tific Journals. 

pHBSsttvATioii or Animal Scbstakcks without Bait 
OK Sdoab.— A patent, No, 1340, was granted an June 8, 
IS-IS, to Mr. r. L, Marie, which is thui deccribed in tba 
Mechanic'! Husaziac, of Feb. 14, 1S57, 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



"Tlie wiimal or Tegetabla anUCuiFes are cnt d^. 

eeceabnog np inheaM cartMnic acid gat, iemoied,(liii 
ra ihart time iDlo a badi ofgvlatiiia, dried, sod pLiiii 
into ■ huh coDtaintDg tansinj;. WheDremoveil and di 
ther are ready for packing, and should flnt be «<ji\ 
•mm coanelT pmrderBd batk." — (We giva thiispedi 
tion in the hope that »me eiperimaDB may he ti 
which wiU demonatraCe the economy and the alility a( 
Ihii process In the bnah. There is no eipensive apparatus 
necHsary for the process, sod shoald it incceed it will be 
* very great booa to handreda of residonU in tiie intcilur 
vho are condemned to conanme salt meat Wi ahall I? 
Tery glad to record the malt of any experiments that may 
be made b; onr readen, and we haTB very sanguine ei- 
pectatiDna of a satisfaclory resnlt.) 

Ths KITBACtiaM AND DTILIZIHG of the btty DRttori 

contained in the water in which wool in the greasi' liiis 
been washed, wonld appear to be a desirable econniiii. 
Tliere can be no donbt that many IfaoDsand of poatids ul 
Valuable faity matter are aaanally vasted in thia coLintr\ 
in the ptoccm of wool-washing. The difficulty is to linrl 
a cheap method of predpitatiiv the oily particles, ami 

practical chraniebi.' A patent granted to Hr, H O. Vaki, 
ID ftby 2Sth, 1866. for this porpose, is thus dacribi^l. 

■' The greasy wui soapy matlsra contained in watur in 
^vhi^h wool, cotton, Ac. have been cleansed, are prycj^ii- 
tated by meani of rock salt, salphate of zinc, and arsenic." 

SuLPHDHic Acid Bj,roi»t». — There ii onnbibitioii 
kt the SmithsQiuan Institute, a gigantic banmietQr, in- 
vented hj- Mr, Jamee Green, of New York, unrli^r ll« 
direction of the institution. The varying preuore uf tin 
air ii indicatod by ■ colnmn of snlphntic add, itutooii cl 
mercury, as in the old way. The mean elevation d' Dii: 
mercana] column is about thirty inches, while in thi? 
iqstrDmeut it ia abont two hundred and twenty inclics, or 
eighteen feet. The range is coDseqaently proportiirn,!! 

ceptible. The object of using Buljiharic acid w the lii]u 
is that at ordinary temiieratiir« it doa not give oil' t 

air. Tlie absorption of imusture IS praTeoted, which u 
greater dcuderaRim in the conitmction of bannneiiit 
inatmmenCs. — Amtriean Paptr. 

Nsv SBU-RiBisTcniKa HmimH Thirhohste r. 
It bas long been a desideratum among meteorologists 
obtain a reliable self-registeriuff minimum thermonipt, 
Vfe are glad to perceive that this has been accumplisli 
in the most satisfactory manner, by those taleutt-d 
philosophical instrument maken, Messrs, Kegretii am' 
Zambra, of Loudon, We bave inspected one of thewi bean 
tiful instmnwnCi at Moara. Flavelles', in George-.'ilrrpI 
and wonld recommend all those interested in the acietn-i 
of Meteorology to make thi 



ueedle may be ratumad to the surface of the merenry 
ready for fiiCnre observadous. Dr, Lee observed, that 
nne of these thermometers had been in the hand* of the 
;^retary of the Briljsh Meteorological Sociaty t anoCber 
,itthe Royal Observatory, Greonwieh i ^ third at llr, £. 
J. Iiowe's Observatory, Highfield Haaaa ; and others had 
bean n»d by varions member* of tike BritU Meteocolo- 
^icai tiociety all of which had acted BMWticcDTaCely, and 



PHOTOaRAPHY. 
Thi Photo-Oalvakic Piocias or EnsKiviira. — light 
and electricity have been put into harness by Mr. 1^1 
Pretsch, lately the manj^r of the Imperial Auatrian 
Tinting office, at Tieima, and truned to perform the 
nited fanctiona of the urtiat, draughtsman, and engraver. 
The first steps of this photo-galvanic proceaa ate similar 
< those adopted bv the 'glass plate photographers. The 
lerator coats a glass plate with a gelatiuons solution, 
litably prepared with chemical ingredients, seusitiis to 
ght. The compounds form the coating materials whiib 
is allowed te dry upon the glaaa, or other plate, H^ich ia 
mated with it. When dry the coated plate ia exposed to 
•be light in a copying fr^e in contact with the print or 
rawing nhich is to te copied. After ei])osure the; plate 
[hibits a faint pictnra on the smooth anrface of the 
msitive coaldug, and it is washed vriih certain solutiuna, 
hen the whole image comes ont in a relief, whilst the 
nia of of the origioal are atill maintained. When 
ifEciently developed tiua releivo plate ia dried and 
lonlded. The mould is prepared for electric condnrtion, 
placed in the elediotype battery, producing a thin copper- 
plate or matrix which is used for producmg the integlic 
Printing plate. With this printiug process, there is no 
tar of fading as the plate impressions are in ink and the 



of the i 

. . ._. Ceoroloffical Society 

the British Aasociation, Cheltenham, lugi 

when the Mercurial Minimum Tbermomete 

" This Thermometer has a bulh of very 

seqnently allowing a tube corresponding 

the MercuTT enclosed in the tube ia plan 
]leedlf^ pomted at both euda, which forms th< 



11^! lg^\ 
irge aite. cin- 






K fall with it 



uthem 



capable of moving freely in 



berefore, remaii 
" It will indici 



the needle. 

and, conseqnentlv, ita upper point will indicate the [f>u^'st 
tempetature te which it nas decended during the 12 or 'J4 
hours, and will not be affected bv any aubsequent 
temperature. To reset the thermometer for I 
obaervationa it is necessary aimpiv to turn it in 
position that the mercury and needfe in the tnbe in 
into the reservoir at the lop ; but should the nee<i 
freely How with the mercury, it may be assisted 
magnet, and readily held there until, by re-tarointr'th^lc 
thermometar to the upright position, the mercnr\ 
buck again into the tube, and, then, with the magi 



picture to 
formed to 



work this process, (b 
'. The 



which a 



photographic ni 
Autiqoities of the Bri 
MlTlLL'8 Nkw M. 



o pubh 



>1 illuatrationa of the Cathedral 
Empire.— fliiMer. 
uL. — Ml. Maiall, the eminent 
loUgrapher of Regent-street, has invented a new 
utenal for the reception of photographic images, which 
promises to become one of the most valuable contributions 
te the art that baa been made (or some time. The pho- 
tegrapbic paper used for taking likeness has been hitherto 
of a nature to prevent the exhibition of delicacy in the 
gradations of tones. The paper likewise ia too absorbent 
to allow of tranaparent colour being laid upon it with ac- 
curacy and delieacv. The cODseqnenee baa been that 
although pbotographs are in great demand, they have not 
as yet made any serious impression on the practice of first- 
artists have used photegruphs aa a gmuud work to be 
covered with colour, and in many casei have produced 
admirable results, but as they were obliged mntly to use 
body colour instead of transparent colour, the eSect was 
really to cover and hide the true photograph instead of 
bringing it out. Ivory, on account of ita granulated sur- 
face, was uot adopted for the purpose of pliotoiraphy. 
Mr, Mayall has remedied these deficiencies by the pn>- 
"■"■"■ -'■---- -- ■ ■ 1 ■ , , 11 ., ipearence 



graphic 



lof th< 



Qular enrface. 

with albntnen, 

Lze and thick 



irate of 
rolled 



^ the proper size and thickness for pi 
I. Inie surface ia then prepared 
re image can be impressc d upon this sur- 
face with a SelicBcy which has hitherto been unattainable. 
The moat shadowy tones are rendered with perfect 
accuracy. The smoothness oftheiurfice admits of the 
shading down of tints until they approach evanescence. 
The slightest fold of a riband ia shown with a lulness of 
perspeectiye which could scarcely be produced by the 
mampulationofthemostskilful artist. The work of_dia 
painter upon 



is that 



e ' treme delici 



« imprinted by photiwraphy 
.n be finished off by artuti inth ex- 



f of exetiWiwi.. — D . Bwi 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



SUBSTITUTE FOR THE POTATO. 

Under this title considerable attetftion has 
been excited in the public joumala, respect- 
ing the growth of a new deaeriptioa of yam. 
We extract trom a New York paper, a dei- 
cription which has been largely commented 
on, and has raised considerable expectation 
as to its usefulness here : 

" BuccEBSFUL Culture of thB Japanese 
Potato-Plant in New Tork.^-A few 
months ago we called attention to the fact 
that Mr, D, Bell, the welUknown florist, 
comer of Fifty -street, and Broadway, hod 
planted some of the roots of the DU 
Japonica or Dioscorea batatas, a substitute 
for the potato, in his garden. He first planted 
them in May, we believe in pots in his hot- 
house. They grew rapidly, and as soon as 
warm weather set in he transferred tliem to 
his garden in the open aJr. Here they 
flourisbed and spread during tlie summer, 
and gaye indications that the florist would 
reap a harvest. Mr. Bell had between 
twenty and thirty loots in the ground. 
During the first week in October he con- 
cluded his Dmeareas were quite large 
enough, and so he dug them up. To his 
great delight he found that some of them 
were two feet long, and aU had grown finely. 
In fact he was satisfied that he had been am- 
ply repaid for his trouble and expense in im- 
porting tlie roots from France last spring. 
Some of the roots were exhibited by Mr. 
Bell, at the recent fair of the American In- 
stitute, at the Crystal Palace. They grow 
long, similar in shape to the sweet potato, 
but much greater in size. One of the roots, 
measuring over two feet in length, was boiled 
by the florist's wife. She says it poi 
the flavor of the common potato, and 
exceedingly nice vegetable for the table. 
Mr. Bell has now a few roots in hii 
where he intends to keep them during the 
winter, to see how they stand our weather. 
He is sanguine of sueeeeding in ■ 
aa well as he had during summer 
these roots. They are the first and only 
Dioscoreas that have yet been raised in the 
United States. The demand for the root 
been ao great that Mr. Bell sent to France 
for a large quantity to supply his friends. 
The vessel having them on board is daily 
expected to arrive at this port. The Dis- 
corea, it is thought, may advantageously 
replace the common potato. It grows fast, 
can be cultivated in any climate, and it is 
Mid will do well in any soil, though sandy 
Kjin ^ sandy soil is preferable." 



At the May Meeting of the Horticultural 

,d Agricultural Society, enquiries wers 
made by a member, aa to the probability of 
its being useful if introduced into this 
Colony. Some discussion ensued, and one 
of the members offered to produce a paper 

I the subject, at the June Meetbig. 

Accordingly, on June 1st. 18fi7, the fol- 
lowing paper was read on the 

Chinese Yam, or Dioscorea Batatbs, 
BY Mr. John GEtnisG. 

According to the promise I made at the 
last meeting of this society, that I would 
fornisli some account of the Dio8cor<Ea, I 
redeem it by stating what facts I have 
been able to ascertain concerning that waefiij 
iSculent, for such it will, no doubt, eventu- 
ally prove itaell' to be i for the warmer-«the 
climate, the greater success appears to attend 
its cultivation. I may state in the first 
place, for the satisfaction of my botanical 
friends, who appears to have some doubt 
about the proper name of the tuber, that it 

the Dioscorea Batates, or the Chinese yam. 
Different botanists have difTerent specific 

mea for it, but the name that it is Tec<^- 

led, both in England and France, is Iho 

e tlmt I have mentioned. It is necessary. 

the first place, to state that the tuber is 
long and slender, averaging from four inches 
to two feet in length, and with the exccptioa 
of a few small axil tubers, is single tooted 
like the carrot, &c. Premising that the true 
sort is obtained, the beat way to propagate 
it is — That the tuber should be eut inttr 
pieces, no matter how small, for it is covered 
with minute eyes or buds, and placed in a 
bos, in a warm pit to start them into growth, 
for the shoots, till they have grown to the 
height of four or aix inches, are very ten-' 
der, and as such are liable to be eaten off by 
insects. 

While they are establishing themselves, it 
would be advisable to prepare the ground 
their reception. The plan adopted is this — 
take a piece of highly manured ground,. 
ridge it up, at from fifteen to eighteen inches, 
apart, at tlie top of which plant the tuben, 
from four to six inches apart, and when they 
begin to grow, no further trouble need 
be taken with them, for they will soon cover 
the ground and dely tlie rise and progress of 
any weeds, I may as wdl state, that tbc; 
reason why they are planted on ridges, is," 
that it is much easier to dig them up, as you 
have not so far to delve after tliem, whereas 
were they planted on the even surface, it 
would be a matter of some difficulty and ex- 
pense to reach tlic boltoui of them," 






MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



19 



HEALTH OF SYDNEY. 

The following table is published by the 
Registrar-General every month, and will be 
carefully re-printed in this journal, forming 
at the close of each year a valuable statisti- 
cal document. 

The table printed for the present month 
contains the aggregate amount of deaths 
during th« months of Januaiy, February, 
March, and April, 1857. These are printed 



iu one table, in order to enable as to .over- 
take the usual monthly issue, which will in 
future be a copy of the ofBcial document. 

The following is a statement of the births 
registered during the first four months of the 
present yeaxi 



114 do. ... IDS do. 



SUMMARY OF DEATHS of both texes Registered in Sydney, from Ut of January 
to 30th April, 1857. 



Caddes or Deitb. 


1 
1 


1 
j 


1 

1 


1 

1 


i 
1 

i 




j 
1 


1 

i 


i 


4 


1 

i 


3 

1 

1 
1 


1 

I 


■if 

|!1 


1 

1 
1 


g 

i 

3 


1 
1 
g 


3 


1 
1 


III 
111 

S8S 


is 2 


Zymotic Diabases. 
Endemic, Epideniii:, & ContagiooB 

8_P0E4DIC DlBEASSa. 

0/ Unttrtain Seaf..—lln.^,^Y ™d 


21 

3d 
13 

5 

1 
33 


i 
2 


i 

1 


1 




s 

1 

7B 


1 






1 


1 

8 

e 

1 


2 

2 
4 
10 

5 


i 

7 

r 

5 


4 

3 

r 


3 
4 

3 

2 

1 


s 
i 

2 


2 


2 
2 

3 
3 














1 




O/.VfrTOUj S^,(enL— Dis,.uaM q 


2 
8 


1 
I 


2 


8 

a 




Of RetpiToenrji S>/,l.em.—T>ia- 








0/ CTCttlatoTu ^j(em.— Dis- 
OMBS Df UiB Heart and Blmd- 










0/ DigariM Organs.— ^Isaatis 


3fl 




■ 


2 




Of Urinary OrjKiu.— Diseises 














... 






















Of Loernanliit Oi^iM.— Rhro- 
muiaiD, Dileiiaes of the Bddm. 
Jointa.to 






3 


' 


I 

1 
1 










Of iHtegtmaUoTa Ss>ltm.~T>u. 




3 


1 






2 


' 


' 


4 


S 




External Oo/sm.— Violence, Pci- 


3 










3 




















' 
























Toial (cam all Causes ; 


" 


50 


e 


2 


220 


., 


' 


" 


2G 


.,. 


... 


9 


» 


• 




« 


1... i 


,„ 4 



CHKIS. BOLLEStOK. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 
METEOEOLOGICAL REPORT. 
Sisxn', MoKTH or Mai, I85T. 







From obtervatioM taken at 9 a 




and 9 p.m 


each day 




Sr 


1 


Tkmpbbatc 


aEo-A.,.. 


MaiBTiT 


g 




Cloud, 




Wmos. 




° 


1, 














i 






B 


^ 
















i 


f 


a 


i 


1 


H 


i i 


E 


I 


i 


1 


il 


™ 






p_ 




|l 


1 " 


1 




1 




Wealber. ete. 




31C0O6 


5G-5 


08-1 


44-9 


232 


43-4 


00 








W. 9, W. 


Clear u>d pleasact 


2 


30-010 


51-1 


6S-9 


38-8 


30 1 


458 


"o 




a-8t. 






Lunar hi!o 


3B 


29-905 


56-8 


63-8 


43-8 


20-0 


43-6 


00 




Ni. 




NNB, WBW, 


9quBll 




30-138 


60-9 


63-8 


37-4 


26-4 


41-7 


DO 








W. B. 






30-2S2 


49-6 


68-7 


40-7 


280 


43-7 


00 








W. S. 


Verrdcparair.and 




30-172 


,60-a 


66-8 


392 


27-6 


45-6 


00 




Ci-si. 




W. 


fine -..oather. 




3n'257 


53-6 


63-8 


390 


23-8 


44-1 


DO 








SW. B. 


Light variable 




SO'SOB 


49-2 


62-8 


42-8 


20-2 


43-2 


« 








SW. 8SB 






30230 


50-0 


64-8 


37-3 


27-5 


433 






Cu. 




W, S. 




lOf 


30'302 


49-1 


56-8 


44-9 


11-9 


47-4 1 


n 




Ni. 




S-9, R 


I aia and hail 




3B-2ir 


60-2 


6i3 


451 


17-2 


47-7 


34 




Ni- 




3. a. B, 


QJe 




so'ies 




050 


54-9 


10-7 




31 




Ni. Ca. 




a. E. 


&a.i„bow» 




30-220 


57-3 


838 


486 


152 


53-7 


02 




Cn. Ci. 




B.K. 


Light irinda 




30-264 


58-8 


69-2 


40-9 


22-3 




DO 




a-si. ru. 




E. 






33-32G 


60-8 


62-4 


53-2 


9-2 


48-7 


00 




ci-at. Cu. 




8. 8. B. 


Tlg«e tlon's 




30-375 


54-4 




51-6 


11-a 


51-5 


08 




a-st Cu. 




s. a- E. 




nt 


30-417 


59-6 


«5-0 




14-9 




65 




Ni. 






1^^ sboo-en 


IS 


30-405 


62-0 


660 


65-3 


10-7 


48-0 


05 




Cu, 




S.E. 


Fresh breeiea 




30-378 


69-4 


66-4 


55-2 




566 






Cu. Ni. 




B. E. 


SbeweiT <r«alber 


20 


30-285 






SS-5 




50-4 


J6 




Cu. Ni. 




E, 8. E. 


)Tall cumuUud 




30-072 


63-3 


618 


52-9 


89 


53-1 






Ni, 








22 


29-84fi 


60-8 


62-6 




10-1 


487 


03 




Cn, Ni. 




N. N. K 




23 


'29 834 


44.5 


55-4 


41-9 


13-5 




12 




CI, Cu. 






Sky cleiring 




29-927 


50-3 


68-2 


34-1 




44-1 1 


00 




St. Cu. 




8. S.V. 


Hoar-fruC. Squall; 


25 


30-096 


51-1 


621 


43-9 


182 


41-4 


02 








N.W. 


Calm and 

iKautiful 

day. 




30.193 


50>6 


638 


42-0 


21-8 


42-4 


OO 




Cu. 




B. W, 


ar 


30-387 




62-8 




23-0 




00 








9. W. 


sa 


30-491 


47-6 


65-4 


38-4 


27-0 


45-8 


■00 




Cu. 


6 


B-W. 9.E. 


SB 


30-460 


51-5 


64-4 


389 


25-5 


SO'O 


■00 




Cu, 




8, W. 


Night miste 


30 


30.375 


sa-G 


63-8 


427 


21-1 


490 


00 




Ci-8t. Cu. 


4 


8. 


Various dood» 


31 s 


30-345 


557 


65-1 


46-6 


18-5 


51-6 






Ni, 


8 


N. E, 


Large dark clonda. 




30-215 


53-9 


640 


45-0 


19-0 


47'2 5 


74 






B7 


Means *nd earns. 




30-501 


63-5 


69-a 




35-1 


58-8 








10 


JlicheBt 1 nfeinirtc readincs 




29-796 


43-2 




34-1 




35-8 








u 


Lo«e.t j ai9^m.or9p.m. 



Temptraturs of Air, 



- ..A corrected for diurnal 

Tarialion. Hw principal initrnmBnO have been tom- 
p&rsd at Qreeawich, and the reailings are all reduced 
■ccocdisgly, 

PrfuUTj,— The barometer ia II feet above the »B-letel. 
The greaCat rao^ ofpre«ure !■ -706 inch The 
mean gueoua presanre of dry air ii 29889 iachM. 

-"The mean of all lelf-regirterad 

— la is 54'5 degreea. 

Tlie adopttd mean lemperature of the month from 
all ohMrvadons it. therefore, 54-2 deareeB Fahren- 
teit. The adopted moan of May, 1856, «a« 549 def . 

Jfciiftire.— The dew-point i> calcnlated from Neg»e«a'» 
dry and vet bulb theimDmeten. by the n» of 
Glaiiher'a Ublee. 

The idcpted mean temperature of eT«x>rMion ii 
607 degrees. ■The mean elaatic force of vappnr is 
■326 incbea. The averagfl praportional humidity of 
tbe air ii denoted by 77, perfectly dry ur being 
taken u 0, and aatarated damp air as 100. 



Clatai.—The extent of cloud is eipreeaedby the lenikt of 
the whole sky covered by it. 
Tbe fonn» of clouds are thus denoted : 

Cb. Cnmnlua. Ci.-Co, Cirro-cumnlns 

Ci. Cirrns. Ci-St. Cirnmratus. 

Bt Strstns, Cn-8t Cuamlo-stratas. 

Ni. Nimbne. I. «. rain or storm clond. 

Oioru. — Tbe mean monthly amount of oione in ; by day 

6-I>d^|Teea,by m!;ht6 5ditto. 
Windi. — The irinds may be thus summed up. 

N.W..ljW„ 3; W.S.'W,21i 8.W., 4i ; S.B.W-, 
1; B.,3}: SS.B.,4ii S.E., 5^1 E.8.E.,lii B.l, 



Jf.K.. . 

Tbe prevalence of d.E. 

DonWe Bay, near Sydney. 



IS remarkable, 
f. S, JET0N8. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



21 



LABOUB-SAViNG MACHINERY, 
syrili he readily acknowledged that the adop- 
ion of maddnery, by wMeti manual labour 
le either lessened ormademore efficacious, 
B moat desirable. In new countries, where 
aboiir is always expensive, it is especially 
uy. A trite adage informa us that 
isity ia the mother of iflTentioa," aud, 
ocordingly, we find that America is remari- 
hle for her ingenious devices of machinery 
f eveiy description. 

• We should be glad to observe that Aua- 
tialia exbibited anything like a coirea- 
jonding amount of ene^y and practical 
ialent. There is no obstaclo that we are 
je of in the obtaining a patent right for 
any invention of utility; indeed, in thia 
CoSony, the process is remarkably easy and 
inexpensive, compared with the same pro- 
less in the mother country. 

An inventor here, too, might rely on a 
Btrong feeling of nationahty, for we find 
the whole community ready to patronize a 
genuine AustraHan production. 

"We believe, that during the history of 
the Colony only one patent h«e been re- 
gistered here for an original invention. In 
an American commimty of similar num- 
bers, and harassed by similar difficulties, 
it may safely be eaid there would have been 
hundreds. 

We propose, in an early number, to take 
into conaideration the whole question of 
the Patent Law as it exists in this Colony, 
cannot be sufficiently understood, or 
there must be some obatacles with which 
I unacquainted, to account for the 



very few attempts made to reap its adran- 
tages. In England, there are hundreds of 
active minds continually on the stretch after 
novelty, and we cannot conceive that the 
same intelhgent race loses thia enquiring and 
ingenious disposition by being removed into 
another hemisphere. 

In the neighbouring Colony the subject 
has attracted attention ; and we are iid'onnod 
that recently considS^able activity has been 
displayed in Victoria in this matter. This 
might have been expected from the mnch 
larger infusion of the American spirit that is 
found in Melbourne, and to which, wo beUeve, 
she owes so much of her prosperity. 

While awaiting the development of a rac 
of Australian inventors, it is, perhaps, 8 
well that we should avail ourselves of the ' 
experience of othera; and we have great 
pleasure in introducing to our readers the 
subjoined horse-motivo power machine, which 
is of American invention. 

We first obaerved it in action at the livery 
stables of Messrs. Burt and Co. in Pitt Street, 
in thia city, w^hcre, on enquiry, we found that 
it had proved itself to be a most valuable 
invention. 

It is one of the most economical machines 
for the application of horse power with which 
we are acquainted. It resembles, as 
readers will perceive from the illustratio 
horse box, such as is used for the placing 
horses on board ship. The flooring, however," 
is composed of a series of short rails, fastened 
to an endless chain, which revolves round a 
axis, at either end of the machine, undemeaUi 
the floor. The head of the horse 1jox.iB 
placed at n s'---^"- -' — '=— ■ 



:ht elevation. 




To put this machine in motion, the horse 
ia placed in the stall or box, the floor of 
which ia at this time fixed by means uf a 
break. Having been properly secured, the 
break ia released, and the floor begins to 
revolve ; the horse is compflTcd to step for- 



mechanical regularity. It will be see 
by this means the, weight of the horst 
great moving-power, and that he has 
exercise, his power of draught at all. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



Ab we do not wish to give publicity to the 
stfttements of inventote, who generally man- 
age to exaggerate the capabilities of their 
BchemeB, we enquired of the owner of the 
machine we saw at work, what was hia 
experience of ita powers. 

We are bound to say that he was enthu- 
Biastic in its praise. With one horse working 
this machine, he can cut 10 or 12 cwt. of 
chaff per hour ; and the cutting the weakly 
Bupply of chaff, and cracking the com, for 
their large establiBhroent, varying from 60 to 
100 horses, is all done by one horse and two 
men in one day. We need not point out 
the economy of feed from this process, by 
which wbat would otherwise be rejected by 
the horse is eagerly devoured ; but we may 
temark, that Mr. Burt considers that, in 
three months use, he shall save nil the 
expenaea of the purchase and the fitting up 
the machine. 

This power is equally applicable to the 
work of the farm, and it is easily trana- 
portable. By its means a horse can chum 
the milk, thrash the com, cut the wood, 
draw the water, and, in fact, perform all 
those offices to which machinery can be 
applied. We recommend our agricultural 
friends, who are most interested in this in- 
vention, to inspect the working of this 
maobino at Messrs. Burt and Co.'s any 
Saturday morning. The cost of the machine 
is about £50. 



LIME. 



Wj need scarcely inform our readers that 
lime is a very scarce, and, in consequence, 
a very expensive article in Sydney. "We 
have long considered its scarce of supply 
one of the most important subjects for the 
investigation of the geologist. We believe 
that the price of slacked lime in this oity 
Taiies from one shilling and sixpence" to 
three shillings a bushel. In the ab- 
sence of limestone, nearly all the lime that 
IB used here ia obtained from the calcina- 
tion of shells. This does not produce lime 
of a strong, durable character, and wo 
question whether it poasesses any hydraulic 
quaUtiea. 

We do not profess any practical informa- 
tion on the matter, but we have noticed that 
much of the plaster-work in this city is 
liable to " saltpetreing," — that is, the walls 
are often covered with an efflorescence of a 
white fleecy appearance, which is entirely 
destructive of any paint that may he placed 



on them. This is, by ei 
buted to the aniraal matter preaent ii 
lime forming a nitrate of potaSHB, ai 
would appear quite natural that this ing 
ent should be found more plentifully in 
derived from sea shells, than that 
calcareous rocks. 

Some idea may be obtained of the im 
ance in regard to expense of this mat 
when we state that we have been rec 
informed by a practical builder, whi 
just finished two small brick-built h 
in Castlereagh Street, that the coat o 
lime alone was between £80 and 
We are aware that the labour of colle 
shells, and bringing them to this port 
ploys a lai^ number of men, and se 
small coasting veasels. _We believe a 
permanent, and, in fact, an inexhati 
supply might be obtained from the 
reefs that skirt the numerous islands t 
north. In fact, we cannot doubt but 
this would be a very profitable braii' 
industry. luBtead of hundreds of 
employed, with painful toil, in colle 
the scattered and precarious store of 
in the harbours of the coaat, we i 
suggest that a good sized schooner bt 
patched to one of the northern is 
within a week's sail of our harbour, ai 
the beach she might pick up heaps of 
rock, already lying quarried by the s 
of the waves, in vast profusion. We b( 
that this, when burnt, would give at lei 
valuable a lime as we possefs at preaent 
that it could be sold at a large reducti 

COBt, 

Since the above was written, we have 
informed that a very superior quali' 
hmestone has lately been discovered i 
vieinity of Sydney, and we have inap 
a specimen, which appears of the 
finest quality of carbonate of lime, 
understand that the exact locality ol 
deposit is a secret, but we know tl 
sample is in the hands of an anal; 
chemist of this city, and that he pronoi 
it to be of remarkable purity. It h( 
the appearance of a fine white marble 
pink veins. 



STUMPING. 
At the June meeting of the Agricnl 
and Horticultural Society, the folio 
paper was read by Mr. Joseph ] 
We did intend to illustrate it wit 
engraving of the moat recently invi 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AKT. 



23 



American Stumping Machine, but we have 
not been able to procure a copy of the draw- 
ing. We shall, however, keep the subject in 
view, and will gladly insert suggestions from 
practical men, formed on the results of their 
experience. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE EXTRACTION OF 
THE STUMPS OF TREES. 

I could most Biucerely wish that the task that has 
devolved upon me of offering some observations on the 
method to be adopted for extracting from the earth the 
stumps of trees, had fallen to some more experienced, 
or to some practical man. I feel it due to my auditors 
to warn them that I have no practical experience in 
this matter, and I feel it due to myself to state, that I 
had no idea till I saw it in print that I should be called 
upon to read this paper. I soon found, however, when 
my name had been announced in connection with the 
subject, in what a very important light the question of 
" stumping" was regarded in this Colony. I have had 
frequent enquiries during the last three or four weeks 
for information as to the best mode to be adopted, and 
on my own part I have been very industrious in my en- 
quiries from all those who I thought at all likely to 
impart information. I have also searched through the 
£nglish Scientific Journals for many years, to see if any 
machines had been patented there for the purpose, but 
I have not been able to find a single invention. The 
American Scientific Journals, which would be more 
likely to give me the information I sought, I have not 
yet been able to procure, but from several citizens of that 
very ingenious nation I have gleaned much information 
as to the mode adopted there. 

In ap. audience such as that I have the honour to ad- 
dress, it would be a waste of time to point out the injiny 
that is done to a very large proportion of the land of 
this Colony by the presence of these stumps. It is not 
only their unsightly appearance, though that is a griev- 
ous offence to e^es accustomed to the well kept farms of 
England ; but it is the impossibility of properly culti- 
vating the land in which they are found, from their 
interfering with the plough, the harrow, and other 
farming operations. I have been informed, that on 
many farms one acre in every five may be calculated 
as lying waste on this account. Every person with 
whom I have consulted on the matter has ac^owledged 
the great importance of the (question, and has confessed 
that the mel&ods at present m use to extract them, are 
tedious, expensive, and inefficient. The most common 
plan appears to me to be that of burning them out, which 
IS thus effected: — A trench is dug round the stump, 
exposing the thick roots, and in this, and covering the 
stump, are disposed faggots and dead branches to form a 
large body of fire. The heap is then covered with earth, 
a few vent holes being left, and the pile is fired ; it is 
left covered up until ttie whole is reduced to charcoal, 
and I am informed that not only is the stump entirely 
removed, but a very large portion of the roots are also 
destroyed at the same time. The time taken by this 
process, of course, varies with the size of tibe stump to be 
r,^moved, and the quality of the timber; some large 
ones taking a month, and smaller trunks, of more com- 
bustible trees, being removed in two weeks. It is evi- 
dent that this is an expensive and a very tedious plan, 
but I believe it is the most commonly adopted in New 
South Wales. I have also been informed that some 
bushmen use gunpowder to blast the stumps out of the 
eartii. The mode adopted is as follows : — About a foot 
above the surface of uie earth a hole is bored with an 
auger, an inch in diameter or larger, extending three or 
four feet into the heart of the tree, in a downward di- 
rection. In this a heavy charge of blasting powder is 
inserted. The orifice being properly tamped, and fired 
either with patent fuze or by means of a train, the tree 
is generally riven and split, but is rarely extracted 



from the earth. It frequently happens, however, that, 
from the rotten or hollow hearts of many varieties of 
the trees of Australia, this mode of operation fails of its 
effect, and the charge is wasted on the yielding material 
in the interior. In most cases the only awivantage 
gained is, that the trunk is more manageable, as it 
may be removed by the axe and the pick in shattered 
fragments. I can, however, hear of very few instances 
in which the trunk and roots have been extracted en- 
tirely from the earth by the blast, and they are only 
when the charge of powder was very largo. This mode 
is open to several objections ; first, its expense ; next, 
the limited benefit derived; and, lastly, the danger 
attending it, for however carefully blasting is managed, 
accidents do frequently happen. A third plan is 
adopted now in the falling of trees, which appears to 
me to have a great deal of practical value in it. It is 
to loosen the earth and the roots all round the base to a 
considerable distance, and then to use the trunk of the 
tree as a long lever, by affixing ropes to its upper 
branches, and thus extracting the tree, roots and all. I 
think this plan may be generally recommended in place 
of cutting the tree down, and leaving the stump standing, 
as in that case two operations have to be gone through, 
and the bushman is deprived of a very great assistant 
by losing the leverage of the trunk in the extraction of 
the stump. The American plans that I have had de- 
scribed to me, consist • generally of various systems of 
levers of great size and power. In some cases, one end 
of along lever is fixed horizontally, by means of chains, 
to a stump, and a yoke of bullocks is attached to the 
other end and driven in a circular direction, like a horse 
in a miU. In this case, where the soil is yielding and 
alluvial, the stump is fairly twisted out of the earth. 
Another plan is to insert the short end of a very large 
and powerful lever, sometimes 80 and 40 feet in length, 
under the stump, as far as possible, the long end pro- 
jecting into the air, at an angle of 45 degrees ; to this 
ropes are attached and pass^ through double pullies 
affixed to the base of a neighbouring tree ; oxen are 
then put to the ropes, and tf the tackle hold the tree 
must be torn out by the roots. But the general plan 
in Canada, I am informed, is to bum out the stumps, 
and this operation the softness of the Canadian timber 
renders very facile. I myself have had some experi- 
ence in England, in one of the Royal Parks, where a 
number of large elms and oaks were cut down. In ex- 
tracting the stumps I gave the blasting system a fair 
trial, but on the elms, J am. bound to say, it did not 
succeed, as that timber is of an exceedingly tough and 
fibrous character, and I also think the stumps were too 
green when the experiments were tried. The plan I 
ultimately adopted there would be quite inapplicable 
here. I gave two woodmen in tha adjoining village 
permission to extract the stumps for the firewood that 
was in them. This they were willing to do when they 
had no regular work in hand, but it was evidently not 
a task that they at all relished, or that they could earn 
anything even l^e English wages at. In America it 
is a common practice when a tree is cut down to strew 
the freshly cut surface with salt. This keeps it con- 
stantly wet — ^it soaks into the fibres and soon rots them 
away, especially with the soft wood that predominates 
there. A similar plan is adopted in some parts of the 
bush here, I am told, but it is only to cut a small 
hollow in the top of the stump, with a hatchet, when- 
ever a tree is feUed. In this, of course, the rain 
water collects and decay is facilitated. Leading 
from this, an ingenious friend suggests, whether 
some chemical compound could not be discovered 
which should have the power of accelerating the 
decay of timber with extreme rapidity. I must say 
thskt I cannot think of any compound that would be 
likely to answer the purpose, and if one oould be 
found it would probably be too expensive for com- 
mon application. With regard to tiie obvious mode 
of digging out the stumps and cutting the main roots 
with an axe, I assume that this is too expensive a 
method to be adopted on any large scale, at the pre- 



24 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



sent rate of wages in the Colony ; and in fact, as far 
as I can. learn, it is very seldom adopted. Having 
gone through the various methods witii which I am 
acquainted, as being in use in this Colony, I am not 
at all surprised that so much interest is felt in the 
subject, for every one of them appears to me to 
involve great trouble and expense. I have thought 
much on the matter, and beg to suggest a method 
which I think superior to any that I have yet heard 
of being adopted. I propose to extract stumps of 
trees by means of the hydraulic press. I am weU 
aware that this will damp the expectations of many 
residents in the interior, who are in hope of hearing 
of some magic method applicable to their own cir- 
cumstances, and available by their own resources. I 
am sorry I cannot devise a cheap and easy method 
of makmg every farmer his own stump extractor. 
My idea is, that this is work that should be under- 
taken by men who will make it their regular busi- 
ness, and will travel about the country witii their 
machinery, and take contracts from the settlers for 
stumping theii* farms at so much per stump, extract- 
ing each one fairly from the ground by the roots, 
and leaving the farmer to bum them or remove them 
from the land he wishes to cultivate. I need not, I 
am sure, enter into a long explanation with my pre- 
sent audience, as to the enormous power that is 
possessed by Bramah's Hydraulic Press. It is a fa- 
miliar machine in this Colony, having been used to 
compress bales of wool into a very small compass. 
It may be seen in operation very frequently at the 
A. S. N. Co.'s work at Pyrmont, where by means of 
the Hydraulic Press four men are enabled to lift the 
entire huUs of the Steam Ships belonging to that 
Company, when they are placed upon the Patent 
SUp. In fact, by this agency, the force of four men 
is sufficient to Itft 800 tons. I have made some en- 
quiries as to the cost, weight, and portability of a 
press, capable of lifting the largest description of 
stump out of the earth, or, in fact, of exerting a force 
of 100 tons. I think that the whole machinery need 
not weigh more than 25 cwt., and that it would not 
cost more than £120. My plan would be — for two 
men to join in partnership, as stumpers, and to fur- 
nish themselves with a strong covered cart, on four 
wheels, which should carry the machinery of the 
press and form their lodging too when in the bush at 
work. That j6lxcd in the cart should be the pump 
by which the water is forced into the cylinder, and 
that the ram should be portable and detached, having 
a broad bearing to prevent it sinking into the earth. 
An eight inch cylinder would be quite sufficient, and 
a piston with a rise of eighteen inches or two feet. 
They should also possess a long lever of from 15 to 
20 feet in length, sufficiently strong to bear a weight 
of 50 to 80 tons when suspended on bearings 10 feet 
apart. The wood of this country is so very tenacious 
and tough that a lever of this strength need not be 
of any very great thickness. Some experiments 
were made only on Saturday last, from which it ap- 
peared that a piece of black butt timber, 8 inches by 
2^ inches, was capable of sustaining the enormous 
weight of 6 tons, when supported on bearings with 
10 feet interval. The plan I propose with machinery 
of this kind would be to place the lever on the stump, 
to which it should be attached by powerful chains, 
passed round four iron pins placed in the sides of 
the stump in four auger holes, drilled diagonally 
upwards, so that the strain of the chain should come 
equally on the chain and on the stump. The short 
end of the lever being placed upon a solid support, 
about equal height with the stump to be extracted; 
the head of the ram should be placed imder the long 
end of the lever. As soon as the pump was put in 
motion the ram would rise with irresistible force, 
and would bring the stump up out of the earth with 
all the main roots attached, and, no doubt, with a 
gieat deal of the circumjacent earth. The strain 
would be BO steady and gradual that I have great 



hopes that the larger roots would not be broken, a 
that even the mighty tap root would be forced fit 
its deep recesses. If one elevation of the ram c 
not suffice, the lever could be supported by a pr« 
while the ram was raised to a greater elevation, a 
the process repeated till the stump was fairly tak 
out. The whole operation need not occupy o 
quarter of an hour ; and I think there are very f< 
stumps that would not yield to the first applicati 
of this enormous power. The advantages of tl 
plan are — first, the speed with which it would 
done ; second, the absence of danger ; third, i 
very small expense at which two men could und 
take to clear away a large number of stumps; ai 
fouithly, the efiectual way in which the troublesoi 
roots which lie along the surface may be extract 
I should be glad to hear the plan discussed, for I i 
bound to say that it is entirely theoretical, for I ha 
never heard of stumps being extracted in this mf 
ner. Should my plan be deemed a practical one, 
think it would be a very lucrative business for fr 
working men to engage in. I know there is a grt 
demand for the work to be done, and there are t 
quently advertisements in the public papers for cc 
tractors willing to undertake the stumping of estat 
I am happy to be able to state that aU the necessa 
machinery could be made in the Colony, quite as wc 
and, I believe, nearly, if not quite as cheaply, as if 1 
ported, for we now possess in tlus city mechanists a 
ironfounders that many English cities would be pro 
of having. 

I have thus don^ my best to furnish a remedy i 
a very great public want, and I only regret that it 
not one that is capable of more common applicatic 
At all events, if this paper does no other good, it m 
direct public attention to the subject, and fiom t 
discussion that may follow some more valuable sugg< 
tions may be made by persons of practical experien* 
which shall facilitate the progress of agriculture, a 
thus advance the most important interest in the co] 
munity. 

I will conclude with a hint to the ornamental gi 
deners, as to a use to which these stumps may 
put when they are extracted. It is a common pn 
tice in English gardens to see one of them plac 
upon a lawn upside down, upon its cut end, and t 
interstices between the roots filled up with boan 
It thus, if the root is of a nice round shape, fon 
an immense flower basket of a very handsome gi 
tesque form. A great quantity of garden mow 
is then spread over the roots, and the whole 
planted with flowering plants. By this means a bea 
tiful bed of flowers, sometimes 15 or 20 feet in di 
meter, is supported in the air, by means of the nu 
sive cut trunk, some three feet above the surface of t 
lawn. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

AUSTKALIAN HOKTICULTUKAL AN 
AGKICULTUKAL SOCIETY. 
Sixth Monthly Meeting, 
July 7th, 1857. 
Held in the Eoyal Hotel. — His Excel- 
lency the Governor-Greneral, President, i 

the Chair. 

Members of Council present — Messrs. ] 
MitcheU, T. W. Shepherd, E. K. SHvester, I 
Guilfoyle, P. L. C Shepherd, Wm. McDonel 
0. Ottley, W. S. Wall, G. A. Bell, J. G. M< 
Kean, F.Creswick, J.W.Waugh,D. Mclnni 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 






Dr. Houston, Messrs. Deane, Webb, and about 
sixty members and tbeir friends. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read 
and confirmed. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd read a paper in ex- 
planation of some remarks which appeared 
in one of the daily journals, respecting a 
paper read before this Society at one of its 
previous meetings, on Native Plants, and the 
Pastoral, Agricultural, and Horticultural Ee- 
sources of Australia. 

The President remarked that several runs 
in the Colony were unable to support the 
minimum number of cattle for want of water, 
which might be obtained by means of wells, 
dams, &c. 

The Hon. Mr. Fitzgerald wished to know 
if the writer of the paper considered the graz- 
ing capabilities of the runs inadequate to the 
number of cattle now on them. 

Mr. Silvester thought the last speaker 
was not aware of the circumstances which 
called forth the paper; but he would ex- 
plain, that it w£is in reply to some obser- 
vations which had been made in a previous 
paper of Mr. Shepherd's. He would further 
remark,- that if wool was not so profitable 
to the grower as tallow, no doubt it would 
be advisable that the latter article should 
receive more attention from the station- 
holder, and, if here and there, there were 
portions of land which were more suitable 
for growing wheat, let these portions, if re- 
quired in the district, be devoted to the 
growth of wheat ; it was never for an in- 
stant contemplated to make this a wheat- 
growing' country, as the last speaker seem- 
ed to think, but, at the same time, it 
would be an economizing of labour to de- 
vote our attention to those things which 
are imported into the Colony at the greatest 
expense. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd, as the writer al- 
luded to by Mr. Fitzgerald, explained the 
nature of the former paper, remicking, thdt 
he believed agriculturists must turn their at- 
tention to the improvement of the pasturage 
of the Colony, if it were wished to grow stock 
sufficient to supply the increasing demands 
of the Colony. 

The Secretary read a paper from Mr. Ro- 
bert Meston, of New England, on the advan- 
tages of changing seeds, which was listened 
to attentively by the members. 

Mr. J. B. Blake read a paper on Austra- 
lian Wines, No. 2. 

In answer to a question from the Pre- 
sident, respecting the cost of maintaining 



a vineyard, Mr. Blake stated that he con- 
sidered £20 per acre would be ample for this 
purpose. 

The President remarked that the bitter 
taste of our wines might arise from the de- 
composition of the leaves of the Eucalyptus. 
Mr. T. W. Shepherd considered the bit- 
ter taste to be disappearing, and thought 
that it might have been caused by crushing 
the seeds. 

Mr. Silvester was of opinion that the cli- 
mate affected the flavour of the wines. 

Mr. Blake said that the bitter taste was 
liked on the Rhine, and that many of the 
Rhenish wines possessed that flavour. 

It was proposed by Mr. E. K. Silvester, 
and seconded by Mr H. R. Webb, " That a 
vote of thanks be presented to the writers of 
the several papers which had been read this 
evening." 

This resolution, on being put to the 
meeting by the President, was carried by 
acclamation. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd thanked the meet- 
ing, as one of the writers of the papers al- 
luded to, and urged upon the members the 
desirability of their coming forward and 
affording the Society the benefit of their in- 
formation. 

A very excellent representation, in wax, 
of Poinsettia Pulcherima was exhibited by 
Mrs. Reading. 

No ballot being demanded, the following 
gentlemen became members of the Society : — 
The Hon. J. Macarthur, Camden-Park. 
Alexander Leaver, Esq. 
Richard Harris, Esq.^ Oakfield. 
J. L. Scarvell, Esq., Clare House. 
R. C. Lethbridge, Esq., Penrith. 
A. Windy er, Esq., Kinross. 
John Windyer, Esq., do. 
James McCarthy, Esq., Crane Brook. 
Charles Throsby Smith, Esq., Wol- 

longong. 
Mr. G. De Lange, Lane Cove. 
Mr. Ridley, Rushcutters Bay. 
Rev. Dr. James FuUerton. 
The following notices of papers were given 
for next month : — 

Mr. Theodore West. — ^Analysis of the Soil 
of the Hunter. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd. — Native Plants, and 
the Pastoral, Agricultural, and Horticultural 
Resources of Australia (No. 6.) 

Mr. J. E. Blake. — On Australian Wines 
(No. 3.) 

The next Monthly Meeting will be 
on Tuesday, August 4. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AET. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOEICrLTUKAI. 
AND HOKTICULTUBAL BOCIETV OF NEW 
SOUTH WALES. 



The fullowius pipi 









is Socii 



ta ptsvioBB meiilirigB, on Netii-o Plmte, and the Pi»- 
torvi. A^caltnral, nud Horticoltuio] Kgsoutcgs of Aus- 
tralia. By Mt. T. W. Shepherd. 

I regret that, through unavuldHMe circuniRtiuiciK. 
I have heen imable to prepare the paper which 1 
promiaed for this meeting. But woiUd beg jour iit- 
tontinn fnr n few oiinutea. I deiiiro to lake joa bscli 
to a previDUfl paper (number 4 of tho Heriea). in 
order to set roysulf right in llie poaitiou I Uien 
tuuk. reapoctjng the power of Austmliu tu aupply 
htraolf with animal food. This poeitioii was, tliat 
Ihe noturui pnetures of the counliy already pro- 
duced, under average circiuntitBiicefi. the maximum 
^pianti^ of beef and mutton that they were capable 
of, and tliat unless some means were devised, and 
empluyed to render theae postures more pruductive 
Hud more permanent, we would at no dialant day 
have to import theae eommoditiee, or to produce tliein 
by harhig reconrae to artificial feeding, by meana 
of the cultivalioQ of the soil. Thia deaire haa been 
induced, because a writer In the didly press has ns- 
Boiled theao cancluBions, which my enquiries and 
esperience iiod compelled me to arrive at. The wri- 
ter alluded to altogether deniea that this maximum 
has been reached, on the following giounda : — That 
TepOTt of tallow ahowa that a considerabl-e 
— ' -'■ -heep and cattle are atill aont to the 
. , and that becamie the general public 
t and do not believe in sucli a pOHsibili^, 
Bxiat, because he and the pub- 
lic are, ond must lia always right in tlieir conolu- 
eione. To remove the firat ground of objection, it 
' is only necesaary lo show, tbat the whole export 
of tallow from the coaiitry has. in the face of moat 

figure. I need not enter upon atatistica to prov-e 
tMs, hecauae, I believe, no one will deny it, 
and it may be therefore assumed ea taken for 
granted, — and further, it might be shown that out 
import of tallow in the shape of aoap, condlea. eil, 
Ac, ia Bomewhere about equal in quantity to out 
export of tte raw material, Ihua proving, that not 
only has our present aupply of beef and mutton from 
our natural pastures reached ttat efage where it is 
about equal to our Iiome conaumption. but that tal- 



amouat o 



It therefore 



veiy 



hundred caaks of tallow 
the produce 
country for h 



la^^ 



irted, r 






ed to save their Uvi 
mote and out of th( 
kets for live stock i 



" kill- 



er of iiTn'w>H.l^ reared in 
ly placea, from which mar- 
lifRcnlt of access. Besides 
this, wo do, even now, import a very couBiderablc 
quantity of animal food, iu tlie ahape of salted be^ 
and pork, including Imeon hams, not ti> nay any- 
thing of meats preserved freah. It wHl, of coorae, 
he understood, fiat oil thaao remarks are intended 
to a^!>ly to Australia as a whole, and net to any 
particular colony, or pert of it. Having now shown 
that the writer's first ground of objection was 
founded on a fallacy, it appears to me. that his 
■econd is BO self-evidentlv veok, that little need 
be aaid in order to demoUdi it. In Iho first place, 
there is no proof that the public, as a body, have Hxe 
opinion stated, and if it had it could not afTect the 
question, hecauae the public t-eneially have had no 
opportunity of judging ; and it ia very evident that 






luivaDtage. Under tlieao 

J- -i_-^ *».-- — y opinion or belief formed 



is dear, that ai 



tained by these parties on this sulyect can hrn 
weight whatever. 

The only reason I hod for putting Eorwan 
conclusionB apoken of. which 1 have arrive 
nfter carefU consideratioa, and ample oppoitu 
for forming a mrreet opinion, was to luoke 
apparent the necessity t^ch existed fta* enei 
aetioa being at once taken, in order to improvi 
increase the capabilitica of our natural pai 

to me that Auatnlia was. or would be. phys 
unable to produce either animal or vegetabde 
ill snfflcieiit quantities for the aupport of her 
people, even if these amounted to a hundred 

over again put forti the very opposite opinion, 
-_ J before the members of tbis So 






rtill I 



._ my fulIow-Austniliana of the __, 

with which their circumstances call upon the 
be up and doing, not, like our friend of the 
press, persuade them to keep their minda 
and tmat all to Providence. 1 would have onr 
oil put shnuldera to the wheel, as in fable w. 
lold HerculoB advised the iiaggoner. and tlien, 
haui, Ptovidouce may smile upon us and le 
helping hand. So far tlaa beiug an alanuii 
our savant of the " dolly" would appear to 
nuate, I hove never yet pointed out a defact i 
country, without either showing that the very t 
might prove an advantage, or suggesting lie i 
by which it miBht be remedied. It is a pity 
public writers will profess to teorh that whidi 
themselves are ignorant of. ^' If the blind 
the blind, both shall fall into a ditch ;'■ and i 
should always remember the sdviee of Apelles i 



iples. Iu all places where plants 
— us, and where seeds have been introd 
tnero is generally a tendency of dogenemtion, 1 
great care alone can prevent. . When wheat, for insf 
Is anwn year after year in the samo soil, witliout 
attention to the proceaa of dreaaing, far less of selei 
such degeBeracy descends nearly to the minimu 
grass seeds, rather than enlarges to the nuuimun 
of phimp grains, full of gluten and atorcliy Bubslar 
In Aus&olia lees regard may be paid to the Bi 
of eojlineaa thau, perhaps, is necessary in Br 
Australia is the htnd of the sun. and it ought thei 
to constitute a part of our agricultural systeci, tbi 
should obtain and assiduously cultivate those var 
of wheat porticiilarly— being the 






at adapted to the 



Haimer dimote to a colder soiJ. grow quicker thai 
crops i«^ted]y raised on the some field from like 
and the mverae rule will hove an effect of toakini 
harvest latej'. Nay, wheat carried from a poor aoi 
richer may. so far, improve, but seeds conveyed fr 
poor soil tfl a poorer will seldom poy the tn 
Wiieat also raised from old seeds arrives at ami 
several days sooner tban if tJie crop hod been g 
ftum aceda six months reaped, and then aown. 

Lord Kaimes found that the produce from a judi 
change exceeded the return from year-old see 
twenty-six per cent. 

By advocating changes of seed it ia net. how 
recommended that a former shimld reject hi« 
in hand, if It gave him reasonable aotiafaction i 
more tlian a grader ought to pnt away a good 1 
of aheep, cattle, or horaes, and run the risk o 
taining a wotse ; for the cereals, in this rpupeet, 
a closer onalogy to the animal ecfmomj- llian i 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AKT. 



27 



people imagine. If nine-tenths of the wheat growers 
were asked, " What kind of wheat do you sow?" what 
kind of replies would they make? 

In the vast nu^ority of samples commonly used 
may be found mixtures of white and red, and 
crosses, re-crossed beyond mortal discrimination. 
One great disadvantage of such a medley will be 
found in the unequal ripening of crops, and another 
in the unequal sizes of me grains and low quality cMf 
the flour. Whether the royal swan white is the best 
adapted for Austral latitudes is a matter of doubtful 
opinion. It certainly yields well in good soils and mild 
<3jimates, affords good flour with little bran, and also 
plenty of straw; but, like aU naked wheats — ^whether 
reds, talavera, or any others — ^it 4s very subject to 
attacks of the wheat fly, Cecidonya tritidy already 
imported, and of the weevil^ eurenlio granariua. They 
are also more subject than some oilers to bli^t or (and) 
mildew, for it is difficult to make a clear distinction. 

The Egyptian wheat, T. Composibwm or Com of 
Abundance, finds favour with a few farmers. It is 
g'eneraUy sown in Italy and North Africa. The ear is 
bearded, and the rachis branches into three heads. This 
wheat is weU adapted for arid lands, for it bears 
droughts surprisingly. The flour, however, seldom 
ranks Al. Next, me T. 8peUa or Roman trititmm, is 
^neraUy sown in the soum of Europe, and is said to 
Rrow wild in Sicily. The awned kind is best suited for 
Australia, bearing large grains, although not numerous, 
but its straw stalks are almost solid. 

The last variety seems worthy of extended culture in 
the Colony, and perhaps some public spirited gentleman 
will obtain a few bushels of clean seeds from Sicily, or 
elsewhere, just for triaL 

But while we read, write, or talk of wheats per- 
taining to other countries, why should not Aus- 
tralia possess a variety of its own, to be yet re- 
nowned in story, and also crack breeds of horses, 
sheep, and cattle, as well as men and women, "be- 
yond all Roman fame?" Far from impracticable, 
and not at all impossible. Let us at present attend 
to the wheat. Any person who has open eyes can 
discover, in a ripening wheat field, some etaXka much 
taller than others, some ears much larger, grains 
plumper, skin thinner, &c. Mark these; cut them 
down and class by themselves. Having selected the 
grains of two-thirds the upper portion of ears for seed, 
dibble these in the season into good clean ground, 
three inches apart, lon^tudinally, and six inches 
laterally. They will sprmg up vigorously and tiller, 
numerously. In a dewy morning, detach the tillers 
and plant them out. By this plan a few grains may 
be multiplied in a single season into thousands; and 
tiie beauty consists in that the tillered stalks will 
produce better grains than the parent stocks. 
Herein lies the great improving advantage; but 
stop transplanting in time to aUow the whole sets 
sufficient sun and air for maturing their ears in 
season. Next year the grains may be sown thus, 
broadcast, or dibbled again. The dnll system econo- 
mizes seed one-half, yet yields full return per acre. 
In this manner the writer and a very industrious 
neighbour are proceeding at present with a few grains 
of wheat they consider a new variety, if successful, 
the Society may receive a sample and report some 
otiier day or aight, by way of illustration. — Mr. 
MiUar raised 500 plants from one grain in a single 
season, and 576,840 grains as the total produce — ^a very 
fair beginning, certainly, in one year. Some careful 
folks employ part of their spare time in culling with 
the hand idl plump grains from a given quantity. 
It is an excellent plan, and was piactised long 
ago. 

. Unless the peasant with his annual pain 
Renews his choice and culls the largest grain — 
Degenerare tamen. " Vir." 

• The natural climes of wheat lie between the latitudes 



of 30 and 60, elevation excepted, as Humboldt found 
wheat growing within the tropics at an elevation of 
10,000 feet. In this range we may imagine a prodigious 
variety of soils, and, no doubt, varieties of wheat may be 
found easily and usefully adapted by man to local 
circumstances and climatology, if he industriously 
applied himself to the profitable undertaking in a 
rational manner. 

The intrinsic value of wheat greatly depends on the 
hi^h proportion of its gluten ; and warm climates produce 
this gluten in greater abundance than colder countries. 
Australia, therefore, ought to grow wheat averaging 64 
pounds per bushel, hj good management. Societies and 
associations give mighty impulses to industry in all its 
ramifications. 

Mr Collie, at the lUawarra Agricultural and 
Horticultural Exhibition, 1857, brought forward 
wheat weighing 78 pounds per bushel. Doubtless 
it was dried and dressed like Dantzic wheat of 16 
years seasoning, still the fact showed what could 
be done at Illawarra; and if at lUawarra, why not 
on the Hunter, Macleay, and Macquarie, or elsewhere ? 
A proper change of seed means not the crossing 
of a creek or dividing ridge to purchase his wheat 
from a neighbour at a couple of shillings more money 
than a man can obtain for his own, as both have 
probably been grown year after year (annis quot 
annis) on similar soils, and both nearly equally 
reduced. 

But a change proper, means seed from a lime- 
stone to a clay, or inversely, from a light sand to a 
heavy loam — irGm Illawarra to New England — 
from Tasmania to the Bathurst Plains — ^from the 
Zenith to the Nadir, or opposite points. Any 
farmer of common, no, but with a little uncommon 
diligence — ^no great feat, — ^might as easily raise the 
actual worth of his wheat Is. per bushel above his 
neighbour, as a flockowner, by judicious manage- 
ment, could obtain 6d. per pound more than others for 
his wool, and the owners and the country are both 
benefited. 

It is the nutritive qualities contained in food which 
really constitute the intrinsic value. 

With almost a virgin soil, a fine climate, and im- 
proved machinery, wnat do we want except a little 
more skiU, and a considerably larger share of in- 
dustry, to be independent of the world for the stafi" of 
life. 

Adverse seasons will revisit us, but say, what country 
is not subjected to like dispensations ? 

Without hesitation it is asserted, that in by far a 
majority of cases, the wheats in common use are worn 
out, or else ill adapted for the soUs and climates of 
Australia. 

The rule is equally applicable in various other 
instances. 'Tis the adaptation of stock or vegetation 
to the geographical position of a country or colony 
which constitutes one powerful auxiliary to insure 
success. The prime mover ought to be utility. The 
man who increases the stores of his country is one of 
its benefactors, and he who adds new productions is 
well entitled to public gratitude. The agriculturist or 
horticulturist who takes pains to mark the progress of 
their crops or plants, who select the best ears of com, 
the best roots, shoots, bulbous grasses, &c., of the most 
utflitarian kinds, and persevere in this plan, will not 
only take the sure course to enrich himself, but will 
peiform important services to the Colony. The field 
is extensive, the paths of scientific research almost 
untrodden. The harvest is great, but the labourers are 
few. 

But although wheat is thus chosen as a pertinent 
example, we find many other cereals, gramina, tim- 
bers, &c., all in want of renovation. Many of the 
old bush woods refuse to grow any longer in the 
soil of their family predecessors. Changes natur- 
ally ensue of forest vegetation, but seldom noticed. 
In America, oaks succeed pines, cherry trees oakf», 
and so on, altemando et invertcncJo. The transmu- 



28 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



tations of the Australian bush are as yet little noted, 
for our history is scarcely begun. Yet the extinction 
of many species of Australian grasses cannot pass 
unnoticed. These have not worn out, but they have 
been eaten out. Race after race have disappeared, and 
in their stead poisonous solanums, crowfoots, aconites, 
dropworts, burrs, thistles, and an hundred other 
traahy seeds, infest the soil. And man wonders, when 
disease attacks his horse or his ox or his cow on the 
field, what can be the cause. It is a truth, certain 
as far as humanity can discover truth, that disease 
and death must in general be referred direcUy to the 
kind of food partaken by man or his subordinate 
beast. The Colony undergoes transition with a 
vengeance, and men mind it not until the evil comes 
rap to their own doors; and then, how they bawl, 
Grovemment, of course, getting all the blame. The 
changes of grass seeds, suitable for this climate, form 
a very important subject for the Australian Associa- 
tion to have investigated; and the means to get 
them disseminated when the matter is determined, 
and the seeds obtained, is another problem fully as 
difficult for solution. Mr. T. W. Shepherd already 
draws attention to this subject — ^a subject, indeed, of 
deep colonial interest. 

Few seeds of the native grasses are manageable. ' I 
am, however, collecting specimens, which will be laid by 
and by on the table of your most excellent Society. 

ROBT. MESTON. 



COLONIAL CASKS FOR COLONIAL 

WINE. 

We have great pleasure in reprinting the 
following valuable paper, which originally 
appeared in the Empire newspaper. If 
ever this country is to become a large wine 
producing district, it must be acknowledged 
that the manufacture of the casks in which 
the wine is to be stored will assume a very 
important aspect. We have made some 
enquiries of practical men in this city, and 
from them we learn that hitherto very little 
success has attended their efforts to make 
casks out of colonial timber. It is stated, 
that there is a quality in the wood which 
imparts a distinct flavour, and even a power- 
ful colour, to any liquid that is stored in it. 
Some time since, when horses were exported 
hence to India, the water which was sent 
out in the colonial casks was almost undrink- 
able. A considerable quantity of tallow 
casks are now made of colonial wood called 
pear tree, and they are found to answer very 
wefl. But for such a very delicate liquid as 
wine, we have yet to discover a suitable 
colonial timber for the manufacture of the 
casks. It will be found, however, that the 
elaborate table and formulae, presented 
by our correspondent, have an intrinsic 
value, considered apart from the special" 
material of which these vessels may be com- 
posed, and we accordingly present it to our 
readers. We should be glad to hear that 
further experiments tad been made on our 
native timbers, with a view to discover a 



suitable wood for this important branch of 
industry. 

The high character sustained at the Paris ExhibitiGii 
by the wines of New South Wales, naturally enggestB 
regret that greater attention had not been paid to this 
staple product of the Colony, all alon^ from its-first 
settlement. The vast importance of wine, as a stajde 
export of the Colony, has never yet gained sufficient 
consideration in influential quarters. The consequence 
is, that its production, all along, has been extremely 
limited — ^the profitless occupation of a few amateuiB. 
Nor can it be expected to be otherwise, till the state of 
demand in the market be such that the merchant has 
it in his power to hand over readily to the winist ade- 
quate remuneration in the purchase of his yearly* 
vintage. The Hunter River Vineyard Association had 
been eminently instrumental in promoting.the extensicm 
of vine culture in the Colony, when the derangement 
in the labour market, consequent on the gold discoveries, 
checked this extension, and even threw much vineyard 
ground out of •cultivation. But after the ^clat attadied 
to the exhibition of our wines at Paris, a reaction may 
be reckoned on. Besides, there has been an extensive 
failure of the wine crops of Europe ; and not only so, 
but a failure also of the vines themselves. Disease, it 
seems, has been extensively busy in crippling seriouidy, 
if not in destroying entirely, vineyards of long standing 
and high name, so that the European^ merchant is 
driven to seek the replenishment of his stock from 
other quarters. What, then, more opportune than the 
announcement conveyed in the decision of the " Experts" 
of Paris in relation to our colonial wine—" that to the 
European merchant New South Wales is the Land of 
Promise?" 

No doubt, as a consequence, much disappointment 
will be felt, inasmuch as the entire wine produce of the 
Colony is a mere bagatelle. In order to meet the de- 
mand of the world for wine as a marketable commodity^ 
the paltry amount of land at present under vine culti- 
vation in this Colony would require to be multiplied ten 
thousand times, and years, meanwhile, must elapse 
before we can bring to market anything like a disposable 
supply that shall be at all worth taking into account 
Nevertheless, in spite of all the drawbacks that have 
hitherto been, and still are, opposed to the extension of • 
vine growth in this Colony, slender hesitation needs be 
felt in predicting that wine must, ere long, becomes 
staple production of primary importance. 

In anticipation of this state of things, it does not se^n 
unimportant to suggest the propriety of meanwhile 
endeavouring to get all colonial wine casks constructed 
on some scale of admeasurement that shaU be far less 
objectionable than that odd medley of capacities whidi, 
in the wine trade, is now imported from Europe. The 
ankers, half-ankers, quarter-casks, firkins, barrel, hogsheadtt 
puncheons, pipes, buUs, and tuns, thence imported— 
varying most awkwardly and incommensurably, as they 
do in their contents, are, moreover, found experimentally 
to be mere approximations to the measures intended to 
be indicated by their heterogeneous names. Besides, 
even if they were accurate measmes, in imperial 
gallons, of the contents designated by the names of the 
above specified casks, these measures themselves are 
extremely inconvenient. Destined, therefore, as we 
evidently are, as colonists, to be in Ihe course of time 
large exporters of wine, it would constitute one mode of 
stamping distinction on our exports, were we agreed to 
export only in casks constructed on a scale of ad- 
measurement originating with ourselves; which should, 
at the same time, excel in convenience the range dt 
admeasurement at present in use. Besides the greater 
convenience that would thus be introduced into our' 
mercantile transactions in the wine trade, the peculiarity 
of our measurements would be associated vrith . the 
peculiar character of our wines. New South Wales 
casks would furnish a recognisable token of the presence 
of New South Wales tcines. ^ 

Thus thinking, I have Tdhtured to solicit attention* 



■■-.A 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AET. 



29 



on the part of wine merchants and wine coopers, to the 
following details in aid of the right construction cf cae^, 
having tibeir contents ranging according to a decimal 
scale of admeasurement, because the general adoption 
by the wine trade of casks so constructed would greatiy 
promote the convenience, and otherwise advance the 
mterests of the colonial winist. 
In the annexed sectional diagram of a cask, let 

A be the centre of bung-hole, 
AE, or df, the diagonal, 
CD, or If the length, 
AB, or hj the bung-diameter. 



r* 




GE, or hj the head-diameter, 

AF J(6-(-^)=S i,e. half the sum of bimg and head 

• diameters^ 
and AFr=4^half the length. 

Let, moreover, the letter g represent the contents of 
a cask in imperial gallons ; tiLen, premising that a cae& 
containing 144 imperial gallons hais been found to have 
a diagonal of 40 mches, and that the contents of casks 
vary as tiie cubes of their diagonals, the following for- 
mulsB, with the aid of the above symbols, are easOy 
deducible, viz. : — 

Log. g=3 log. d— (2.647818) J=log. (22-f-«2)— 

(3.550908) 
Log. d==l'3 log. sr-|-0.882606=J log. (l2-|-«2)— 

(0.301030) 



Log. I = J 



log. (2i-|-s)-f-log. (2d-«) 



Log.«=J Hog. (2<f-fi)-|-log. (2d-4) 

Where it is evident that d being constant, { and s 
may vary, and th9,t c2, 2, and 8 being constant, h and h 
may vary. Hence d and I being constant, the shape of 
the cask will depend on the ratio between the Bung and 
Head Diameters. 

From these formukd, I have calculated the following 
Table of Admeasurement for casks of given capacities, 
and of three different shapes, which wlB be foimd, by 
the working cooper, of easy application to the construc- 
tion of casks such as the preceding observations are in- 
tended to recommend. 

HENRY CARMICHAEL. 



Table eiving the admeasurement of three descriptions of Casks, having Capacities from 1 to 1000 Imperial 
. Gallons, when the ratio of the length of the Cask to the Sum of the Head and Bung Diameters is that of 
three to four ; or 2; «; : 3 : 4. 



Contents in 
Imperial 
Gallons 


Dia^nal(d) 
in mches. 




Head Diameter, in inches (^) 


Bimg Diameter (&) in inches. 1 


Length (2) 




When 


When 




When 


When 1 


3 


in inches. 
U=%d. 


When6=d! 


ft : 6 : : 7 : 9 
h^^jid. 


*:6::3:4 


When6=f?. 


fc:6::7:9A:6::3:4! 


d=^A00Og 


1 


. 7.6315 


9.1578 


4.578 


5.3420 


5.233 


7.6315 


6.8684 


6.977 


2 


9.615 


11.520 


5.760 


6.730 


6.583 


9.615 


8.654 


8.777 


3 


11.006 


13.207 


6.603 


7.704 


7.547 


11.006 


9.906 


10.062 


4 


12.111 


14.533 


7.266 


8.477 


8.304 


12.111 


10.900 


11.071 


5 


13.049 


15.659 


7.829 


9.134 


8.350 


13.049 


11.745 


11.933 


10 


16.441 


19.728 


9.864 


lliM)8 


11.273 


16.441 


14.797 


15.031 


15 


18.820 


22.584 


11.292 


13.174 


12.905 


18.820 


16.938 


17.207 


20 


20.715 


24.858 


12.429 


14.500 


14.204 


20.715 


18.644 


18.939 


25 


22.314 


26.776 


13.388 


15.619 


15.301 


22.314 


20.083 


20.401 


30 


23.712 


28.454 


14.227 


16.598 


16.259 


23.712 


21.341 


21.679 


40 


26.100 


31.320 


15.660 


18.270 


17.897 


26.100 


23.490 


23.862 


60 


28.114 


33.736 


16.868 


19.679 


19.278 


28.114 


25.303 


25.704 


60 


29.876 


35.851 


17.925 


20.913 


20.486 


29.876 


26.889 


27.315 


70 


31.451 


37.741 


18.870 


22.015 


21.566 


31.451 


28.306 


128.755 


30 


32.881 


39.457 


19.728 


23.017 


22.547 


32.881 


29.593 


30.062 


90 


34.200 


41.040 


20.520 


23.940 


23.451 


34.200 


30.780 


31.270 


100 


35.422 


42.506 


21.253 


24.795 


24.289 


35.422 


31.880 


32.385 


125 


88.157 


45.788 


22.894 


26.710 


26.164 


38.157 


34.342 


34.886 


144 


40.000 


48.000 


24.000 


28.000 


27.428 


40.000 


36.000 


36.571 


150 


40.650 


48.780 


24.390 


28.455 


27.874 


40.650 


36.585 


37.166 


175 


42.686 


51.223 


26.611 


29.880 


29.270 


42.686 


38.418 


39.027 


200 


44.640 


63.568 


26.784 


31.248 


30.611 


44.640 


40.176 


40.813 


250 


48.075 


67.690 


28.845 


33.652 


32.965 


48.075 


43.268 


43.955 


800 


51.087 


* 61.304 


30.652 


35.761 


35.031 


51.087 


45.979 


46.708 


400 


56.230 


67.476 


33.738 


39.361 


38.558 


56.230 


60.607 


51.410 


600 


60.570 


72.684 


36.342 


42.399 


41.534 


60.570 


54.513 


55.378 


600 


64.360 


77.232 


38.616 


45.052 


44.133 


64.360 


57.924 


58.843 


700 


67.760 


81.312 


40.606 


47.432 


46.464 


67.760 


60.984 


61.952 


800 


70.844 


85.013 


42.606 


49.590 


48.578 


70.844 ' 


63.760 


64772 


900 


78.680 


88.416 


44.208 


61.576 


50.524 


73.680 


66.312 


er.364 


1000 


76.320 


91.584 


45.792 


53.424 


53.334 


76.320 


68.688 


69.778 



80 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AKT. 



CHEJIISTEY IN THE WINE 

CELLAE. • 

By Frederick Musprattj Esq., F,C.S.L. 

The following valuable paper was read at 
the Annual Meeting of the Hunter Elver 
Vineyard Association, in the yea* 1856 : — 

I take advantage of the opportunity to diffuse infor- 
mation, not accesedble to all, which may prove useful to 
my fellow vtgnerons. I am in perfect accord with my 
preceptor, Baron Liebig, when he asserts that mere em- 
piricism can never enable any one to excel in present- 
ing an industrial product acceptable to the consumer, 
and profitable to the maker. My object shall be to 
bring to our aid the truths and researches of science. 
I am much indebted to the woiiES of Baron Von Babo, 
who is known in Europe as one of the most successful 
wine producers. The German winemaker has difficul- 
ties to contend with, which need not be feared in this 
country ; and here the sudden changes of climate and 
intense heats cause evils which I will investigate more 
thoroughly. 

Cellar management requires much more study than is 
generally si^fqpnsed. The isles of Greece; Italy, Spain, 
ac, poflsess quite as fine a climate as this, and in some 
respects more favourable to the growth of tjie vine ; 
but when left to tibie manipulations of the ignorant 
farmers of the interior, what do they produce? The 
table wine of Madrid tastes of tar, that of Huesca of 
ink, the wine of Lanarkais resinous, and several country 
wines are glutinous. 

All these evils may be remedied or avoided by pro- 
per care, and a knowledge of the discoveries which 
nave been made in chemistay during the last few years, 
causing the wines of Europe to be more generally 
palatable. 

The production and stability of all organic substances 
depend on the affinities of four elements — oxygen, hy- 
drc^n, nitrogen, and carbon. Three of these, when 
uneombined with other substances, are gaseous and 
invisible ; the fourth, when pure, is a solid, but when 
combined with others assumes the form of a gaA. 

This ready capability of changing their proportions 
and this volatility, facilitate the absorption and distri- 
bution which is perpetually taking place, and the elimi- 
nation in the form of gas of whatever may not have 
been required in the formation of the plant. All life, 
whether vegetable or animal, depends on the constant 
transition of the substances of which it consists. If this 
is any way interrupted, eramacausis sets in. 

Though these elements form the principal basis of all 
existence, they must be supported by less volatile sub- 
stances of which the proportion required for the continu- 
ance of organic life is much smaller, yet most necessary. 
These are silica, alumina, lime, magnesia, potash, soda, 
iron, manganese, sulphur, and phosphorus. 

These substances unite in every organic form, but 
they cannot of themselves blend so as to attain the object 
of (iie organism. It is the vital power of each organic 
being, which, as it were, acts as architect in merging 
into form the necessary substances. It is on the vitfd 
power of each rangle element that the form it shall as- 
sume depends, for entirely different substances may be 
produced Itiy the same materials. 

The elements obey, more or less, the general chemical 
laws ; but there are some undisturbed by the vital power 
in the organism that are not so prominent, and to a cer- 
tain extent appear to be debarred from performing their 
higher functions ; it is only in the growth that the action 
■ of such elements commences, and this is different in the 
various species, producing compounds containing the 
elements in different proportions. All contribute, how- 
ever, to the development and preservation of the perfect 
plant. 

With regard to their influence over the animal king- 



dom, the basis of the nourishing powers of planti 
depends on these elements. The more highly oi^anized 
nnimftlg do Jiot take their nourishment directly from tibt 
indigenous plants. They live on that which the plant* 
have amalgamated by artificial aid from the eartli and 
the atmosphere, and when we take animal food tlM 
source is sdll indirect. In the vine, the wood, foUage, 
branches, blossoms, and fruit, are formed from nearty 
the same elements : the grapes, until they are parted 
from the stalk, partake of its life ; in this state tnere k 
no admixture. After separation their nature changes; 
saccharine matter, glycocoll, tannin, &c., become pro- 
minent ; the substances are now subject to atmospheric 
influence ; the separation and decomposition of elements 
commence of themselves, and form alcohol, yeast, &&, 
or pass into the atmosphere as carbonic acid. This ii^ 
the process of fermentation, where the quantity of water 
present must regulate the kind of decomposition which 
will ensue. 

It would be out of place, in communications which 
do not profess to enter into the minutiae required in a 
hand-book, to dilate on the fermenting process, or to de- 
tail the actions of the nitrogen which is contained in the 
yeasty or albumino-glutinous substances, and the conse- 
quent formation of various ammoniacal compounds. The 
products are alcohol ; carbonic acid gas, part of whidi 
remains in the solution, and imparts the prickly taste to 
yoimg wines ; lactic acid, formerly considered to be 
acetic acid, and similar in composition to sugar ; acetic 
acid, produced by the action of oxygen on alcohol at a 
high temperature ; different odorous volatile substances, 
partly ethereal, partly similar to volatile oils ; yeast, tiw 
residue of the azotic substances which excited fermenta- 
tion, but not to be confounded with any excess of fermrat 
there might be ; ammonia, formed from the azote of the 
ferment, uniting with the hydrogen which becomes free 
during the decomposition of the water — this unites wlA 
maUc or other acids. 

Of non-azotic substances of the grapes, contained in 
the cellular, tissues, there are dextrine, starch, sitgar, 
peotine, pectic acid, and extractive substances whidh 
play an important part, as in them are contained tihe 
elements of bouquet, colouring matter, and vegeti^ 
acids, the most important cf which are tartaric, citnc, 
malic, tannic, and gallic acids. 

Of azotic substMices, there are glycocoll, albmnino- 
glutinous substances, &c. 

Of inorganic substances, there occur hydrochloric, 
phosphoric, and sulphuric acids, alumina combined witii 
tartaric acid, potash, magnesia, ii-on, and traces cf. 
peroxide of manganese. 

The proportion in which these different ineredieois 
stand towards each other is highly varied, and depends 
principally on the nature of the season in whidi tbe 
grapes have matured. 

I have found this year that the sugar in the mmi 
ranged from 22 to 28 per cent. This wide range is ow- 
ing to my having had grapes from four vineyards oa 
perfectly different soils : I need not describe them man 
fully, as they have been thoroughly amplified uini»' 
vious accounts of the proceedings of this Society. fi» 
highest number refers to the grapes from the Irrawaag 
Vineyard, the lowest to those from the vineyard on tiie 
Williams River that were planted by Mr. King. I abo 
had some grapes from the Turcela Vineyard, whidli 
musted equal to the highest, but its mean was 26 ptf 
cent, glucose or grape sugar. The deduction, by cafih 
lating the specific gravities, is, that the wine produced 
will range from 14 to 21 per cent, alcohol. 

The mucous, &c., amounts, according to Walz*s inireS' 
tigations in Europe, to three percent.; but, owing is 
the difficulty in getting suitable simple apparatus hesn • 
to discover the mean content, I have not been able to 
arrive at accurate conclusions ; but I would imagine tbe 
average to be higher here, as the mineral and vegetalile 
salts, which average three per cent, in Germany, indi- 
cate in this country five per cent, and upwards ; the rat 
is water. 

It is only some two months after the vintage, whea 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AK^^ 



31 



the fermentation is insensible, and the excess of chloro- 
phyll, unctuous, and resinous matters have been re- 
moved, that the practised person will begin to have a 
foretase of what will afterwards be developed. Time 
is tiien required for the ripening, but there is a period 
at which all wines, if left to themselves, deteriorate ; 
the spirit disappears or is decomposed, the resinous mat- 
ter becomes prominent, and impart their flavours. A 
young powerful wine, being richer in alcohol, is more 
intoxicating ; but where this has merged into ether, an 
older wine is more exhilarating. 

In a perfect wine, neither the sugar, the alcohol, nor 
the acid, should be in excess, but always maintain a cer- 
tain proportion towards ea«h otiier. In unctuous wines 
the dextrine by degrees merges into sugar. With these 
there are flavours, the oenanthic, the aromatic, the bou- 
quet, which differs in its ingredients from the aromatic 
taste, the sharp, and tiie varnish flavour. In hot countries 
the sugar predominates, and as the gluten is not propor- 
tionate, it often happens that the wines do not yield so 
much bouquet, though the aromatic flavour and perfume 
may be very prominent. The basis of the most cele- 
brated vinous flavours, is4he most perfect development 
of the oenanthic ether, which is produced during the 
fermentation by a combination of oenanthic acid and 
alcohoL Foreign matters interfere with the formation 
of this ether in a pure state. Some bouquets may be 
produced by an after decomposition of the extractive 
substances with ammonia, or with some of the others. 

It is possible by a rational treatment to ennoble al- 
most all wines, without having recourse to sophistica- 
tion. All seasons not being alike, the winemaker ought 
to understand these matters, by studying the require- 
ments of the plant in the vineyard, by knowing how to 
concentrate when there is too great an excess of water, 
or by the addition of certain ingredients which, under 
favourable circumstances, would be naturally contained 
in the plant. 

The increased proportion of sugar is not coincident 
with a diminution of acid. Really unripQ grapes can 
therefore never make a wine. In Europe there may be 
seasons when the winemakers would obtain a wine 
more capable of developing a bouquet, by gathering the 
grapes at a certain point of ripeness when all would be 
alike ; but in a country such as this, where the rays of 
the sun act with such power, the outer grapes might be 
in the state required, while the inner ones would be per- 
fectly green, and totally unfit for any wine-making pur- 
pose. It is, therefore, necessary to delay the gathering 
longer than is usually done in this country to produce 
a fair wine. If allowed to proceed to an eramacausis, 
and if not distui'bed or acidulated by rain, then is the 
greatest amount of saccharine matter obtained, which is 
generally developed from the cellular tissues and the 
dextrine. 

It would be superfluous at present to enumerate tlie 
various treatments of the vine, as in this country they 
could not be acted upon while wages are so excessive. 

The stalks contain various substances which, when 
mixed with the must, will injure the wine ; on the 
other hand they contain gallic acid, which serves to pre- 
cipitate the glutinous matter. The fermentation is also 
stronger and more regular if the stalks are mixed with 
the pressed berries, which is explained by the particles 
which excite fermentation being more diflu^d. In red 
wine the tannin afiects the taste considerably, either in 
itself, or owing to an ether formed from it ; it has also 
the advantage of acting as an astringent, and strengthens 
the body against the relaxing heat of the sun. This is 
the cause of the expression t£at such wines have a cool- 
ing effect. If the must cannot be immediately pressed, 
it IB well to separate the stalks, ae too long a decompo- 
sition of them tends to give a woody flavour. 

The time when the must ought to be separated from 
Hie murk is of great importance, and depends on the 
kind of wine to be produced. With red wine the murk 
ought to remain with the must till the alcohol is deve- 
loped by fermentation, and is in a state to effect the ex- 
traction of the colouring matter. With luscious wines 



the must ought to remain longer in contact with the 
stalks, as the gallic acid serves the more completely to 
precipitate the glycocoU and gluten. The development 
of bouquet does not depend on the skins and stalks. 

To those who might wish to make some determina- 
tions, a few directions will prove useful ; and as there 
are many anomalies as yet unexplained about the wines 
of Australia, I propose during the next year to institute 
a series of analyses, from which, I doubt not, much that 
is still uncer^n will be explained. It is by the aid of 
chemistry alone that this branch of industry will be 
brought to perfection — that science which has of late 
years advanced so greatly all arts, manufactures, and 
professions — the evidences of which are so palpable that 
it would be useless for me to enumerate them. 

The free acid is determined by acetate of lead. Con- 
centrate the must to about a third, and treat with abso- 
lute alcohol, the albumino-glutinous substances remain 
insoluble. 

As nature, in particularly favourable seasons, aids in 
the transposition of a middling wine into one of greater 
body, of a poor wine into one of better quality, so may 
the winemaker improve the quality by separating ex- 
cessive acid, or water, as also by the addition of certain 
ingredients homogeneous with the grapes, and bring the 
wine of a poor year nearer to that of a better one. 

There are three ingredientsof the wine, the proportions 
of which in the must will affect its qualli^. These are 
glucose or grape sugar, alcohol, and acid. It can never 
be considered as a sophistication of the wine, when the 
must is enriched with substances which are the same as 
the materials in the grape, and when it depends on the 
chance of the weather their being present in more or 
less quantity in the grape itself. The must may be made 
more saccharine by using gypsum, to free it from water, 
or adding starch sugar, which is of the same composi- 
tion as grape sugar. Alcohol may also be added before 
fermentation, but it stays the process, and though gene- 
rally used in Spain and Portugal, is not to be recom- 
mended where one seeks to retain delicacy of flavour. 
An excess of acid may be removed by neutralising with 
lime, or by removing the murk quickly, and skimming 
off the mucous matters as rapidly as possible, as the 
vegetal acids are generally in combination with it. A 
little observation will show the winemaker how this is 
to be effected. Formerly oxide of lead was used, but 
the resulting lead compound was poisonous, and the 
method most reprehensible. 

It is of importance to separate the mucous as early 
as possible after the insensible fermentation has set in, 
as it is the mother of many diseases. This is effected 
by frequent rackings. Even excessive sulphuring at 
this stage will not injure tlie wine, as it is precipi- 
tated with the gluten, and it is the best preventive of 
mustiness, which is very general, especially with red 
wines. These rackings are complete, and the object 
effected, when the red wine will stand some time in a 
glass without inspissating, or when a white wine does 
not assume an iron red colour under the same circum- 
stances. 

No old wine ought to be sulphured, as it contains no 
precipitant. In such cases nutmegs are burnt in casks, 
as they contain an ethereal oil which has a similar 
effect, but care must be taken to prevent flavour being 
imparted to the wine. Yoimger wineft required for im- 
mediate use must also not be sulphured, as it causes 
headache and injures the health. 

At an early period an attentive observer will notice a 
taste more or less resembling coffee, which indicates tlie 
bouquet into which it will afterwards merge ; there is 
also often a bitter taste perceptible, which demonstrates 
the presence of a citrate or salt of magnesia. After 
dealing, the alcohol gradually combines with different 
acids, and the various ethers result. The hydrous in- 
gredients, with the aid of carbon and oxygen, merge into 
resinous matters, and often portions of the saccharine 
matters change into lactic acid. 

With light wines that age quickly, and will not keepr 
it is advisable to bum some spirit in a cask previous to 



fining with Knch viae, ae li; (liiB means the bleuding la 

Hatahneos iu wine jirofioedB (roni lamiin being in an- 
cess. Tdnelius, or white of eEga, Bervea b; degreeu to 
precipitAte titie ; butif allowed time to moUowproperly, 
the glutinaaBsuCitaiiceBm the wine itself will efl'ett the 



te the flavour. If one wishes 
to hOBten the eeparatioii of the eiceaa of tartaric ncid, 
tartarato or carbonate of potauh niir with judicious 
mano^ment be applied. 

If R wine geta eickl; and inqauated, aad vill not 
yield lo the ord.' ' " ' — " 

acid. In this ce 
bog of gall nula, till a leet with perchloride of iron in- 
dicates the attainment of tbe object. Bach, sud it will 
clarii^ with ianelaaa. If obatiiiate, the operation muat 
bo repaated. When wine becomes clammy, and oily, 
idiich is owing to an excese of gluleu, and a defiFlenCf 
of alcohol and add, dissolve twelve ounces of bitartorBta 
of potash, and the same of eugar, in a mulled wioe ; put 
thisintoanemptycask, diffuse it, and nil with the wine 
to bo operated upon ; if not effectual, when repeated.odd 
an eqnal quantify ot salt, and aliout four ouacea uf tbe 
Dshea of the vine Ef albs. 

It ia well known how wine beoomee vinegar, but there 
are cones frequent in tiija countij where ovary precau- 
tion has been taken to preclude tlie acress of air, -B'hera 

.._^ ._. ^ -isto owing t« the c<m- 

To teat una, aaturate 






16 with 






.v'itto 




daya. If the taate 




Tn 










a lactic acid creser 


; in the latter 


tbe-B 


-ine itself may be treated wi 




ii«da. 


Freque 


ot racking and good 


cellars will pre- 






If wine be not too (ar gone, the acetic add maybe 
neutraliaed by oj-sler aheUs, and trituratiuj; with isin- 
glass ; but if this ia not done with care and kncwledge, 
the wine is apt to get a flat taste. 

When casks have not b««n well acslded, and aftor- 
waids rinsed out with cold water, the wine has a pecu- 
liar diaagreeable flavour of wood. With age in bottle 
this will disappear, or it may be removed by several 
rackings into sulphured caska and clarifying. If the 

sweet muet, oad ijubjec<«d to renewed 

Clari^ing is a moat important operation in the ma- 
nagement of wine, aa a great advantage is gained by a 
proper applicati'm of it, but from a want of knowledge 
injuiy may remit. Ill-judged applications of tho cta- 
Tifier tB probably the cau^e of the impreaaicn that clari- 
fying weakaus a wine, while it has quite a contrary 
i^eot 1 a well clarifled wine lirat dovelopoe the aroma 
and bouquet, when the taste ii! no longei' acted upon and 
WeakenM by mucous. 

Clari^inghfladiiTerentobjeota. With peri'ectcd wines 
ft sojiarates any remaining gluten, and extisetiTe mat- 
ter inspissate the wine aner bottling. It precipitatea 
the eicesdve add troai rough wines. In diseased wines 
it aeparatea Ihoeo substoncea which have caused tho de- 
fect Badly coloured wines may reeovcr their proper 
colouring if well clarifled. 

The winemaker must use his own judgment aa to the 
quantity of the clariBar he ought to apply, apportioning 
it occonling to tlio nature uf the wine he is operating 
upon. Climfi'hig by mechanical means, ia simplv fll- 
tering. Chemically, isinglass i. 
clarifier ; it coagulalcs readily 
taste, and is preferable lo nulk. because 

weaken the wme. Tho ta 

glue, forms an inaoiuble 



impleat ai 



wine, which, in finely divided particles, seta n » 1 
and In descending draws down with it Iha glycocoll, 
tractive matter, Ac. If the isiugloss finds no tan 
and gaUio acids, it is ineffectual, and the want mual 
BDpjSed by gall nnts, or adding some of the proa 

In the purest wine there is some mncoua. bnt i 
soluble : its presence is indicated by inspissaUon wi 
toBlcd vrith perchloride uf iiun. 

The difference between soidiistlcstion and impn 
ment in a wine consists in this : — A wiiia may be 
proved by cnrreoting any miapiupiiTtiou in Uia n 
before fermentotion, by adding vegetable substanca c 
taining tie requiaile ingredients, but lubataiicea 
subjected to fermentation do not properiy merge i 
the wine. 

Winea are aaphisticBted with iria root, elder UoMO 
lime blossoms, citron, orange peels, bitter almonda, d 
of ripe quincee, black currant, tincture of cherries 



Alun 



togivi 



an idea that there ia body in the wiue, because it hi- 
ahrivelling np efleot, but a judge cat! easily t»ll if it 1 
present. 

The results of numerous obacrratlane In Enn^ie bu 
proved that the earlier the blossoming of tho vi- - -"^ 

itlertht . " 

i<h advantage 

Ah difForent mnets have varied constitiientB, it i» i 
to nndetatand why the winemaker should use hu 
judgment in miidng thom. instead of keeping Oia i 
of any particnlar grape by itself; also why the pre 
wine should be kept separate IVom the other wme, . 
howthoy should be mixed at discretioa, according to' 

requirements of tho winemakr " - "■ "- 

different chemical combinatior 
have described will explain tliL. 

To enable a wine to developo its beaotlBa witliage,* 
to atti^n that perfection which we all roooguiso irl 
et with it, there must be cool ooUntb — cftiw 



a little ni 



possible. It m 

the conanlMc ether, which heightena the vinous SaTO 
the batyric ct^r, which in idierry givea the peool 
bouquet : or the acetic ether of the clarets ; the-«eel 
of amylls of many of the French white winea ; ■ 
aever^ other compounda, which it would serve ao p 
pose to enmuerate. It ia absolutely necessary Oiw 
person ehould have well seasoned ca^s, which will : 
absorb the elements of those flavours, sramos, and 1> 



TEODUCTION OF SILK. 

_ that Australia is destined at B 
very distant daj to become a large silt p; 
ducing eonutty, we purpose to give a sar 
of papers on the cultivation of tliia valuaii 
article. A correspondent, residing in ti 
interior, wLo has paid mu(;h attention to tj 
subject, and who already has contmeiiCBd i 
rear the eUtwomi on a large ecaJe, pre _^ 
ua the result of his experience. The follo^ 
ing paper, which containB much UBeful i 
formation, is extracted from the Journal i 
the Society of Arts of Febrnaiy 1857. 
may also mention that silk is now imporfe 
into England from China and India in c< 
coons, and reeled by machinery at home. 11 
Colonial difficult}' of labour for reeling nu^ 
thus he obriated. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AET. 



33 



-- ON EXPEKIMENTS WITH SILKWORMS WITH 
A VIEW TO IMPROVE THE PRESENT SILK 
YIELDINGS OF BENGAL. 

Br F. Bashfobd, of Suedah, East Indies. 

I have devoted my attention to silk reeling in Bengal 
for nearly twenty years, and have laboured hard to pro- 
duce a thread as fine, as perfect in the reel, and as well 
suited for manufacturing purposes in Europe, aifi French 
and Italian silk. * I have succeeded so far as to merit 
the Medal of the Society of Arts, for my comparatively 
superior quality over other Bengals, none for many years 
past approaching Surdah (J. and R. W. Mark) by 
several shillings per pound m value. My reel has con- 
siderably surpassed China, and come up very close in 
the finer sizes to middling Italian in its various appli- 
ances and value, as a reference to any price current or 
manufacturer in England or Lyons wiJl corroborate; 
still I find that I am far behind the finest sizes of both 
France and Italy, and with a view to approach more 
nearly to them I have imported eggs of the finest cocoons 
reared in both countries, with a view to engraft them 
upon the different species of worms indigenous or at 
present common in Bengfd, and I received also a large 
quantity of the best China eggs with the same view, as 
the cocoons of tiiat country are also superior to all we 
have in Bengal, although their silk is inferior. 

I am desirous to give the result of my exertions to 
the public, as it may be a giude to others ; and the giving 
myself this flattering intrgduction is to show that the 
experimente have been made by a practical man, who 
has charge of forty filatures, working 4,500 basins, and 

- therefore interested in the favourable results of such 
experiments, and in any good that may accrue from the 
publicity of these remarks. 

To enable my readers to understand the subject tho- 
roughly, I will commence by mentioning that all our 
worms in Bengal for filature silk give us several crops 
of cocoons during the year, except a solitary species 
of annual, origin imknown, and rapidly becoming ex- 
tinct. 

The chief worm is what is called the Dessie, or, as 
the word implies, Country, and I therefore conclude it 
to be aboriginal or indigenous; it supplies nearly all 

, the cocoons of the large November bund, or cold wea- 
ther crop of Bengal, and yields the finest silk ; the co- 
coons are small, and it is therefore sometimes called 
the Chota Poloo, or Small Worm, in some districts ; the 
produce of the best quality may be taken at about 
10,500 cocoons to the pound of silk. This worm thrives 
Jaest in the cold weather, and the cocoons are better then 
than the after crops, but it continues more or less in the 
different districts throughout tiie year : the period from 
the hatching of the egg till the completion of the cocoon 
of this worm is about thirty-six days in the cold weather, 
but much less as the heat increases. 

The next species of importance is the Madrassie ; the 
native meaning of the word is Seaborn, and I therefore 
conclude this to be an important species ; it is some- 
times called Nystree ; it is produced throughout the 
year, but thrives much the best in the hot weather, from 
March to September, is remarkably hardy, and easily 
and economically reared ; from this species we derive 
in the March and rainy bunds a very large supply of 
cocoons ; the produce is comparatively better than that 
of the dessie, about 10,000 of the best cocoons being re- 

■ quired to produce one pound of alk, but the fibre is 
neither quite so strong, nor the colour so bright, though 
it nevertheless produces a* very good thread tf cai'efully 

> reeled ; these worms pass through tiieir stages so ra- 
pidly, that from the time of hatcMng to the completion 
of me cocoon is frequentiy not over 25 days. Thus, 
you see, two distinct species of cocoons are providen- 
tially arranged for our different seasons. 

The next is the Boro Polo, or, in English, Large Worm. 
This is an annual, and I cannot trace its origin ; it ex- 
isted when the East India Company first imported Italian 
eggBf all of which soon failed. The boro polo is now 



chiefly found in the Radnagore district, and from this 
worm they get much of their March bund ; but it is fail- 
ing fast. It used to exist in other districts, and the silk 
from it was very beautiful, and the produce nearly double 
tiiat of other cocoons, but from frequent failures, irregu- 
lar hatching, and greater expense in rearing, and being 
an annual worm only, the natives have taken a dislike 
to it, and I fear it will soon be as scarce in Radnagore 
as it now is in other districts. . They have anoth^ species 
of worm in Radnagore, called the China, but how it ac- 
quired that name I do not know, as in China their worms 
are annuals, and this is not ; the cocoon is certainly im- 
like in shape and very inferior to the China, and even 
inferior to our dessie and madrassie. I have now de- 
scribed the best species of our Bengal silkworms, and I 
have shown that it requires 10,000 of our best cocoons 
to produce me one pound of good silk ; in France 2,500 
cocoons produce the same quantity of silk. 

This disparity in produce between the Bengal and 
European cocoons must forcibly strike every reader of 
this paper, and the natural suggestion wUl be, that if 
Bengal could produce cocoons equal to French and Ita- 
lian, the quantity of woims they now rear would nearly 
supply the whole of Europe with silk. 

Actuated by a desire to improve our cocoons, and see- 
ing no reason to doubt tiie possibility of it, in a country 
so beautifully supplied with mulberry and every conve- 
nience for rearing worms as this is, I imported a large 
quantity of the best French, Italian, and China eggs, to 
engraft upon the different puny species of our Bengal 
monthly race. 

I had no desire to introduce an annual, as this is a 
worm only intended by nature for cold climates, where 
there is but one crop of mulberry in the year ; here we 
no sooner cut down our bush mulberry, than it springs 
up again, and in five or ^ix weeks we have a second 
luxurious crop ; in a country, therefore, so bountifully 
and continually supplied with mulberry, an annual worm 
(which at best is always irregular) is not required, and 
would not be encouraged by the natives. 

I imported the annual eggs merely for one crop of 
cocoons, that I might have the moths to couple and cross 
upon our Bengal monthly race, and give new strength 
and vigour to that. I now proceed to explain the nature 
of my experiments, and their results. 

In February, 1854, 1 received per overland a large 
quantity of the best French silkworms' eggs ; they were, 
however, indifferently packed, and only 5 or 6,000 eggs 
were good out of a very large parcel ; some of these 
commenced hatching about 15 days after the box was 
opened, with the thermometer ranging from 60 to 70 
Fahrenheit, and they continued hatehmg very irregu- 
larly for about three months, during which time Qie 
thermometer at mid-day reached about 100 in the 
house. 

I treated the little worms precisely as the worms of 
this coimtry, feeding them at first with finely cut tender 
mulberry leaves, giving the larger and older leaves as 
they increased in size and strength; they fed and 
thrived very well, displayed a better constitution, and 
more hardy nature than our country worms; their 
stages of sickness were in the colder weather at six to 
eight days interval, but more rapid as the heat became 
greater ; they got over them very well, and but few 
died Until near tiie time of spinning, when the usual 
disease attending our country worms attacked some^ of 
these, from which they chiefly died, recovery being 
very rare. As we have no remedy for these diseases 
the usual fumigations were tried, but with little 
success. 

The healthy few of the early incubations, astonish- 
ingly large and strong compeared to our country stock, 
were placed to spin in mat frames, such as are used by 
the natives in tiieir rearing establishments (as I used 
them from the beginning to become habituated to the 
very convenient custom of this country), and they gave 
very beauti^ cocoons, some quite equal in size, shape, 
and firmness to the samples received with the eggs, and 
seemed to spin in our frames as easily (these mat 



34 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 






framea take up little room, end are vastly more conve- 
nient than twigs.) aa they dn im Ihe twiga in France. 

1 vaa quite plesEed with [be cocoons, and the nntiveB 
were truly aHfoniehed. they had never eeeu any like 
them : the later wonus having to beaj- vxtr^meh' hot 
weather, did not succH^d ao well The irrefl^ulanty of 
haiehing ttob tbtj inconvenient ; and retemng to the 
old EaEb India Oompany'e expei imeuta. * -o--* — — " — 
cumplaints of their Itsliau eggii (though 
tempted to crosi and naturnllie us I am 
ing HO for succeeded with the coc-oona, 1 allowed the 
motha to ent oat, und then ubtAineil Iwth male and 
female motha of our deaaie and madraaaie atock, and 
paired the French mala with tho oounOy fEmale. and 
tho counti7 mala with the French female. The dispa- 
rity of uza WOB immense ; however, impregnation waa 
effeotnal ; and tlie eega were depoaiCcd m duo lime, 
both pairing alike ^ving eggs of a yeUowuh colour 
"When deposited, hnt after threo daya tJiose frora the 
French feroale and DenEui t n t li I r 

malned imlisttihed until thr n {^h 

our hottest soaaon with the 
105 deKreea ; here waa my 
ttom me Freooh male and 
yellow until the aeventh d. 

dark apeok, rB])idly chnn_ d J all 

hatched on the tenth dav Th j uh,h rai n. g 

and healthy, and fed well hut we e mora tai d m their 
BtAges, owinc aa mtiDb perhaps to the warmer wea her 
aa to their altered natrm) the same dueaaw attacked 



spinning wn^ more tardy at the 
oocoons more SoeAy. and lese firm than the original ; 
tijey were quito aa large, but stored in ahape, heing very 
round at oue end, and tniinted at ilje other, without the 



blanee 



■ the Frcncii 



ccpt in the larger alze Bnd 
:ime of hatching 



Bengali stock, Tliupe wnnns, 

I kept aS the cocoons for need, piuring nearly all of 
them iu themeelvee. fiilly expecting that this one cross 
would suffice, and realize my wiahea ijf improving onr 
breed without altering their natnra of hatching; how- 
ever, I was sadly disappointed, for on (he third day all 
tho eggs turned black, and remaitied thus until th« fol- 
lowing yeai. The vciy few of this croFs that I did not 
liair in thomsolvce. were pau-ed nilh indigcuoun moths, 
making a second crosB for the French niiili! ; of these 
the croBB female with tho country male lollowed tho 
steps of the preceding ; the cross male with the eountry 
feiuale hatched, but owing to very bad woalher, I did 
not BQcoced in getting any cocoons to conlinne the family, 
and thus ended all my labours in this department fur 
1S54. with what success my readers can judge. T reeled 
■ff a few of both the pure and troea cocoons that I had 
reared, and the (ilk was quite iKpsal to tho best Freuch | 
the bust oroSB tocoons, though changed in shape, gave 
nearly aa good produce as Uie pure, and aa strong a 
fibre. Tlis change in the shape did not in any way de- 
' — t &om its produce on reeling uuaBty. which is 



tho result waa preciaeiy the samo as with tl 
It may l-e a»ken. why I imported the China eggs, when 
the China silk la inferior to our own reel. My reply is. 
that China cooooua, although amnll, are infinitely supe- 
rior to our own doane nnd madraasie eoits. and, in my 
0[Nnion, capable of making, with good management, as 
fine and valuable a silk aa Italian ; and the roaaon the 
Chinese reel is of iiii^rior quality to i^eae is entirely 
owing to their own bad mimagement. 

I fommcnctd the year ltl55 with the first cross 
From*, Italian, and China temalcB npon our madiassia 
and deioje stock, and second ^msa French. Italian, and 
• China malea produce upon our females, which had gone 
hack hi nnouoJa ; and about the time those eggs began 
to hnlch in Jntiuory, ISou. I received another large nip- 






icult to keqi __ 
BBparalo ; however, they hod es mnch care bestowed 
them aa poeaible. Incuhatiati of all the croeaea wont 
aa irreguJarly M with the first importation, and. It 
several montha bsfoie any one batch had flnubed Iw. 
ing. This year's eapeiiments were interrupted bj 
bemg ilJ. and compelled to go to England for ■ ' 
months, but a great many cocoona were obtained 

gave egga that tamed black, and remained in 
qaonnni the neit year. A few of the pure P_. 
were kept pure, but some were croaeed upon the 
year's croases, and the result left unknown antll '' 
batlon ; the following year (here waa ver 
feience in ^e cocoona over last year's, the . 
the China female retained ita original white 
the shape altered to apoint at both ends ; the c 
if anyUuug, waa larger, and the fibre seemed ac 



TXS 






d thia 






> Durable year for eipei 
the wonna died. 

On my reCnm &om Europe T found a good 
healthy looking egga of the different eoita, 
continued the experiments this year (1S66) wJUi . 
abated peiaeverance. They began hatohiiiy Mily 
Janoary, but just as irregularly as before ; r — 
quantity only came out daily, and did not cei 
May. The early worma were all good, fed and 
aa well as I muld desire, and the oucooDa ftni 
were very fine. I had en opportuni^ of a^ 
paring the pure French cocoona reared by ma, t 
different creases, and the choine was great^ in 
of the pire, but tho cross cocoons were vbbUt ■ 
to those of Bengal; audwhatl reeled off in de 
gave a most beautiful silk, and a yield in quaat£ _ 
than twice as large as the commeu cocootta Oti 
coimtry. which we were then reeling in the flla" 
thuB. much of the intrinsic value of die French ci 
remained, but none of its original shape. I to] 
now that I had bo far reduced the original oatc 
the frequent croBBes, as tn be nearly certain irf 

worm", and I did not reduce them by further ore 
but allowed the moths to couple with thsmselvea ; 
waa my aatoniahment to find, after the eggs hiK 
deposited three dayB, that moat of them had turned 1 
indicating that they stifi had too much Frendh nj 
a few remained yellow, and hatched alter ten. 
How to account for the IVeak of nature with I 
the rest, I do not know, but I had still to be n 

prised after this. I bad to wait, of coutbo, ^ 

year, to see the result of the black egga. but Hum'' 
hatched gave me ample occupation ior ^e lima,.al 
watched and cared for them with the greateat .' 
the joung wormn looked healthy, ate, and thn , , 
and in due time gave cocoona; the white colour 
proved the China portion, and the'superioi aizeof 
fibre, and lighter colour of some, with lew gtua 
, showed the French and '. 



I was, on tho whole, i 






id met with succeaa : btit greoi 

*■ toaoemorellio* 

innuals, thought 



Oiul 1 



egRB 

nottohatclj nKinii iLiilil ilic fnsdng January, 1 

fancy is extinindii.^iry in llie extreme. From tl 

tioa Ihftt hutched I had another crop of good oc 

and their eggs I distributed to several jmrts of '. 
Strange to say, many of Ihoiie reverted back tofi 
(tiro d annvals, and from IhCM that did not, crtn 
bad weather at Ihe time of iriinninp, butveryfew,' 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



35 



tinue my experiments. I am now in the midst of the 
rains, our worst season for cocoons, but still I have these 
few, and am bestowing on them the greatest possible 
care ; what may be their ultimate fate I must leave for 
a futui'e communication. I have many pounds of eggs 
of the different crosses still retaining the nature of an- 
nuals, bat as I have spent three years in trying ineffeo- 
tnally to engraft a superior nature and invigorate our 
common stock, I feel discouraged, and would gladly 
have the opinion of naturalists as to the probability of 
my object ever being attainable, and tiie proper steps to 
be taken for realizing it. 

I have every belief in the possibility of improving 
our Bengal silkworms, under a better system of ma- 
nagement; and have no doubt those of Europe have only 
acquired their present perfection by care and tuition. 
The superb cocoons I saw at the Late French Exhibition, 
"were a proof of what art and careful management can 
produce. 

Silkworms are said to have been originally imported 
from China. I have lately seen specimens of the 
best domestic cocoons now being reared in that coun- 
try, and those common in Europe are more than dou- 
ble their size and weight in si]&, thus clearly proving 
that the worm has either degenerated in its natural 
country, or that European skill has worked the vastly 
improving change in its nature and constitution ; this 
latter, I think, is the truth — ^the main difference in the 
cocoon is in Ihe size, the shape being still much the 
same. I, however, allude to the China white cocoon 
only. 

In Syria, the cocoons are in size and quality nearly 
equal to French, and as their climate is not far different 
fi*om Bengal, in our dry season, I see no good reason why 
•we should not be able to produce as fine cocoons. A 
long and tedious crossing may be necessary to work the 
change, but whatever labour is required, the immense 
improvement in quality and produce, that is certain to 
result, would amply compensate for hoth. labour and 
expense ; and as the gain would be a public good, the 
Gtovemment and public should encourage the under- 
taking. I am vnlUng to present eggs to any one dis- 
posed to follow my steps, and the more diffiised the ex- 
periments the better chance of success. 
^ I am not satisfied that the present domestic races of 
silkworms are not originally wild, and fed on other 
food than mulberry ; the forests of India teem with 
various species of silkworms feeding on all sorts of 
leaves ; accident may have led to the choice of mulberry, 
and it certainly is the best suited for yielding a mellow 
and easy winding silk. 

> I have not been able to make any experiments on 
any silkworms, except on the Bonibyx HiUtoni, but I 
believe it possible to domesticate a great many of the 
wild species, and by changing their food, to make 
them produce a silk less harsh and crude than they now 
do, and cocoons that will yield their thread freely, 
•without the aid of alkali or other chemicals, just as the 
domestic worm does. The Soci^t^ Zoologique d' Ac- 
climitation are producing wonderful changes, and why 
should not we do the same in silkworms. I see no rea- 
son to tiie contrary. 

As this paper may fall into the hands of practical 
people in Europe, who may be disposed to aid a good 
object, I wiU subjoin a few remarks upon the mode of 
rearing silkworms, usually practised by the natives in 
Bengal. I am not sure, if their d^ective system could 
be remedied, whether the produce of our present stock 
of worms could not be vastly improved, so as to render 
the importation of foreign species unnecessary. These 
remarks will enable my reaaers to form an opinion on 
the subject ; but I must mention, that the natives are so 
pertinaciously callous of improvements if they involve 
any labour or expense, and are almost as immoveable in 
their prejudices as the jpyramids, that unless any bene- 
ficial changes can be effected in a most simple and in- 
expraisive way, I have little hope of their attempting 
and persevering in them. 

In the fii'st place, I will try and describe the mul- 



berry, and mode of cultivating it. The sort chiefly 
groT^n here is the wild black species, both the indented 
and unindented leaf, planted indiscriminately, a handful 
of cuttings of both sorts forming one bush ; and these 
bushes in rows, about a foot apart, cover large tracts of 
ground. The natives care little about the species, nor 
do they consider which is best suited for the worms ; 
suffice it to say, they foUow the customs of their fore- 
fathers, and that satisfies them ; they, however, bestow 
much labour on the cultivation, and from well managed 
lands get several extraordinarily large crops of leaf 
during the year ; it is cut every time close to the groimd, 
and i^r a little hoeing it springs up again most rapidly. 
The leaves are cut into small pieces for the very young 
worms, but after that stems and all are given just as 
they come from the field. As far as I can judge of the 
mulberry, it is quite as good for feeding worms and pro- 
ducing silk as the large tree mulberry of Europe. Cer- 
tainly, the French and Italian worms I fed on it gave 
cocoons quite as good, or even better, than the specimens 
that accompanied the eggs. Mulberry is very expensive, 
and the natives are prone to half feed and stint their 
worms in consequence, to the great injury, of course, of 
the cocoon. It is sufficient to them if they have quan- 
tity ; they have little regai-d for goodness of quality in 
anything. 

In the selection of eggs, there is a great choice in 
India as to the period for incubation, but as the cocoons 
are alike in every district nearly, there is but little 
choice as to quality. In one part or other of Bengal 
worms are spinning nearly every day in the year, but in 
the rains fewer worms are reared from the lower lands 
than at any other period, partly because the mulberry 
is frequently subject to inimdation, and partly from the 
rice crops at this season demanding more attention. At 
this present moment, 15th September, 1856, most of the 
mulberry in Bengal, and very many of the filatures 
also, are some feet under water. The inundation begins 
to recede in September, and by the end of October the 
mulberry is cut and thrown away, and the lands in a 
forward state of cultivation. Early in November the 
majority of the rearers procure the cocoons, from which 
they get the seed for the November bund, the largest we 
have in the year. Eggs are not sold here as in Europe ; 
seed cocoons are sold instead ; the rearers pair the moths 
and manage them as they like, — ^they have no fixed sys- 
tem. When seed cocoons are dear, the good and bad are 
all equal in their estimation ; they never sort them ; 
they pay high for them, and cannot afford to lose any — 
such is their reasoning. Bearing-houses in Bengal are 
of mud or mat walls, and straw roof ; they are generally 
very small, and, notwithstanding the great heat, have no 
windows or ventilators, or any other means of lighting 
the room, except a single fine lattice-screened dooFway ; 
they are alike indifferent to light or temperature, to 
light particularly, and they have some reason for this, 
for without screens of lattice network the flies would 
enter and destroy every worm in two or three days ; 
even now, millions are destroyed yearly by the flies en- 
tering the room at feeding time, and many a batch of 
apparently good cocoons over night have been found de- 
stroyed in the morning by maggots coming out of them 
from flyblows on the worms before spinning. In cold 
weather I have known fires used by a few at the doors 
of their rearing-houses, but very rarely, and the good is 
questionable for such unventiilated buildings. The fluc- 
tuations of temperature in Beng^ are considerable 
during the year, and even in the 24 hours frequently as 
much as 20 degrees ; no attempt is made to equalise it 
in the rearing-houses, which are crammed with worms, 
and necessanly close and offensive ; our worms, there- 
fore, passing through all these disadvantages, at once 
prove their hardy nature. From worms generally in- 
differently fed, and reared in masses, in clc^e, unreuti- 
lated, and unhealthy houses, you cannot expect the best 
cocoons, but from the very few independent and most 
careful rearers we do sometimes get very fair quality, 
from 15 lbs. of which, or about 9,5(X) cocoons, you may 
reel 1 lb. of very good silk ; but everj- batch of cocoons 



36 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



varies so much in quality it is impossible to fix an ave- 
rage ; 4:he rearers are generally very poor people, and 
the larger portion of them rarely produce over 100 lbs. 
of cocoons each bund, many even less, and they too 
often exceed their means, and stint their worms in ac- 
complishing this. The tendency of the larger rearers 
is the same way ; they rarely calculate their means, 
and attempt to rear a larger quantity than they have 
either space or food for, and satisfy themselves with 
quantity rather than quality. Barring these few excep- 
tions, the majorilrjr of silk rearers are in the hands of 
money lenders, who charge them from 30 to 40 per cent, 
for the accoromodation, which would absorb all the pro- 
fits, if instead of employing their families they had to 
hire labour : few or none of them, as you may suppose, 
reel off their own cocoons, and as they have no means 
to bear the loss, should any arise from attempts to im- 
prove upon the present system of rearing, they do not 
trouble themselves about it ; and if we (Europeans) de- 
sire to see any improvement in the cocoons, we must be- 
stir ourselves to effect it, and when the extra profit is 
palpable to the natives they will doubtless come in and 
reap it. With cocoons such as we now have, and treated 
as they now are, we cannot reel a better silk than I have 
produced, my best having already reached 35s. 6d. per 
lb. I have seen our cocoons reeled at a first-rate filature 
in France, and a better thread was not obtained there 
than we can command here. Our operatives are not at 
all inferior in ability, but they are not half so tractable 
or c&reful, and in this is our greatest misfortune, and 
being a national failing, it is most difficult to surmount ; 
the rich native reelers encourage it ; their great aim, as 
in all other things, is the largest quantity for the smallest 
price ; they have no regard or estimation for quality, 
and the cocoons from which I get barely 1 lb. of silk, they 
would get l^at least, and at much less expense for reel- 
ing. There are so few Europeans in Calcutta who know 
anything of silk, that the natives find no difficulty in 
selling their trash at profitable prices, and are conse- 
quently formidable competitors with us for cocoons, and 
create opposition from the operatives, who would far 
rather take employment where they can reel carelessly 
than come to our better regulated establishments, where 
strict attention is demanded from them ; however, we 
cannot complain of the native filatures ; if manufacturers 
at home will buy their trash at profitable prices to them, 
they are quite right in attemptmg no improvement. 

The general treatment of cocoons in this country be- 
fore reeling them, is also bad in the extreme. Tljey are 
usually sunned till they are as dry as chips, then baked 
and suuned again, the gum undergoing baneful changes ; 
the colour becomes faded, the fibre reduced in strength, 
elasticity destroyed, and the worms so dried up as to have 
no weight to keep down the cocoon at the time of reel- 
ing, and the thread consequently comes off less clean 
than it might ; and as to sorting the cocoons or taking 
off the floss, that is quite neglected, it would reduce the 
produce ; this practice has been handed down from ge- 
neration to generation, and I have had the greatest dif- 
ficulty in altering it in the Surdah filatures ; and other 
Europeans, I fancy, have found the same difficulty with 
their establishments, Europeans never rear cocoons in 
Bengal; this department is entirely confined to the 
nerves, and we are obliged to purchase them through 
middle men, who go from house to house for the purpose. 



PKOCEEDINaS OF THE PHILOSO- 
PHICAL SOCIETY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES. 

In the pursuit of our intention to furnish 
a record of the proceedings of this Society, 
we herewith present our readers a brief ab- 
stract of a valuable paper read by the Hon. 
E. Deas Thomson, C.B., at the meeting 



held on June 13th, 1856. The special in- 
terest attaching to this paper has rather sub- 
sided since it was read, for there is now esta- 
blished a direct steam communication via 
the overland route, by which it is fully ex- 
pected that mails, passengers, and light 
cargo will be delivered in Sydney within 50 
days from England. Arrangements are ako 
pending for another line of commiinicati(ffl 
via Panama, by which it is probable that 
the passage from England will be made evffli 
more rapidly. Neither of these routes, how- 
ever, will be available for heavy merchan- 
dise or ordinary passengers, so that the .; 
shrewd and practical observations made by \ 
Mr. Deas Thomson still retain considerable I 
importance. 

Mr. Thomson remarked, that from obser- 
vations made on his voyage to England is 
1854, and on his return voyage in the com- 
mencement of 1856, he had been strongly 
impressed with the persuasion, that the ap- ! 
plication of auxiliary steam power to pas- 
senger ships engaged in the Australian trade^ 
might, under judicious arrangements, be 
adopted with marked advantage to the whdft 
of the Australian colonies, by reducing, in a" 
material degree, the length of time otherwise 
necessary for the voyage. He pointed out 
that certain portions of the voyage might - 
be calculated on to be performed with great , 
speed and regularity, from the uniform di- ■[ 
rection and force of the wind. The por- 
tions where the greatest delay occurred are 
at the commencement, and on reaching the 
variable latitudes, lying between the 10th de- \ 
gree of north latitude, where the north-east • 
trade generally ceases, and the 3rd degiet 
of north latitude, where the south-east tnide.. 
begins. 

It is in this intermediate s^ace where calms, intoBm* 
heat, heavy rain, and occasionally heavy squaHs, ait^ 
experienced. This is undoubtedly the most uncomftrt'' 
able, as well as the most unhealthy portion of Hmn 
voyage, occupying frequently ten days, a fortnight, O^^ 
even sometimes longer ; whereas the tUstance, aiMt- 
400 miles, might with ease be performed by meaxiB ^ 
auxiliary power in from two to thiee days — ^with tUilj 
advantage, also, that the ship might be impelled to ikti 
most favourable position in which to take advantage flii 
the south-east trades. The wear and tear of the saUk; 
which during calms is very considerable, would alao iNi' 
avoided; for they would, of course, be furled wfafli^ 
the ship was under steam. It is probable that iiki^. 
best course in such a case would be to the eastward flf 
the Canary and Cape de Verd Islands, so as to cross Al 
Line about the 20th meridian of west longitude, 
have little hesitation in saying, that in such a positii 
a ship would be enabled to make from 30 to 40 mif 
longer runs each day, when crossing the 8oath-6f 
trades, than if compelled, as is frequently the case wi 
sailing sliips, to adopt a more westerly course, and . 
sail close to the wind, in order to weather the eastei 
cai>es of the Continent of South America, and subject i 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



the liirtlitir diEadvanlage of Ix^ing bo often com^ielli^il tc 
■ Blujrten sail from the squalls thiit oocur in Ihn lidnitj 
jbTious, too, that every mile a oBip 
!o the wciBtwani ia a practical oddi- 
%ufu 111 Lwu v> itin uistance to be performed ; for« aa the 
counw IB eaelward, idler reachiDf; Hie proper parallel of 
«outh latitude, it muat neoeaearilj ba again run over. 
The aid of steam yiower would also be found very bot- 
VicBsble in the variable latitudes between the 24th de- 
gree uf south latitude, where the aouth-east trade ceases. 
Bad the 32nd, where the westerly winds nsi^ally begin ; 
~ KDd again, on the Auelialiim co^t, nndl arriviJ In port. 
Itianot. ■ ■ ■ • 



ia compelled to 



would be neceaaaiy for possing the BeveralportionB of 
the voyage reforred ^o, for more than 14 to 21 days. It 
is Dot proposed, therefore, to touch anywhere on the 
liaEEage for coals, Qor to carry a supply for any longer 
period than the latter. In & fBat-saiUng ahip. sUlfuUv 
C- — ,~.j :* 1 ^flj — 4.1^ ¥.,i: J *i...T -!___._. x- 



„ iBofce 
CI eijiensB from the ourtailmen 
night or three weeks, especially where there ir 
riderable number of paasengeiB. would go far to cor 
pensals for any adiUtional cost that the employment 
ateam power would occasion ; and there can be no doul 
■Uiot a vessel of this descriptiiin would at all times cor 
iDEind a rreferenro for passage and freight over ord 
nsjy aailmg ships, and would prohahly oblaiQ mui 
' lil^hec rates. The observations whic!i have been raai 
with rofereacB to the ontward, apply witli equal fori 



to the 1 



be found highly advantageoua in enabling n iJilp leaT- 
■ iug Sydney (o proceed rapidly to the Bunthward, where, 

«B lias alTEsdy been pointed out, there is a ceitain^ of 
-iBBBting with westerly winds. After rounding Capo 
' Bom, the same detention occurs as on the outward 

voyage between the S2nd and 24th paralleU of south 
, latitude, as wdl aa in tlie cnlms which prevail between 
! the 3i d and 14th degrees of north latitude. The veta- 
■-tious delays whicli sre also sometimes experienced from 
'; ^vorse winds on reaching the Channel, would hi like 
t manner be obviated by recourae to steam power. If na- 
' CBsaary, an ndditionaJ supply of coals might be taken 
, cm bomd at Plymouth, to enable the ship to steam the 
' Whole wny from thence to London. 

Mr. Deas TLomson then proceeded to 
f give Home practical hints on the rigging and 
L- construction of tlie vessels to be employed 
^in this service, recommending them to be 
_ftil]y rigged, fitted with screw propellers 
^^■capable of being feathered, and constructed 
.jjii the finest clipper lines, and of about 
J 1500 tons burthen. The power, he sug- 
sgested, was to be derived from two cy- 
^^inders of 75 nominal horse power, the con- 
ymnption of coal for which he estimated 
nt about 11 tons per day, or for 21 days 
(■teaming (which would be all that would be 
fteqnired on the voyage), about 231 tons of 
Buithracite coal. By this means, he consi- 
uered that the average passage from London 
Bo Sydney might be reduced to 70 days, 
Brheroas at the present time it ranges from 
) to 100 days. 

After giving some interesting statistics of 
e runs made by the Woterloa and Vimiera, 
r, Deaa Thomson concluded a very able 
,per by the following remarks, which have 
ngiderablevalne now, even under the altered 



As a mercantile specolation, it appears to me tliat 
the plan suggested pnnnises, underji'dieiuiis arrange^ 
menta, \eTy satisfactory roaulta. The prospect of s, 
certain and rapid passage would offer a atrone induce- 
ment to a large majority of cabin passengers, having 
occasioti to mp&e the voyage to and from Australia, to 
proceed by ships of this description, and to pay con- 
siderably Wher rates of paseag^-monoy than are now 
obtained. 1 would recommend, however, that the 
board and acoommodatioQ should be regulated upon the 
same principle in all respects Rs in the best class of the 
present sailing ships. Strong objecfioiiB are entertained 
to the system adopted on boaiil some of the Bteamera 

trade. For valuable goods, especislly in eases in which 
their early arrival would be likely to secure a high 

early rotom of the prooeedfl, greatly enhanced rates of 
freight would reaiuly be paid. The extraordinary 
ilnctuatioaB to which the prices of various deaeriptjons 
uf goods have become liable in the Anstralian maiket 
since the discovery of gold. will. I have little doubt, 
frequently create a strong comj^tilion for ileiglit. wMch 

munerative rates. 

Mr. Deas Thomson then proceeded to read 
a paper, containing a proposal for combining 
a system of postal communication with im- 
migration. 

This, however, has been bo entirely su- 
perseded by the arrangements now in force, 
that we feel sure u^e shall be excused for 
omitting it. 



THE SANITARY CONDITION OF SYDNEY. 

The following is tho paper on the above subject, read 
by Christopher RoUeston, Esq., the Rcgistrai-Ganeial, 
before the Philosophical Society, on Wednesday even- 
ing, June 10th, 1857, 

It will be recollected that at the last meeting uf this 
SociBtj, in 1656, a snbiioramittec of the Hociely was 
appointed, upon the moHon of Mr. Wise, to inveatigata 
and report upon the sanitaiy condition of the City of 
Sydney, as well as to consider generally the qneslion of 
social economics, with a view to placing before the pnb- 
lic, facts illustrative of the sanitary slate and social 
progreM of this City and Colony. 

Press ofbnsineaS6ndotbercaus06ha-ve intervened Id 
int the c ■ . - - 



ujpon the enquiry, aiid ar 

plated appoirttment of an OlHcer ot . , — 

defer toKng upon themselves duties which, upon liie 



HI ot Health, led tb 



-j.poiniment of such an ofBcer, would fall u 
especial charge, and be carried out with greater preei- 
sion under the sanction of mimicipal authority. 

It ia a matter of congratulation, that, alter mnch dia- 
eussion and opposilion.proviBionwafl made in the Muni- 
cipal Act for the appointment of (his ofBcar : and I am 
happy to find that the selection has tUlen on a member 
of this Society, one who has always shown an interest 
in its diaoussioDS, aiid who, I feel sure, will enter on his 
duHes with zeal, and carry them on with an eiunoBt le- 
pird to thepreBervatioQofthehealthand«ell-bomgor 



The BuL .- .-„ - — 

Ihe zeal and ability of the Health Officer apiminted by 
tbe Corporation, resign with pleasure into his hards 
the prOBecution of the enquiry with which they were 
charged. 



„ .jethallmiglittoJtBRdTaiilaKeortlieuccaaioD 

which this aniunuicemoiit proseutB, of TaTtng bdbti^ die 
Bociety snob observations licaring upuD the eanitBry con- 
dition of Sj-iIdd; bb the re^Blration of the last year nju; 
"^'-geat OH of practical ntilitj and iniettat. 

fow, BJthough the reeuUB of Iha tirat year's rcgiatra- 
iion of hirtha and desthe aiippl; uh viih many beta iu- 
lorenttu)^ in o Hocial, as wtAl aa in a sanitary, point of 
view, we shoidd bo cautious bow we deduce baXCy infor- 
eii<iea from the Qheervationa nT bo abort a period. The 
records pOBSeea uudoubtod value whan properly apjjlied ; 
iDdopendently of tJicir legal value, in determining 
queations of inharitsjicB. they ahow lu what ig thi 
of increoae of the population by birtba, and what 
decrcaae by deatba. Thus the exact etato of the popu- 
lation is brought to light ; and we have data upon which, 
by the aid of further experience, to found useful ndeu- 
lotionh, and, when conJirmed by the reiult of extended 
' ' -.a draw inferencoB that niay bo far to aolvB 
.. . ___,.,__g ^u, - - 






d prohlems with which new 
id, 

enquiry had been cooflncd to the more 

b are bom and out oif aonually from 

die to occupy 

lent of these 

belA Uy object has been to ascertain the cauees 
which have led to what I must term the eiceesivo mor- 
tality of this City, and to point out facta bearing there- 
upon, which gun but pasBing notice ae they may meet 
the eye in tiie columns of me daily preaa, but which, 
in the aggregate, are calculated to awalren us ttum otir 

circumstancee in which they originate and are found to 

The analysis of diseases is very imperfect in this Co- 
lony ; beMdes thosB paTtuking uf the nature of epide- 
mica, such as inflnonza. dysentery, diarrham, and fevers 
of typhoid and other characters, there are a vaat num- 
ber or maladies of daily occuitence, neither eibildting 

leaaly swallowing up their viorims from day to day, and 
bafflLig the iDgoaait; of medical science to dlsoover 
•their nredinpofling causes. 

It IB left for regiatratioit to determine whether they 
participate at all in the fluctcations of epidemics ; iliey 
are olossed by medical writers uuder the term of " 8po- 
radle diseaees," and are not uufre^ueally found to par- 
take, in their symptoms and teimmatjon, somewhat irf 
the character of epidemics. 

The greater part of those diseasBB voold, by the pro- 
moters of the cauae of temperance, possibly ratber be 
designated by the term of " Aliiohullc diseases." and 
many of them, no doubt, have their origin in, or are 
aggravated by, Intemperance, and are anppreasihle by 
the suppression of iliia vice; but so long as every 
eighteentb house is licensed fur its propagation, euch a 
conaummation is hardly tn bo hoped for. 

In order to secure reliable data upon which to form 
tables of mortality, my attention was, before the com- 
mencement of registration, directed to the necessity of 
inviting the eo-operatioa of the medical profession to 
supply me with corUficatos of the caused of death, as it 
was obvious that only in this way reliable data oonld 
be procnrBd, and I have great Batjsfaction in bearing 
testunony to the readiness with wliich the call has been 



Thef 



le facte which have thus been recorded possess un- 
douoted interest in a scientiflo point of view, as being 
the commencement of a series of DbaerratiDns affecting 
the ]awa of vitality, and showing the influeuce of occu- 
pation, locality, and climate, in generating disooae, or 
un^ovhig the public health. 

The promotion of medical science is one of the many 
obvinas applications of the fads collected. The expen- 
cnced practitioner will observe the extent to which epi- 
demics vary in thiB country as compared witi England, 
and will learn to administer remedies with due reference 
to the altered cireiUDetancee of the popolaCioD. 

: .t... ..t_ ,[,ajni,ieia of diseoscB 



He will discover that t 






le how I 



le practice taught 



The regietrstJon uf the causes of death, bendi 
tributing to practical medlcineo, will thna give | 
precision lo the principles upon which niB^aal i 
is conducted, and will tend to the improved tre 
of diBea«e, and to the diminirtioD of human snfia 

But. as prevention is better and eoder flita 
and aa tlie flrst step to the prevention of diaaan 
discovery of its exciting caunea, the regiitntioD of 
causes erf death is calculated to exor" — — ^" ^^^ 
rcct induence on the public healtli. 

The agency of these causes, and the intena!^ tt 
influence, can only be thami by tit . . . ^ 

kpjjui under a gen^ai ^etan flf f~ ~'" 
one or two remarkable features, iuuicilhhi m «w 
of the reglattation of laat year, that I intend ia < 



The high range of mortality in 
trict has been exhibited in the monthly tahlea 
by tbe Central BegisUr OlHce. and cannot have : 
to attract attention. Th^ go to prove, that, i 
much of the mortality la inevitable, being; imA 
Inddent to onr perisliing nature, mnch adm 



Id It 



negler 






and tbe ImprovideDt habits which are 
by long induigence in this vice. It is no 
to aHim, that one-fourth, at least, of tbe : 

may be expected to disappear befur 
amelioration. 

It may be asserted, I think, without fear cf VD 
diction, tliat no city In the world posseaeea witUB' 
Buch elements of health as Sydney does ; bat M 
density of our population " 
thoae sanitary precautioT 
air, efficient sewerage, abundance of pure vrata 
general cleanliness — which have been iiinnd, 
coontriea, neceaaary to the maintenance and SMU 
the publio bealtb : — bieaeed as we are by natiM 
have no right to expect immunf^ &om -liaffMfl, | 
disregaird ute filth of nor atreetn and alleyi.aw 
improper ventilation of the dwellings of the '-■-— -^ 

It IB well known that the 
towns is occasioned liy animal or vegetaUa 
with wliich the atmo^ibere is char^ii, -- 
degrees of concentration, depending on ____ 
tilth, crowding in dwellings, tbe doieneas of 
imperfect auppliea of wat«T, and the wBct e( 
drainage ; the hi(^ temperature of the munioer 1 
acceleiaten derompoBition, and increaees Che vii 
of the effluvial poisons, and of the diaeoseH wfiir 
promott, 
rage for many m 
vital causes td epidemics we have much yet to lem 
we know that, m given oircnmstances, where nm 
are immersed in an impure atmosphere, wime igt 
disease is invariably produced. \^liere there is il 

during the famine In Ireland ; where it is odd. 

becames a most fatal opidsmic. In warm clbnot 
have cholera, yellow fever, and plague, whfoh ■ 
desolate whole regirms, and not un&equantljl 



ited knowledge tA 



over the tracks 
world. 

It is beyond 
whence danger i 

let US not iivrito diaeaae by the neglect' . 

tlons whiob will mitigate (he fatal visitation: 
hitherto ought not to induce over-oonfidw ~ 
for a city breathing an atmosphere absol 



impt fro 



m atmosphere abs 
evoi^ optdemic, si 



tion has shown tl 

leas oggravaled ii .. ._ __ _ 

their results, " Internal aanitary a 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



39 



i 
t 



I 

r 



£ 



is, doubtless, exposed to danger, but not to the same 
extent as large towns which are left witiiout any ade- 
quate regulations for the health and security of their 
uihabitants. 

But we will turn from Hiese general observations, to 
bring under notice a few facts and figures which appear 
most prominent in the mortality returns, and which will 
be found set forth in detail in the tables which I now 
place before you. 

It appears, then, from these abstracts, compiled from 
the records of the Central Office, — and, mind, I am con- 
fining my observations to the City of Sydney, — that be- 
tween the 1st March, 1856, and the Ist March, 1857, no 
less than 1,340 deaths were registered in the Central 
Office; this is equal to 251 (say two and a-half) per 
cent., or 1 in 40 of the total population. 

Now, I find on reference to the tables of the Registrar- 
General of England for the year 1837 to 1838, being the 
result of the fiiret year's registration, that the mortality 
was 2.84 per cent., or 1 in 35 on ilie total population of 
Ijondon; but this was in a year when a very fatal 
influenza epidemic was raging. 

Taking the mean annuaJ mortality of London for the 
7 years from 1838 to 1845, 1 find it to be as near as pos- 
sible that of London during the past year, viz., 2.526 
per cent., or 1 in 40. 

The adoption of sanitary precautions since 1845 has, 
however, largely reduced tiie mortality of London. 

The Healtii Officer of the City, in his last annual 
report, says, that " the death rate of the city has been 
reduced -from a general average of 24 per 1000 of the 
inhabitants to 22. How much of misery and deso- 
lation are represented by the dijBTerence in these num- 
bers is more than can be expressed ; but you can easily 
^nagine," he continues, " tiiat an improvement to the 
extent of 11 per cent, in the health and vitality of a 
population, is a matter of no mean importance ; and I 
ta,y stress upon it, because I know that it is due in a 
very large degree to the operations of those sanitary 
measures which were put into action by my prede- 
cessor."' 

I quote this passage from Dr. Letheby's report, to 
show the effect produced upon the health of London 
hy attention to cleanliness, to proper sewerage, 
plentiftd supplies of water, and free circulation of 
fur through the courts and lanes of the city, so that 
we may learn the importance of attending to these 
accessary means of ameliorating the conditioi»<gof our 
own population^ 

The later tables of the Begistrar- General of England 
fsonfirm Dr. LetiUeby's report. I find in his 17th 
annual report, accompanying the abstracts of 1854, that 
the anniud rate of mortality for the whole of England 
In that year was 2.352 per cent. ; in round numbers, 24 
in 1000, or 1 in 43 of the people. "This," the 
Registrar-General says, "is greatly in excess of the 
Itverage rate, which in the last seventeen years was 
^.245 per cent.,— that is, nearly 22 in 1000, or 1 in 43 of 
tihe population." 

The excess of the mortality in this year was produced 
1^ aJDi epidemic of cholera, which cut off upwards of 
^^,000 of the people in London alone. 

Thus we see that the rate of mortality in Sydney in 
1856 to 1 857, exceeds that of London in a year of cholera, 
and tiie mean deaths of the whole of England for the 
last seventeen years, by 0.266, or ^ per cent. 

Now, it is generally admitted that the amelioration 
which has been shown to have taken place in the vital 
condition of die people of England in the last ten years 
hBS been in a great measure the result of the application 
cf hygeinic science to the exciting causes of diseases, 
' rected by lie numerical facts brought to light by 

cans of a general system of registration, and that the 

jue result may attend the operation of the system here 

I to be devoutly wished for. The facts above stated 

low how great room there is for improvement. 

Otur attention, to secure this object, must be directed 

} fhe Buppreasion of tibe vice of intemperance, to tlie 

leanUness of our streets, to proper drainage, to a plen- 



tiful supply of pure water, to the periodical purification 
of the courts and alleys of the city, and to the general 
social amelioration of llie people. 

The direct bearing of drunkenness upon the mortality 
of last year I find to be 2 per cent, on the total deaths 
-ybut this refers only to sudden death overtaking its 
victims in the midst of their debaucheries, — and refer- 
rible by no possibility to any other cause. Unfortunately 
I am not informed as to tibose deaths which indirectty 
result from indulgence in this vice ; but I have been 
favoured by the Inspector-General of Police with a 
return, which shows that out of eighty inquests held 
by him during a period of only three months, no less 
than sixty-two deaths had their origin in, and were 
directly referrible to, drunkenness ; and the experience 
of the present coroner confirms this statement. When 
we find that the casei^f drunkenness, brought before 
the magistrates at the Central Police Office, average 
neiffly 20 per day, we cannot close our eyes to the effect 
such a state of things must produce upon the public 
health, as well as upon the public morals. That this low 
state of morality has an important bearing upon the 
infantile mortality no one can doubt — the vice of 
drunkenness is not confined to the male sex, — but to 
what extent it contributes to swell up the number of 
deaths which occur amongst children under 5 years of 
age I have no direct means of ascertaining. 

On comparing the infantine mortality of Sydney with 
that of London, I find that the mean annual mortality 
of children under 5 years of age in London, during 
the 7 years from 1838 to 1844, was 8.653 per cent, on 
the children living under that age ; whilst the deaths 
in Sydney of the same age were 6.724 per cent., — ^that 
is, nearly 2 per cent, less; — ^but on referring to the 
later tables of the Begistrar-Geneml of England, we 
find evidence of a very improved state of things for the 
year 1845. The following figures represent me deaths 
under 5 years compared with the total mortality of 
London, viz. : — 

London, 1845. 

Total deaths registered, ... 24,525 

Ditto, under 5 years, ... 10,483 — 42.74 per cent. 

Ditto, under 2 years, ... 9,215—87.90 
Sydnby, 1856-1857. 

Total deaths registered, ... 1,340 

Ditto, under 5 years, ... 582 — 43.433 „ 

Ditto, under 2 years, ... 525—90.206 „ 
It appears, then, by these figures, that the mortality in 
iSydney of children imder 5 years is nearly 1 per cent. 
higher than it was in London in the year 1845 ; and of 
those under 2 years of age, over 2 per cent, higher. 

By the later returns of the Kegistrar-General of 
England, I find that the mean annual mortality of 
children under 5 years has undergone a reduction of 
between 4 and 5 per cent, on the total deaths, and if we 
bring down the comparison to the latest date, the result 
will be foimd still more unfavourable to ourselves. In 
the report already quoted. Dr. Letheby states, "that 
out of the total annual mortality of 2,910 in the City of 
London, as many as 1,119 perished before they had 
reached the fifth year of their age." This is at the rate 
of 38 per cent, of all the deaths. " In all England, the 
mortality of children under 5 years of age is reduced 
as nearly as possible to 39 per cent, of all the deaths." 
Whilst we thus see how favourable an influence has 
been exercised upon the infantine health of London, by 
the application of remedial measures since the year 
1845, we bring to light the lamentable fact, that the 
deaths of children under 5 years of age in the City 
of Sydney are over 8 per cent, in excess of the Oily 
of London, and over 4 per cent, of the deaths of aU 
England. 

If, as Dr. Simon says, and is, I believe, generally 
admitted, the infantine mortality is a certain test of the 
general health, I fear the Sydney tables, tried by this 
tesi, will afford very unsatisfactory evidence of the health 
of our population during the past yeiur. 

Now, how are we to account for this excessive 
infantine mortality ? In London, it might naturally be 






MAGAZINE Of SCIENCE AND ART. 



oscribed to hunger, cold, and Bfarvation ; to the crowded 
courts, ill ventilated dwellings, ood DoxioaeatitiDflphere, 
in the midst of which the parents eiiet and the children 
■■ '' ■ erfoodupoi ' ' ' 






. fed ; but 



irelj hav 



ouphtnt 



iBtence of any Buch prolific cs 



of death hi . . - . 

ment tor double our population, witli wages high, 
food abundant and cheap— and ;et we find our infoi 
mortality eiceeda that of London over 5 per i 
When we rafleot on this fact, we can come tn no < 



1 ngEregntlon of liuman beinf^ 



comuBred with London, and how the health of tbig City 

fit, comparatively, to bo affected, 
he CensuB Commiasionere of EnglaJid, in their 
repOTt on the census of 1851, calculated 160 square yards 
to each person in the metropolitan diEtdct (or 30.25 
persona to an acre), ooraprieing the whole of London 
with its suburbs, embracing* portions of the three 
counties of Kent. Surrey, and Middlesex ; whilst in 
Sydney there ore ISS si^uars yards to each person, or 

Again, in the City of London thero are 37 nqnare yards 



r 179 pi 



qual to flvi 



mas more than Sydney. Upon this tlieory, therefore, 
u: tables ought to oihibit a voiy different result. 

n Loudon at all corapare with Bydnojin point 

natural purity of the 

conductors or cistema we poison the water In tte course 
to our dwellings, is a matter wliich concerns every head 
of a family, and shonld be made the subject of minute 
inrestigation. for the poiaon of lead is highly diffusible, 
and is found to bo peculiarly acted upon 1^ the water 
which supplies Sydney, whether drawn from wells or 
from the reservoir at the Lachlan Swamp. It may 
happen, too, that the impuritjes of our cesspools may, 
from imperfect drainage, percolate through the soil, and 
contaminate the water drawn from wells within the 
city ; than this, no more proliff o source of disease can be 
found, and it is a matter deserving the most careful 



It may be urged that we receive oontributaoni 
mortality frora the countiy districts, as well at 
neously iVom England and elsewhere, « 



i for E 



Thes! 



ralids from home ; and flu 
advantages of the voluable government and oOm 
charitable establishments for the relief of the sick ud ' 
needy, ho.ve the eifect of inducing many, who «n i 
beyond the reach of medical aid, or have no meaniof 
procurmg it, to visit Sydney to seek relief. In oat- 
eidering this important question, therefore, the eBM ! 
produced upon the mortsli^ returns Irom these caiiMi ! 
cannot, of course, be ignored; but it maybe questionod j 
whotJier similar causes are not found to have a mon I 
unfavourable effect npon the mortality tables oT tht 
vast metropuliH ,J EnBlorid ; for I lirfieve that the dd 
and dying received into the hospitals of London tha 
tho foreign shipping alone, contribute in a much higtan 
degree to sweU up the tables of the one. tlian do did 
Infirmary and Benevolent lustitntion to increaf' '^~ 
return of tho other. 

But be this as it may, I fear it is impossiblo to f 
the conclusion, that the great sacrlfica of life, wl 
infantine or ndult, which is eihibited in tiie 
placed before you, is the result of a unful degrw 4 
neglect end recklessness, which call for the moat ean ' 
coQsideration on the part of those to whoae hands i 
entrusted the education, the moral training, and On 
government of the people. 

I commenced this paper by deprecating tha dt 

of hasty inferences from Iho facts recorded in th^ 

of a single year's registration. The concladon vUi 
they force upon us is not favonrable either in a sodil > 
eanitaiy point of view ; and it will be well to wilt tm 
result of further investigation, before we attiibnie iM 
trarily to any one cause, an ova which may hftvo hid Ji 
origin in many, and may bo found evanescent. 

ft cannot be argued that Bay defect in tlie reciriD- 
tiun law. or the mode in which it has been bion^M 
operation, can have produced the results that hsve ' 
brought out; for every death that may baiv^Me 
registration only aggravates the evil; and surelyAk 
enough to have shown, that, with the advantage! vUd 
Sydney enjoys by position and elevation, the dediak 
a ysar. marked by no eitraordinary exciting cuM 
should have exceeded those of tio metropolisn 
Engloud. with its two and a-half miUiona of inhatntanh 
in a year marked by the tavBgas of a 6,tal cholBB 



e part of the city anthori 

I obtaining this great necessaiy of life 



it i 



application of remedial m 



■h of the twain 



3. Of Uncertain Seat 

3. Of Nervous System 

4. Of Respiratory System 

5. Of Circulatory System 

6. Of Digestive Organs 

7. Of Urinary Orguns 

3. Of Generative Organs 

3. Of Locomotive Organs 

1 Of Integumentary System 

1. Old Age 

Un^edfied 

Total from aU Cau 



I 104 100 SG fir : 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



SUMMAST OF DEATHS of both sexes Iteyktercd m Sydney, from 1st of March, 
1856, iO 2811), February, 18o7. 



CiDBEB or Death. 


i 

i 


^ 

S 


3 


z 


3 


5 


S2 


^ 

s 


i 


2 


2 


1 


1 


1 


s 


3 

S 




3 


ri 

S 

P 


S 


i 


' 


s 


1 
2 


? 


1 


ZmOTIC UlSBAEEB. 

Endemk, Epidamo. A Contagi 


65 

86 
115 
23 

72 

8 
8 


26 

82 

... 


9 
4 


S 
4 

2 


1 
1 

2 

4 


IM 

S9 
147 

43 

1 
165 

1 
14 


4 7 

8.. 
6 4 

1 1 

5 4 

... ! 

...... 

V 


s 

2 

1 
1 

2 


12 

2 
M 

g 

6 

1 

1 


10 

1 
2 

a 

7 

1 

3 

n 


g 

4 
9 
25 

4 
6 
2 

1 
13 


6 
11 

26 
2 

2 


15 
18 


3 

11 

19 

1 


1( 
e 

10 

I 


n 

9 

2 
4 
1 


9 
S 

7 


9 

2 


2 

a 

1 


a 










4 


la 

224 
22< 

37 

93t 

E 
17 

1! 

3. 

10! 

- n 


BpoitAmc DiBKilsa. 
OfVnrrrlam SeiK.— DmpBy Bnd 

O/Ntreoas Sjiteiii.— DiBeaaes of 


[y Be»piralory Sjflrtmi.— Di«- 
BiBoaoftheLuiigH, *c 

V CimdatOTV Si^B.— Dui- 
eosex of tbo Heart and Blcxxl- 


2 






1 


1 


Of Digculief. Omoiw.— Dibmibob 
of tiie IJbniiBdi, Lirer, Ac, . . 

[)/ Uriaary Orffoiu.— DiaeMee 
ofthBKldne)4,*o. 

OJ Qeneralive Organt 

0/ Ion»n,«8B OrsQW.— Rheu- 
matJMn, DiEHUea of tlie Bonea 
Joinlfl.4c 

earn of the Skin 

OldAg, 

Ktfertwl Causal.— Violence. Pri- 
Tation, and Intuuiperanoo ... 
















...L 
„ 3 




















fl 


2 


1 


1 


B 
3 


















2 

8 


2 


11 


9 


2 


9 


■= 




■ 1 


■■ 


' 










"1 


•PW. 
















Total froni all CauuB 


378 


'T 


'= 


. 


». 


10 


G3 


65 


rs 


. 


+ 


58 


T 


28 


"' 


n 


^ 


^ 


« 


28 


1340 



CHRIS. ROLLESTON, EegJrtTOr-OenBnU. 



Tho reading of tlie preceding paper by Mr. 
KoUeston having excited Bome discussion, in 
, which Dr. Bland took part, that gentleman, 
. finding the evening far spent, offered to read 
a paper, embodying his views on the ffahject, 
at the July meeting. On "Wednesday even- 
ing, July 8th, therefore, Dr. Bland read the 
following paper on the 
. 8ANITABT EEPOBM OF TOWHS AND 
CITIES. 
Tub it.J, perhaps, is not far disUnt, when the gimind- 
plot at our town* and citieB will he held of infinitely 

No. 3.— August, 1857. 






1 the h 



howoter -deairablo, of their buildinK! Dot until tUa 
shull t»ke plaDe. it miut doily bocomu mora and mora 
obviouH. that it will be iu vaiu to eipeot any pcifect 
■or tmatwortliy HyBtem of aanitary raform, — a Bul|iect 
which. altlioDgh deforred to tiie U»t, ou^ht douhtlen 
to have been t!ie very first for oonaideration ; a mattar 
of -which it may lio tmly said, if we examine its 
TariouB bearingB. its connectioD with the spread 
or Biroat c^ epideuiica, oi well oa with the gene- 
lal health, welfare, hapiiincea, lonpevity, and hence 
with Uio general improvement and advancement -of 
iJio human race—" There is no price, w% coidd 
afford lo t*?, too hi^, in order to secure to tho in- 
habitant* of OUT town» and cirieB {I refrain for 
the present ftam the coneideration of oui cauntr] 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



The day lannot b« far distant, we would fain 

of the «ito of sny fututa town or city will be its 
probable ^' healtmneEa " or " unhoalthiness," iiL- 
cluding-, of course, ita " Iltaees " or " unfiCnoBa " for 
Bonitanf iioproveinant. The primary gurvay of >ach 
grouaif-plot, inotnding that of ita moro or less proti- 
DUitB vidultlsB, would tben Dot be conOned to 

canflguratiDii, ita heiglitB Hud lidgea, hollows or 
dapr^sionB, with memoranda as to any manage- 
ment which, willk dae repaid to aanitary priiK^ipteSt 
would either immediatdy, or b^ degteee, be required. 
Sfm^taLneiiualy would coioe into conHldorBtion tho 
meana o{ eogarias unlimflad sappltea of the beat w*ter, 
tile meatiB of uecuiiug the &eeat obtainable ventilation 
thiongbout the future atj, and that with the purest 
air-amuigatnetit, tiir couetructing a well deviaed 
Byateia of drainage, the plajmin^ of fiiture atreeta, 
aquarea, parkn, gaideua, markets, with ample 
** tiecropolitan " reaervea, in full accordance with the 
above aanitary ptinaiplea, with the carryini; out of 
which no minor coneideratiun should be allowed to 
interfere. 

Id addition, would bo made iirrangementq which will 
be mentioned by and by, for the providinE- of ar '- 



minor tttng;e9 or npnra alightly radiate fhnn a n 
range — a broad, conlinuouB height, tending north-, 
towarda the aouth head, and Kouth-weat towardi 
Liverpool. The several valleys situate between tl 

oventiral^ they descend to a level with the g 
bod of the harbour, constituting covee and Iwya, 
— '-'"h a large portion "' "^^ ^'~* i^-<i 



the lisfboor 



promGnndeB in every 
direction, together with an abondsnce of the beat batlia 
the locality oonld afford. 

In tho abovQ outline I have conOned u^self to 
sanitaiy objcetfl solely, I must, however, observe, 
if only in mere juatice to the subject, that other 
oljeota hnva in no iustanoe been lost aight of, much 
less sacrificed; but, on tho euntrarj. ua it is hoped 
it will appear as we proceed, many other liiglily 
important objaota will be more or leas fully attained, 
or promoted by the selfaame meatus by wMcli tiie 
ol^ecla immediately under consideration mil have to be 
ui^leved, 

Preanming that all Uiat has been above proposed had 
been fully realized, or at least planned and determined 
npou, we might then begin to thintr of building, and 
not till then. This is. of courao, the oonveraa of oui 
prosent Bystem, or rather practice, and want of ayatem ; 
at least, as far aa I am aware, the practice or itsage 
hitherto liaviug been to build BrBt, and then survey. 
In the sense now spoken of, it bo happens that we 
do not survey at aU ; whence it has ariaen, that, 
for the meet part, after a time, aa wo proceed atep 
by step, we become inuneraed, '* ate^ped ' " 
very lips," in au accumnlatian of " dilRcultioB, 
&r as reform is coucemad, " impractibilitif 

If proof is desired, I would only say to such 
inhabitants of tiia young city as recollect ita 
progress from its earlier yeara, " circumapice ;" — 
and jat, who is to be biarned? Doubtless "no one." 
The blaine is inherent in the nsage aa lo thia matter, 
and which, I believe. I may dcaiguate not only 
aa "immemorial," but "universa!," and that through- 
out all agaa, and, aa far as we know, throughout all 
countries. 

But in order to illustrate, as clearly aa 
the objeots of thia essay, I beg to select 
site on which this cili/ itte^f, as far aa it at present 
extends, is erected : not that the reforms I am 
about to propoaa for it ore. for the most part, any 
longer pacticahle, or at least likely to be adopted, 
but rather because the site of this city seems to 
offer the largest amount of material for the illuB- 
ttation of tMa subject of any with which 1 am 
acquainted. 

Sydney standa, as universally admitted, on a 
apot, ia every respect, nnanrpassed. if not un- 
_ IviJled ; the moat interoating portion of which 
CDDaials of a aeries of ranges of modeiats elevation, 
though, in soma instanceB, somewhat ateep. These 



Bae valleys, at their upper termlnatiD 
closed by Uieir junction with the main c 

' " 9 below, in that part of their cmiraa where uu 
the wnleni of the harbour, Ihey form pcMia 

thoHi numerous coveB and bays on tho sau£ sii 
of the harbour, which indent the north-east end 
the city, while the heoda of these coves and be^ > 
in every instance shallow, and preieut, exec 
about high water, more or less eitenoiviB fli 
of mere mud or silt, offensive, paiticiilnrly dmii 
the morning and evening, and yearly "— 

A site, such aa the above, in a sanitary poi 
view, while in ita natural atate, would be Urid 
olyectiouable. The sideB of tlie Yalloys, paitiouhri 
during the aummor, forming a spetioa ' 
tory Aimaco, tend to concentrate heuL, huu u 
aggravate the tamperatnre of that season at the sa 
time that their rloaed upper teiminatioDS an 
the lyee escape of the heated and u 






day 



antly- 



intensity which has h 







1, if not, under ordinary dtom 
atancea. of sufllcient intfiuaity to create disease 
any given ty]>e, is still injurious tn the hetmi, K 
that not merely on the spot, and within its imn 
diate vicinities, but not un&cqnently thron^BI 
tlie city, together with its environs, y/ii 
I am a^ongly impressed that this vety H 
morbific agent has already, on variooa om 
added much to the :-■---■— 
coBionally observed 
during the last thirty or forty years; what, t 

if my impressiou be correct, may noE h( 

from this cause by and by. acting on oi 
more dense popnlation, oud during tho i. 
— idemicB of an infinitely more destructive 
any that has appeared amongat u 
wnan neither elevation of BiU 

respects, or diatance itself, ' 

and thoee of no 'narrow extent, oouid be e 
to afford anything beyond a most precarious u, 
of protecdoo 7 But, if the above be correal, h 
can the site on which tins city is built be otlia^ 
in a sanitary point of view, than most olt)eca 
able? My reply wonld be, that notwithBtraS 
the above objactionalile qualities, the ^te in qt 
is one of tho most desirable with which I am 
quainted, inasmuch as fidly the same amount 
objectionable qualities attaches to almoBt BVBiy ol 
town or city, whether in its improved or unimiM 
stat^, as far as I am cogniittnt of the snl^ct, wt 
the spot in guesdou offers fociliCieB of the mr 
rare occurrence dae whore, for their remorali 
the same time that it presents tn UB innnmenl 
sanitary, as well as other, advantages of tho h^u 

The main objections to the sits of this cil^, bigefi 
with the principal means for their removal, hinpfaig 1>( 
pointed out in general terms — 

I now proceed to those details withont ■wU 
it would be imposribla to render a suljeet 
intricate, as well as extensive as the presB 
clearly intelli^ble, nr at least readily and unn 
taieably so. Let ua then suppose that a plan, bw 
on tho comprehensive sanitary principles abi 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



43 



Htated, tad beeo laid down -when the flito on «Hch 
the embryo oity now stands, wbb originally fixed 
upon, fur the great future seaport as wall as capital 
I of the Colon; ; and let ua anppoeo thnt this plan bad 
been unreniittingl; a<:tcd upon ever aince ; what 
would now have beeu tiereaulla ? Commencing Eaat, 






I Wea' 



if for the men 



a iijied nrrongemeDt. let na begin 
with RuBhcutter Bay or (Jova I What then long since 
would, or must, undar auch a s;etem, have become of 
thoae mud flata, which at present deface one-fourth, 
' at least, of tliis piece of water, exposed to tlie air 
the greater part of tlie twenty-four houra. and emitting 
— Te or lesB peatilent vapours, together with that low 
jDpf plot at its head, i^ing Letweeu " Darling 
Point^' and " Barlinghurst ?" The reply is obrioua. 
Not only would tlie whole of that apot, at the some 
" ne with Che mnd nuisance of the Cove, have long 
ice utterly disappeared ; but the Cove itself would 
it have been reduced in depth, as it LaB been, and 
at even at ila embcnchute, from about four to 
_jout two fathoms, while an^ ailt or mud that rai^ht 
possibly have collected on ita shores at the period 
-'' our first arrival would itself, long sinco, bare been 
aoTBd, and ueasDrea adopted precluding: the pos- 
aibilitj of any future re-accomulations ; while the 
— -■ and dlt Bu obtained might have been laid around 
lead of the Uove, and covered with fitang mnte- 
rioiSi HO as to form a broad embankment of only jnat 
■fidont elevation to bo secure against the inva- 
u of tlie highest tides, and that in the rougheat 
weather. 

Tliia broad water-line embankmont. in order to 
enable it to withatand the occaniooal waidungs of 
the waves or tides, would have been protucted with 



L low I 



u protuc 
ached 1 
1, would be a few broad, 



to V 






here and I 

descending 

' giving at all times an easy acoeaa to what would 
1 have been the clear, brilliant waters of the Cove, 
the convenience of children and female bathers, 
ile the " debris" resulting from the mere indis- 
sable levelling of " Darling Point" and " Dar- 

jhqrat," togetliHr with the contiguous sand-hills. 

would have afforded ample malerial for the due 
ling up of the entire space, now little better thau 

_ mere bog, between those two locahtiBB ; while the 

border facing the water would have been converted" 

' " I elevated plateau or terrace, jjossibly some 

J of this plateau, some two honfb'ed feet in 
L, and extending its entire Icugth, would have 
beeu lelt to the public as a " constitution" prome- 
nade, faeti on its water-front with solid masonry j 
K^uld communicate with llie waler-llue plat- 
f by fliglita of st«pa (one at each end), de- 
idewaya, so ns to encroach as little as pos- 
le hitter. The steps themselves would bo 
, of ample length ; and tu render them as 
oud eofs as possihh 
J ■ ■ 



thirty 



T ridge or bor- 
bat of tlie entire " promeuode," 
with balustrades, or a high iron 



-, together with 
would bo protected 

"" ' -er or land edge border of the promenade 
e been bounded by the course of the South 
Head Kuad ; but which in no place would have been 

U than a hundred feet in br^dtb, as constitutiDg 
. o of the HUN KiBT EMTBABCEs to the City; while 
the nnd itself, by ila greatiy increased ^evatiou. 
would have ascended to tbe Point at the one end, 
and to Darlinghurfit at the other, by the must easy 
gradients. 



^ to the Bay or Cove. As this small Oovo could 




cesses above described ; and, 2ndly, in addition, by 
throwing ocrosa ita embouchure a pallisade. coniriBl- 
ing of perpendicular iron rods or rails, protected 
with a covering of gutta percha, ea elsewhere de- 

The little stream of &esh water passing through the 
centre of the present ewgiup. now raised to a level with 
the contiguous road, conld have been readily provided 
for by tlie talented proctlcBl engineer, perhaps con- 
ducted to au urtiiioial tank on the beach, for the BUi>- 
plying of the bathers with such fresh water as they 
might require, while the surplus might be allowed to 
flow over the edges of the baain or tank, pure and trans- 
lucent, into the cove. 

Proceeding West, as proposed, we next come 
WooUooniDoloD. Here, the minuteness, and I fear 
dioumees. of the last description, may fortunntely so,.,, 
some time, inasmuch es tbe steps to be token here < 
would be much t^e same as Uiose just described. 
The " drodga" — the water-line platform, with the ro- 
doolion and levelling of the oonteiminous boighta — 
witjj tbe whole of the great basin or valley itself, 
would have had to be literally filled up nearly to Iba 
brim. Bordorod along its more extensive water-tVont 
with the fame species of artificial " terrace " or " pla- 
teau," and of about the same height — (some thirty, forty 
or fifty feet,)— as that at '■ Kuahcutter." there would 

stone steps, as a means of transit " to and fro " the 
water-line platform beneath. Here also a strip of the 
upper platform or terrace (not leas than two hundred 
feet in breadth), would have constituted a promenade 
for tbe pubfio, communicating by the easiest eia- 
'• ■ ' • mth the height of " Darling- 



r, along 



li the 



beautifbl rides, drives, aud walks, in the , 

from which it would liave been divided merely tn- a 
gale ; and should the waters of this beautii\il bay 
be still, as hitherto, used as a bath, then the same kind 
of giilta porcha water fence would have been also in 
requiidtiun. 

(Tale conUtiiKil nert monUi.) 



The following paper was read by His Ex- 
cellency Six William Dbnihon, K.C.B., on 

THE MOON'S ROTATION. 

At tlie last meeting of the Bociely a question was 
raised in tho conrBe of couvematiun, a« to the evidence 
which we possess of therotudon of the moon on its axin, 
and it was asserted by nome of the members, that the 
phenomena cuonecled with Hie motion of ttie moou 
round the eailb, and especially tho fact, that iu her 
monthly revolution nhe. nlwojs presents the some ftca 
to the earth. Au out alTord suiHcieut evidence of IhiN 

As this is a quei^iuii uhich fans excited some interesli 
iu England, it may be as well that a better, or, at all' 
events, a more i-karandformnl, explanation should 
given of the foots coimected with Ihe motion of the m 
than could Ic done in tbe course of the cunverEatioi 
the last meeting: and this I propoEo now to attemii 
lay before the bociety. 

In the first place, it is desirahle that a clear i 

Sould lie formed of tbe meaning of the teima ui 
fore we begin to reason ujion Ihe facta which thete 
terms are supposed to embody. The terms to which I 
especially allude are rotation'and revolution. 

Rotation, in tie sense in which I propose to employ 
Ihe term (which I believe to bo that which Is i>rdi-- 
narily signified by it), means the movement of any 
body round some Une. imaginary or real, within such 
boi^. A wheel rotates upon its axle ; the earth ro- 

""' nd an imaginary axis, passing from Pole (o 

if reference be made to any ^Ait\cq.\B:!E v™* 



44 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AET. 



on the surface of such body, that point is said to have 
an angular motion round such centre or axis, "which 
motion would eventually bring the point back to the 
same position as it formerly held; the time which 
elapses from the commencement of this angular motion 
till the return of the point to its original position, 
being the time of one rotation. A body when acted 
upon by external force may change the axis of rotation 
during its motion. A billiard ball acted upon at one 
time by the friction of the table, at another by the 
friction of tlie cushion, at another by the inertia of 
another ball, will rotate in the space Of a few seconds 
upon several axes ; but, as a body when teted upon by 
no external force, will continue in motion UTthe direc- 
tion originally impressed upon it, so a body like the 
moon projected into space, inrith certain motions of rota- 
tion or revolution, or both, will continue to move in 
accordance with its original impulse. 

Revolution, as contrasted with rotation, means the 
angular motion of a body round a point or centre, or 
other body external to it. The earth revolves round 
the sun, the moon round the earth ; a stone in a sling 
revolves round the hand which is employed in giving 
it the whirling motion. The diflference, then, between 
rotation and revolution lies in the position of the 
point or axis round which the angular motion takes 
place. In the one case this point or axis is within the 
circumference of the body ; in the other it is external 
to it. In neither case, however, would the inhabitants 
of a body rotating or revolving, be sensible of these 
angular motions, unless by reference to some other body 
or bodies external to it. How are persons residing on 
the earth made cognizant of this angular motion by 
which they make one rotation in about twenty-fonr 
hour0 ? As all parts of the globe partake of the same 
motibn, had we nothing to serve as an index, nothing 
to mark the point of departure and that of return, we 
should be altogether ignorant of the fact. We have, 
however, two special inclicntious by wliich we are 
enabled to decide upon the fact of our angular move- 
ment, and the time which is required to complete one 
rotation — these indicators are the fixed stars and the 
sun. The former, from their immeasurable distance, 
are the surest indicators. A line drawn from the earth 
in December to a fixed star, may, on account of tliis 
distance, be considered to be parallel to the line drawn 
to the slnne star in June, although tlie distance between 
the points occupied by the earth in December and June< 
is not less than lUO millions of miles. A star, tlien, is a 
fixed mark to which reference can always be made ; 
and if we find that an imaginaiy line drawn from the 
earth to a star makes a certain angle with a given 
plane passing through tlie axis of the earth at mid- 
night, and that, passing through all the various angles 
marked upon the circumference of a circle, it niaiks 
the same angle at or near midnight on the following 
niglit, we say that the period elapsed between tlie ap- 
pearance of the star and its return to the same spot 
mark the time of one rotation of the earth on its axis. 
I have said that a star is the best indicator of the 
movement of rotation of the earih ; the sun, how- 
ever, is the most inRikcd object of reference ; but in 
the case of the sun, the question becomes complicated 
Avdth the movement of revolution round the sun, or 
with the angular motion of the earth in its orbit. The 
time of rotation, as measured by the return of the sun 
to the meridian, day after day, diflers from the time 
of Isolation as indicated by the return of a star to the 
meridian, inasmuch as during the twenty-four hours 
wliich have elapsed between the two passages of the 
sun over the meridian, the earth has moved over a 
certaui portion of its orbit. In point of fact, the 
nimiber of actual rotations of the earth in 365 days, 
is, as near ao possible, ooil, as measured by the stars. 

Havinji^ thus explained and illustrated the meaning 
of the tenns employed, and the mode of determining 
the angular iiiovcnicnt of rotation of bodicFi, I will 
proceed to consider the plienoiuona ctmnccted with 
the motion of the moon, and to prove thiit <ho£e phe- 



nomena ore only to be explained by the ang^idar move- 
ment of the moon round an axis within its body, or, 
which is the same thing, a movement of rotation, thai 
period of whicli, when I'oferred to the sun, coincidei| 
precisely with that of its revolution round the earth. 
The pecidiar phenomenon to which reference is midfl 
is the presentation of the same portion of the suxftts 
of the moon to tlie earth during the whole of itB rt- 
volution, which is as if the moon were fixed at the ai 
of a long arm extending from the centre of the esitii, 
by which connection its revolution round the earth ii 
insured. Assuming this to be a correct analogy, th» 
persons who deny the rotation of the moon say, thit 
the body being fixed on the arm cannot be said to 
rotate on an axis, its only motion, according to then, 
being one of revolution. Before, however, we affim 
this fact, let us place ourselves on the sarfiEice of tiiB 
moon, and consider what our idea of our own motioB 
would be. AVe should see a glorious object in the eaithi 
to which our attention would principally be timed; 
but we should also see the stars, and in observing thai 
we should remark that they had a marked apporoift 
angular motion — that is, the star which at some peziod 
of lunar time appeared to be just above our headi, 
would some time afterwards (seven days of our time) 
be on tlie hoiizon ; in the same additional period it 
would be under our feet ; in the same additional period 
it would make its appearance on the opposite harim; 
and in another seven days it would resume iti old 
place in the zenith, and the same phenomena wooM 
be repeated from month to month, from year to yw, 
from century to century. When we begin to m- 
culate upon the cause of this movement amoBg w 
stars, we should very possibly assume that they urn 
all made for our use — that we were the fixed ccntn 
of the universe, and that the earth, the son, ol 
the stars, revolve round us; and we should, I \iKn- 
' ' no doubt, devise very skilful combinations of curm 
to explain all these motions in accordance with on 
theory. After a time, however, more correct ideii 
would be generated, and we should arrive at the oon- 
elusion that the apparent movement of the stars 
caused by a real motion of our own ; and we Bhonld 
begin to measure accurately the angular Telodty rf 
this movement — that is, we should observe the tint 
which elapsed from the period when the star uuswd 
the meridian of our abode to that at which it letumd 
to it again, and we should call that the time of aa 
rotation upon our axis. "VVe should, in point of ikt 
have exactly the same evidence of the rotation rf 
the moon, as we now have, from tlie stars, of the »■ 
tation of the earth ; and if this evidence be imfflrifi* 
to prove that the earth rotates on its axis, the 
evidence ought to be sufiicieiit to prove that the mooi 
docs so likewise. Were tliere no ang^olar motki 
round the axis of the moon — that is, were the riB 
which is once on the meridian always to lenaii 
there, then it is evident that the face of the moot 
which at one time is opixjsdte to the earth, wodU, 
alter half a revolution in its oibit, bo looking fi- 
rectly away from it ; but -^e find that this is not 
the case ; we find that the moon constantly tnniB ti 
us the same face, and we calculate, therefore, ud 
most accurately, that the time of its movement of* 
tation, as referred to tlie sun, is equal to that dU 
revolution round the eailh : a day, therefore, if H 
can call it such, to the inhabitant of the moon, is — "' 
to (fur lunar month in duration — that is, disregai^ 
the trifling changes caused by tiie in-egnlanties 
tlie moon's motion ; and, speaking in round nmnbe 
the tiuiu from sunrise to sunset is equal to 168 
our hours, and the time from sunset to sunrise ti 
same. 

There would, of course, be a difference betvMtj 
solar and sidereal time at the moon anakgons Ii] 
that wliich exists on the earth, but to that it is 
necessary- to allude at present; tlie facts which 
to be deduced from this difierence being the duntioi| 
of tlie revolution of the earth and moon round the 









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' MA8AZINE or SCIENCE AND ABT. 

METEOBOLOGICAL BEPOET. 

Btt>kky, Mouth of Joni, 18CT. 









From 


obscrmtw^ 


3 Caka 


tats 


a., 


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TEBFBBiTUEB OF AlB. 


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Weather, afai 


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30-254 


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W 8 W 


Nip^t miBta 




29-383 


49-0 


G5-3 


43-9 




47-1 


-00 




Ci. Co. 




W 


Peculiar clouds 


6 


8(HI2T 


52-5 


63-8 




22-e 




-13 


5 


Cu-Bt. 




vr. 8 




TS 


30KW4 




63-5 


46-1 


17-4 


47-8 






NLOd. 




B 


Cloud-bank to E 




23-950 


48-6 


62-3 


40-3 


22-0 


45-4 


-00 


4 


Ci. Cu. Ci 




8 


Lunar halo 






45-7 


61-3 


40-2 


211 


42-6 


-00 


5 


QLOn.Cf.St. 




BW. 8 




10 




49-4 


61-5 


41-3 


20-2 


39-8 






St. Ci. 




W 


1 Fine cold weatha 


n 


29-934 


49-0 


67-8 




19-0 


371 


■00 








w 


Continual disOt 
atorm clonda, ts 


13 


29-951 


50-5 


G9'9 


36-4 


23-5 


38-0 


-00 









w 


13 


30-122 


44-8 


61-0 


40-B 


aoT 


39-4 


■00 




Ci-8t. 




w 


lightning to Eiit 


l*B 


30-180 


46-3 




390 


24-6 


43-5 


-00 


2 


On. 




Cflhn 






30-192 


44-7 




37-3 


25-0 


41-8 


■00 





Ci. 




W. 8SE 


Change of whid 






63-5 


57-8 


40-T 


17-1 




-81 




Ni. Cu. 




8 


Very tbreateninB 


17 


29'560 




62-1 


49-3 


12-8 


55-5 


3-46 


6 


NLCu. 




SE. EE 


Heavy storm 


18 


29-428 


560 


62-3 


50-8 


11-5 


460 


■03 


7 


Ci-St. 






1 fresh breezes is 




29-468 


54-5 


63-0 


498 




43-2 


■IB 




Si. 




W 


Wales. Dark cot 


20 


39-565 


53-6 


61-1 


47-6 


13-5 


41-3 


-00 


4 


Ci-8L 




W. 8W 


I fused clouds 


lie 


29-682 


47-0 




45-7 


12-6 


35-7 


■00 











Very clear oit 


22 


29-690 


50-3 


61-0 


41-3 


I9-7 




-00 


S 


Cu. 






1 Light bree^ 




29-579 


55-9 


64-T 


47-3 


17-4 


47-0 


■07 




Ci-Cn. 




W 8 W 


SXSf"-' 


24 


29-806 


48-0 


63-0 


40-5 


23-1 


44-a 


■07 


4 


Cu-St. Cu 




ew. 8 


26 








39-1 


24-5 


49-6 


■00 





Ci-St. 




8 W 


Fine and diy 
Very clear 


26 


30-073 


46-2 


63-0 


41-4 


21-e 




■00 








8 W 


27 


30-003 


444 


61-6 




25-3 


41-3 


•00 


5 


Ci-8t. 




8 W 


1 Clear, pleam. 


3SS 


29-936 


Bl-6 


61-1 


40-3 




41-0 


.00 









8 W 








59-8 




21-8 









Ci-Bt. 


6 


8W. N 


weather 


30 


29-502 


530 


B9-6 


49-3 


10-3 


38-8 


-00 


4 


Cu. 


7 


W N W Sale 




29908 


51-0 


62-1 


43-9 


18-2 


440 


TiT 


■^ 




6-4 


Means and Sums. 




30-282 


61-6 


66-2 




T^ 


60-0 




10 




T 


HighoBt ) of single readings 




29-422 


41-1 




36-3 


i 


33-6 




" 




2 


lowest 1 at9Bjn.or9p.=L 


N.B.— The obBerratioue are noi corrected for diumal 


Cloud.-ThB eitent of cloud is expreaaed by lie taOn* 


TBTiBticm. The principal inetrumcDta liave beta com- 


the whole sky covered by it. 


parod at Greenwioh, and tha rBadingH ara all reduced 


The forms of clouds are denoted as foUowa, the dub- 


ber of days on -whirJi each Mud occurred dmiw 

the month being added iu flguiOB :— 

Cu. Cumulus.. ,9 Ci-Cn. Cirro-cumulus...* 

Ci. OirrUB 4 Ci-St Cirro-stratM ...JO 

St. BtratuB. ...2 Cu-8ti Cumnlo-etrat^.-J 
Ni. NimbuB...4. 


The ereatest range itf pressure in -860 inch. The 
mean gaseoua pressure of dry air is 29620 inches. 

maiima and minima is 53-0 degrees. 


The adopUd mmn tumperature of the month from 




Oione.— The mean monthly amount of ozone is-to i^ 


hrit. TheadoptedmaanofJune.1856,was48-4deg. 


G'6 degrees ; bj night, 0-2 ditto. 


Jfowtors.— The dew point ia calculated from readings of 
Nogretti'B and lambra'a dry and wet bulb thermo- 
meters, faj the use of GlalBher's tables. 2ndEdn. 


Winds.— The winda may be 
W N W 1 day. 


8 8 B 1 dv. 
8B 4 - 




W 8 W 3 „ 


and gp.m. is 4T'5 degrees. The mean elastic force 


E 1 


of vaponr ia -288 inch. The average proportiona! 


8 W 8 „ 

B 4i., 




being ti^en as 0, and satuiBted damp air as 1 00, 


^Bofn.— Mora or less rein fell on 12 days during the 




Calm 1 ^ 


month; the total depth being a -39 inches. It IR 


^ = " " » I 


colleded at one foot above the ground, and measured 


W. S. JEV0H8. 1 
















i 




ubie Bay, 




Sjdne 


.N.S 


■ 1 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



47 



THE PATENT LAW. 

In our last monthly issue, we directed at- 
tention to the state of the Patent Law, as 
it exists in this colony. The consideration 
of this subject is peculiarly in consonance 
with the object of this journal,, and we 
shall, by all the means in our power, give 
publicity to the extremely liberal provi- 
sions, for taking out patents, which are in 
existence here. 

In a very friendly criticism of our re- 
marks on Labour-saving Machinery, that 
appeared in the Sydney Morning Herald^ 
the writer warns us of the tendency of 
machinery to degrade the artizan into a 
tool, and he quotes Emerson's English 
Traits in support of his view. It can 
hardly be supposed that the writer was 
averse to the employment of machinery, 
more especially when it is considered by 
what very elaborate and beautiful mechan- 
ism the very journal in which the warning 
appeared is printed, and that every sheet 
that it issues is folded by mechanical agency 
instead of human fingers. 

We are convinced that for many years 
to come, there need be no apprehension 
felt that machinery in this colony, will be 
so multiplied as to produce the deteriorat- 
ing influence on the population, exhibited 
in the manufacturing districts of England, 
which excited the sympathy, and suggested 
the warning of the American Essayist. 
We firmly believe, that one of the greatest 
wants of this country is the adaptation of 
simple mechanical aids to the 'ordinary oc- 
cupations of agricultural and pastoral 
life. 

That there is ample encouragement to 
inventors to exercise their ingenuity in 
devising improvements will be seen by 
the following Abstract of the Patent Law 
of New South Wales. 

The Act under which patents may be 
secured in this Colony, is the 24th of the 
16th of Victoria, and was passed in the 
year 1852. The preamble states " that 
whereas it is expedient that the exclusive 
benefit of inventions and improvements in 
the Arts and Manufactures should be se- 
cured for limited periods to the author or 
authors, &c., and whereas it is doubtful 
whether. the Laws of the United Kingdom 
extend to, or have effect in the colony of 
New South Wales, be it therefore enacted, 
&c. ;" that the Governor may grant Letters 
of Registration for a period of not less 



than seven or more than fourteen years for 
such inventions or improvements, guaran- 
teeing to the authors the exclusive enjoy- 
ment of the advantages thence accruing. 
The second clause provides that the per- 
son claiming to be the author shall, previ- 
ously to his obtaining such Letter of 
Registration or Patent, deposit with the 
Colonial Treasurer the sum of twenty 
poimds sterling, and present a petition to 
the Governor setting forth his claim, and a 
specification of the invention. This peti- 
tion and specification is to be referred to 
one or more competent persons nominated 
by the said Governor, and in the event of 
their favourable report, the patent shall be 
granted and letters of registration filed 
in the proper ofiice in the Supreme Court 
of the Colony. The third clause enables 
the grantee of such patent to sell or assign 
the same. The fourth limits the ofiicial 
expenses of the patent to the sum of twenty 
pounds paid into the Colonial Treasury, 
and the fifth and last clause provides for 
the repeal of such patent imder the usual 
exceptional circumstances. 

This short abstract contains in fact the 
whole Patent Law as it exists in this 
Colony, and seeing it is so very facile and 
so cheap, we are surprised that it has never' 
yet been availed of. 

There are many specialities in tins' jcolony 
to be provided for, that would well^ repay 
the taking out of a patent. Let us glance 
at some. One desideratum is an applica- 
tion of machinery for washing the wool on 
the sheep's back. Machinery has done 
more dilSGicult things than this with economy, 
and those of our readers who are acquainted 
with the costly and clumsy mode in which 
this is accomplished at present, will appre- 
ciate the advantage that would be gained 
by an improved method, not to mention the 
largely increased value of the staple pro- 
duction of the colony, and the lessening of 
the cost of freight. There can be no doubt 
that a practical invention for this purpose 
would realize a splendid fortune. 

Take again, the waste of food that takes 
place in the country districts, in the boil- 
ing down sheep and oxen for tallow. 
Nothing but the apparently inevitable ne- 
cessity of destroying the flesh for the sake 
of the fat, could reconcile us to the fact, 
that tons of fine beef and muttoh are an- 
nually thrlfwn away. 

Now, can no ingenious chemist devise 
some cheap plan for preserving this food 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



for exportation, and trimming off the fat 
for tallow-making purposes ? 

In the first number of thia journal 
gave the specification of a recent patent 
granted in England for the preservation of 
meat without the aid of salt. We should 
very much like to see some experiment 
tried. It does not appear to us at all im. 
possible, and if it could be done. New 
South Wales would add a very large articli 
of exportation tn her diminishing list of 
productions. 

We offer one more problem to stjmulal 
the ingenuity of our young readers of 
mechanical turn of mind. It has bee 
their task, perhaps, in the course of their 
colonial experience, to have to cleave a log 
of stringy bark or blue gum timber for fire 
wood. It is the daily task of hundreds, 
or we may say thousands, in this city. 
A common axe is the implement used for 
the purpose. It is a most laborious task, 
and severely tests the patience and tries the 
strength of a person unaccustomed to thi 
labour. We think it would be easy to de. 
vise a simple combination of leverage, act- 
ing upon a powerful axe, which should 
eleave, without any great muscular effort, 
any ordinary log of colonial timber sub- 
jected to its power. It should not be a 
costly machine, perhaps not exceeding two 
or three pounds. We are sure a machine 
of this kind would be hailed as a grest 
boon by hundreds in this colony, and we 
hope that some of our young mechanics 
will turn their attention to it If they 
should succeed, they might obtain a patent 
right for £20, and we could safely gua- 
rantee them a large reward of fame, of gra- 
titude, and pecimiary profit. Who will be 
the first man to taVe out a patent in New 
South Wales ? 



TRANSACTtONB OP THE 

AUSTRALIAN, HORTICULTURAL 
AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

Sevenieetilh Monihlij Meeting, Aag. 4M, 1857. 

neld in the Royal Hotel. Hia Excel- 
lency Sir W. DeniauD, K.C.B., President, 
in the cbair. 

Members of Council present : 

The Hon. E. Deas Thomson, C.B., Vice- 
President ; Messrs F, Mitohcli, T. W, 
Shepberd, P. L. C. Shepherd, R. Driver 
Wm. McDonell, D, Mclnnis, J. E. Blake 
E. K, Silvester, F. Creawiok, M. Guil- 



foyle. Dr. H. Houston, H. It. 

and about fifty members and their friends. 

Tbe minutes of the last meeting were 
read and confirmed. 

The President laid upon the table two 
descriptions of seed — one wbich we may 
look upon OS the true Sorgfmm eacchara- 
tum, accompanied by its products, viz., 
flour, bran, pollard, sugar, and treacle, tbe 
original seed of which, the producer obtained 
from this society last Benson ; and the other 
a very similar seed to the saccharatum, 
but lighter in color, and whicli has in many 
instances been mistaken for the true seed, 
wbich he alleges that he obtained from the 
Hon. E. Deas Thomson, but in wbich he 
must be mistaken, as to this gentleman, nn~ 
doubtedly belongs tbe credit of having in- 
troduced into this colony this truly valuable 

The President stated that the above ar- 
ticles, together witli specimens nf Australian 
Cochineal, and Dye, prepared from the 
same, had been forwardeil to him by Wil- 
liam Malbon, Esq., of Sunny Bank, Dapto, 
and had been prepared in a rough way, 
the exbibitor not having tlie proper appli- 
ances at his command for developing the 
qualities of this really valuable plant. 

The President also laid upon the table a 
box of sewing cotton, manufactured from 
cotton grown in Moreton Bay, which pos- 
sessed the appearance of tbe best samples 
of that made from tbe produce of older 
cotton producing countries. The re^ 
were of the finest numbers manufactured. 

The Hon, E. Deas Thomson said, with 
reference to the first articles laid on the 
table by tbe President, that a correspond- 
ence bad taken place in tbe daily jouraalg 
respecting the introduction of the Sorghum 
saccharatum. By some means the seed of 
the common millet had been disseminated 
as S. saccharatum. 

Mr, Thomson then laid upon the table 
samples of the two kinds of seeds, stating 
that the true saccharatum had been 
forwarded by him to the Director of 
the Botanic Gardens for distribution. He 
said he had found it excellent fodder for 
cattle, that its seed was eaten by poultry, 
and that the Baccharino matter was capable 
of being converted into sugar by crystajliza- 
■' in, or spirits by distillation. 

Mr Thomson called the attention of 

ambers to a grass growing in tbe Domain, 

which possessed very nutritive qualiUsB, 

was of strong growth, and would sustain 



cattle during- tlie winter months, tlie Bead 
uf mliich may bs ?own iu May. 

The PreeiJeut inftirmed tlie meeting that 
» great quantity of the seed of this grass 
)iad been saved. 

Mr. Theodore West read a paper on 
nnalysiB of the Boil of (he llnnter. 

TtiB President tlioiight, in refereneo to 
this paper, the quantity of irou was rather 
large. 

Sir, West considered tliia arose from the 
water passing over ferragiuoua soil. 

Mr. J. E. Blake asked Mr. West if he 
found any phosphates iu the sotl submitted 
to analysis, for this was a substance re- 
quired in tho soil for the production of 
lucerne, wheat, &c. 

Mr. West answered, that he had not 
found any phosphates. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd read a paper on 
Native Plants, and the Pastoral, Agricul- 
tural, and Horticultural reeoiirces of Aus- 
tralia, being No. 6 of a series on this 
subject. 

The President remarked that concentra- 
tion of farmers in a locality would greatly 
facilitate their labours, and the improve- 
Dient of their farms, and thought that a 
great deal might be learned from our South 
Australian neighbours, they having done 
mnoh to improve agriculture by the im- 
portation of machinery, which must be 
done in this colony if any degrue of success 
in agriculture is to be attained. 

The Hon. H. G. Douglas spoke of the 
benefit he had derived from the introduc- 
tion of machinery, thrashing becoming 
cheaper every year. The thrashing ma- 
chine was much used in tho Cowpasture 
district. 

Mr. E. K. Silvester said that there was 
a concentration of farmers iu the Cowpas- 
ture district, sustaining the position taken 
up by Mr, Shepherd in his paper, and 
bearing out the truth of the President's 
remarks, 

Mr. W. McDonell asked Mr. T. W. 
Shepherd if he thought wheat the produce 
of New South Wales superior to tliat of 
Van Diem en's Land. 

Hon. E. Deas Thomson — When visiting 
the exhibition in Paris, saw wheat from all 
the Australian colonies. The New South 
Wales was, in his opinion, superior, and 
obtained thid character from the Judges, 
This wheat was grown on the Cowpasture. 

The President read a letter from Mr. E. 
W. Rudder, of Kempsey, on graasss. 



Tlie Hon, E, Deas Thomson considered 
that the County of Cumberland might bo 
made ten times more prolific by tlie iutro- 
ductiottofnew grasses, such as the Pampas. 

Dr. Douglas wished to know if any ex- 
periments had been made on the Guinea 
grass or staple grass of tlie \^'e3t Indies, 

Mr. Miles had sown some of the seed 
which came up, and looked promising, but 
died down in the winter. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd introduced Mr. 
Mills, of Newtown, who laid upon the 
table a tuber of the Jatrop/ia Manihot, to- 
gether with two samples of arrowroot, the 
produce of the same. Mr. Mills informed 
the meeting that the plant was taken from 
Tahiti to Samoa ; the produce of each 
plant in about 40 lbs. weight, it is propa- 
gated from cuttings. Mr. M. had made 
some experiments, and found that llie root 
yielded 70 per cent, of flour of the finest 
(juality, the remainder was useful for mak- 
ing cakes, &c., for which purpose it was 
used by the natives, who came a long dis- 
tance to obtain cuttings of it; the root re- 
quires cooking, which deprives it of its 
poisonous properties. Mr. M. thought it 
would grow in Moretoa Bay, or Norfolk 
Island, 

The President said lie should have much 
pleasure in forwarding the tuber to the 
Botanic gardens at Morcton Bay, in order 
that the same might he propagated. 

The lion, E. Deas Thomson proposed, 
and Mr. E. K. Silvester, seconded a vote of 
thanks, to the writers of the several papers 
which had been read this evening, and on 
being put to the meotinif by the chairman 
was carried by acdaioation. 

Several eaniples of grass seed were placed 
on the table frorti Mr, H. Ferris. 

No ballot being demanded, the following 
gentlemen became members of the soL^iety : 

D. C, Pool, Esq., Cockle Creek 

E. 0. Gregory, Esq., M.D., North Shore. 
Mr. HumplireyR inhardson. Botany-road 

transactions 2 
V. Solomon, Esq., Homingrea Park. 
W. Graham, Esq., Dry Plains, Coacoat' 
life member. 

Kichard Keys, Esq., life member. 
J. E. Stacey, Esq., Newcastle. 
Andrew Loder, Esq., Colly Creek. 
G. Kent, Esq., Pitt-street. 
Richard Brooks, Esq. 
W. H. Broughton, Esq., BrougliQ 

George R. Woojs, Esq. 



50 



MAGAZINE OF SOIENCE AND ART. 



George Cox, Esq. 

William Lawson, Esq. 

Thomas R. Leavitt, Esq. 

William Buckland, Esq., Macquarie-pl. 

H. Heron Beauchamp, Esq., King-street. 

Frederick Lassiter, Esq. 

P. H. King, Esq., Goonoo Goonoo. 

T. Woods, Esq. 

The following notices of papers were 
given for next month — 

Mr. Theodore West — A brief description 
of a singular insect production, found in 
some parts of Australia. 

Mr. Robert Meston — On the effects of 
acrid and poisonous plants upon graminivo- 
rous animals. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd— Native Plants, 
and the Pastoral, Agricultural, and Horti- 
cultural resources of Australia, No. 7. 

The next monthly meeting will be held 
on Tuesday, September l8t» 

The report of the first annual meeting, 
held on Wednesday, July 22, will be ap- 
pended to this number of the magazine, 
and the report of the Exhibition of Ca- 
mellias will be given with next month's 
iaransactions. 



ANALYSIS OF THE SOIL 

Deposited by the River Hunter^ during the hUefloodty 

♦ June^ 1857. 

Bt Mr. Theodore Wbst. 

The sample was taken from a paddock near the Long 
Bridge, West Maitland, in wnich locality for many 
acres the deposit was from 3 to 6 inches in depth. 

Per Cent. InlOOgrs. 

Vegetahle Matter 9*4 or say ^ 

Carbonate of Lime 3*3 „ 3^ 

Snlphate of Lime '6 „ \ 

Oxide of Iron 10-3 „ lOi 

ChlorideofSodium,(Com. Salt) 10 „ 1 
SiUca&Alumina(Sand&Clay)75-4 „ 75J 

100*0 100 

As the moisture in any soil is, so to speak, accidental, 
and very variable according to circumstances, it is 
usual (as was done in this case) to reduce the specimen 
to a dry state before ascertaining its component parts. 

For the information of any not familiar with the 
terms used, or the general result to be deduced from 
such an analysis, it may be well to explain that these 
in^dients are generally found in natural soils. 

Vegetable matter from dead leaves, &c.. Salts of Lime 
are invariabl]^ found, but in a limestone district in 
larger proportion. Oxide of Iron assists to give to a 
soil its dark colour. Common Salt is generally diffused 
throughout nature in small proportion ; and those esti- 
mated by chemists as insoluble residue, namely. Sand 
and Clay, constitute the greater part of all earmy sub- 
stances. As a whole I consider this will prove decidedly 
fertile. It would, however, be beneficial for various 
reasons to promote the natural drainage from it, and 
plough it in, as soon as practicable. It may seem little 
consolation to the inhabitants of a distnct suffering 
from so recent a calamity, still less whilst overwhelmed 
by a second similar visitation, to spesUc of the beneficial 



effects upon the land which usually follow sudi inun- 
dations, these effects are, however, generally known, 
and science enables the chemist to anticipate liiem in 
other lands, as the inhabitants of Egypt, from their past 
experience, joyously anticipate die annual rising of tiie 
Nue. 



The following letter was read by the 
Secretary :— 

To His Excellency Sib Wm. Denison, Kt., K.CB. 
Governor General, &c., of IS'bw South Wales. 



Sir, 



Kempeey^ Juhf^ \9tht 1857. 



It is with pleasure I now lay before your 
Excellency the following observations on two specieB of 
grass introduced into this colony. 

The first, to which I beg to call your Excellency's 
attention, is the ''Doob Grass" of the Hindoos, ^ Cyno- 
don DadyUmy This grass was first brought under 
my notice by a Captain Wright of the H.E I.O. service, 
who came to this colony with me in the year 1834 ; he 
was then on his return to India, where he had been on 
active service for many years. I was, at the period 
alluded to, residing in Spring-street, Sydney, in the 
house now occupied by Mr. George Reece. Captain 
Wright, when on a visit to me, saw some grass growing 
in the front of the house, on the side of the footpath, 
which he instantly recognised as the Doob Grass, and 
confirmed to me the valuable qualities attributed to it; 
the ** Hortui Oramineus Wobumensis,** edited by 
George Sinclear, F.L.S., F.H.S., &c., and publiidied 
under the auspices of John, Duke of Bedford. 

How tills plant became first introduced into Sydney 
is not, I believe, known. It was probably by acodeat 

On becoming acquainted with the facts mentioned by 
Captain Wright, I called the attention of a friend to it, 
on whose property, near Sydney, I found it growii^;. 
I induced my fnend to send as much of the root^ 
plants as filled a large cask, to his son, then in Van 
Dieman's Land, where it was planted, and I heard 
thrived well. On leaving Sydney for this district, I 
brought some plante with me, and had them planted 
near to my residence. From these it spread rapidly, 
and may now be found for 60 to 70 miles higher up the 
river, and forcing its way on every side, in some places 
covering many acres of land. ^ 

It may, perhaps, be interesting to your Excellency to 
know in wnat way this highly celebrated Grass has be- 
come so widely desseminated. Horses and nomed cattle 
are exceedingly fond of it, and as in this colony, duriiu^ 
the greater part of the year, this grass sends form 
abundant flowering stems, the seed of which rapidly 
mature, and before they shed on the ground are cropped 
and eaten in great abundance with the more succulent 
leaves. The seeds are so minute that they escape the 
process of mastication and are carried into the stomadL 
The seed is unaffected by the gastric juice in the rumin 
of the ox, and in the stomach of the horse, and is de- 
posited on the surface of the ground in the excretions 
of these animals, in which it may frequently be seen 
germinating, especially if deposited in a damp situa- 
tion. From this cause the gracs first makes its appear- 
ance on the outside of stockvards — working bullocks 
and milch cows, as soon as they are released, eagerly 
feed upon this. They sow the seed afterwards where- 
ever they go. Along the sides of dray-rovds it may be 
seen for hundreds of miles. It spreads rapidly over 
paddocks in which cattle are confined who have pre- 
viously fed upon it. 

The Doob Grass adapts itself to every kind of soil — 
thriving on sand, clay, and ^avel,^ on exposed and 
otherwise barren hills, on the nch plain and brush, and 
on low damp lands. It endures tne greatest heat, but 
becomes brown and dry from the effects of frost. It 
sustains the closest feeding off without injury, pushing 
its way with its long wiry side shoots in all directions. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



^hicli it holdj with grea 









, , ._. lU of tlie bavrow to keop it n 

Vrith this singls oiception I believe it to bo the 
VA-ltiaJjle gra&d produced in this colony, and as it bo- 
eomes more eilended. will rvlicvc t)io Btockholdec f 
thoBo groat losaw nan flufjt^oed darinv peasonE 
dtonght. Captain Wright infunood mo that lbs I 
dOM doring aeaaonaof diou(;Lt. in India, dig up 

It appears from' " BintlBai." to have boon introduced 
to ike notice of tlio Dnke of Bedtbtd by the Maiquk of 
liaatings, who aupnlied luni with seeds for his eipeii- 

From ^e Icatiaiony of Sir William Joooi "every 
law book, and simost ovoty poem in saoacript contains 
frqqnent alluaioni to tlie Iiolinem of this plant." In the 
fourth beda in tlie followiac address to it : 

" Thee, Darblia 1 tlie [earned proclaim a Divinii 
not imbjcct to aj^ or death ; Thee lUej call the armo 
uf India — the preserver of rtiipons — the destroyer 
cnemies-^a gem tJiat giv« increaae to the tielJs. . 
the time when the ocosd resonnded ; when the clou 
iiiannured, and lightniogi flashed, then was Darb 
produced pun aa a drop of Hue gold." * 

Highas this oriental panegeric appears, when stripped 
of all hyperbolo, it is not moro dian its highly valooblo 
pit)perti» entitle it to, in hot climates subje 
dcougbta from atmcepheric atiditj. 



Sinclear es^mitos the produce 


leraeroa 


31301 12 




Dried di 




HOSa 15 




Nutritiv 


e matter 


B7a 6 6 




to which I won 


d invite 


Tour Eicel- 




1. is die" Suiiblk Grass.- 


I'oa Aimua. 


The introduction 


of this plant a 


soon told 


Borne ma- 


cbin^ry, the wheels of -which we 


re pHrtetted with hay- 


bands bound roi 


and them, was 


receivod 


ly me from 


Kni^lapd, and u 






As the hay- 


bands were untwisted I intention 


\[y shook the hay over 


the soil, so that 




contained might have 




inatine. This 




Dt 80 far suc- 


cceded, that tiju 


Suffofk Grass 


made iti 


apiiearanto. 


This look place 


bout 14 veara s 


u™, duri 




tiie ^stribntion 


f the plant has 






3.blo. I have fa 


nd it growing i 


f:!"='i 


on brash soil. 



uraged in this colony. 



intlydorin, 
iloable additio 



An opinion has been advanced bv an English writer, 
a. Mr. Hillingfleet, as to Its beii^ ""likely lo be the btsc 
grass for the dairy." 

The distribution of the Poa Annua is effected in 
predieiy the same wav as the Doob Grass, throagh the 
. enUlily of cattle and ^ 



Kncloar o 






IS follows !- 



lb<. 



dnce, per aero - 5443 
to ditto. Dried - 1905 12 Q 
ttitiva Matter, do. 212 11 + 



Begoina: your EiroUency's 



BegBinj 



hall feel much gratiSed. The; 
celleney may think flt. 



mt Eicellency's 

Most obedient Bervant, 

B. W. nUDDBR. 



No. I.— Bv Mh. T. W. SHEPHEOn. 
Thk Bnbject which I propose to bring under yonr notica 
this evening is fraught with much interest, and altbongh 
hitherto afmost entirely neglected bv the colonists, at 



e attentive consideration of this 



.eeuna held in the School of Arts) the 
^ocietv was particularly pledged to give its best atten- 
tion. In disconrtdng on the Native Plants of Anstratia, 
it will be my endeavour to IllastraU.fiiBt. the maleriKl 
uses to which some are, or may be. apptied, either as 
sojipljing food or clothing for tnan. fodder for bis flocks 
and Ins herds, timber fiir his shipa. honseg, implomenta, 
and utensils, or chemical and other properties useful In 
his manufactures. And second, the more refined moral 
and intellectual applicability of others, to aild beanty 
and rtchoess to our flower gardens, to add grace and 
grandeur to our porks, plantations and landscapes, and 
to increase our knowledge of the varied and beautjfnl 
phenomena of the vegebible world, by throwing light 
upon the science of £itany. a science which I am in- 
clined to believe is yet in its infancy, notwithstanding 
the wonderful progress made within the present cen- 
tury. To successfully falfll such on ondeavonr. moM 
appear a herculean iask, and 90 1 foel it. It is fat 
above the capacity of any one man to master all this, 
and it is far above my cipacity In really master even a 
portion of BO vast an enquiry. I therefore enter npen 
it with considerable diffidence, convinced of my ntter 
inabiUtv to do it the justice it deserves. Feeling tJiis 
diffideuU. I am nevertheless im]>elled to do what I can, 
encouraged by the conviction that liowever little in- 
formation may bo given, yet tlia intention will meet 
with your approval, and the ahoncomingi with yonr 
consideration and indulgence j also that by starting 
such an important snbjoct for enquiry and discusaton 
other members will be induced to think and to study, 
and give the result to our society, thus drawing the 
greatest possible amount of ability and research towanl 
a subject of more importance to our temporal well- 
being aa a nation, than anv other that can be thonght 
of. Such a number of subjeota. all of an interesting 
and instructive nature, have been proposed for discus- 



lo tbo introduction of the anbject sL 
reserving for futnre, and 1 hope nut 
dcas andconclnsiom aa 1 may fror 
E at. iu considering the capabilities 






id horhs. fmits, r 

In this island CO 

square miles of c 



itryat 



the 
relhrongh tl 









greatest measu 

total absence .. ^ . , 

from a deHrioncy of food fbr sheep and cattle where 
water does eiist. In some instances the Govemment 
of this colony estimate the grazing rapablUties of 100 
square miles of country bounded by 10 miles of arivar 
at aiO head of cattle, or 100 acres for the support of 
one btiUeck. Astounding as this statement may amiear, 
vet it is not made without suindent grounds. Some 
actually occupied, and known to 






at 300 St 



^.„ ...... , frontage. J.. 

isnallr high annnal rent of £30, with £189 pi 
iltogctiier £325, or the merest froctioB over on 



■r 192,000 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



Ererr ono who bsB traTelted mncb thronih Aus- 
tralian lands, mast ha>e obierved ho* rioh and how 
varied areher natural emucs, snJ ho* Cbobu In one 



ct differ frui 



I thoio 



....._.. . _ imongit Ibem 

may bo found po.afliBiog all the requLstto qualities 

hearted Auatralian, wbo miij have (he opportiinily, 
to let no ohancB escape him of turniii(r to bia 
counti^'s adiantac^ any IdOt or quality ho mny have 
Observed in our ustive erassee, for herein lios her 
Brentest weatnoHS, as dooa her BreolcBt utrenifih. 
Her greatest weakneas. -lecau SB unless her pastures 
bs made tdoro productise, her main resoorce— wool 
— niu»i soon cease to inoreaso from want of food for 
faor sheep, (^er greatest atreaijtbj becanse the laud 
already occupied, if improved in producti'eneiB, as 
there are somD and good reasons to think it mac Up, 
there woald scarcely he a limit to the increase of 
that commoditT which has so loni; and bo profitably 
been our Btaplo Pxporr. And I am proud to ba;- 
thaC b; means of the Horticoltural loiprovemen 
Booiaty an opportunity ia tmhp aDorded to every om 
vho may so desire it to offer his mito for tbo genera 
benefit of the oountry, abd liy nho^e meniis the in 
fbrmatioo Ihaa obtnlued will be spread throiigb thi 
length and the breadtb of tho land, 

While I wish thus etrotigly to advocate the desir 
ability of enquiring into the capabilitlea of oui 
native grasBBB, I do not daaira to conflne our re 
■aarchoB to tbueo alone. Ko; I wonid rancnok thi 
world, from the backwooda. aaTannabs, and prairiei 
of the Morlh and South Americas to the atsppos o; 
Russia, and the plgiiis of Egypt, China, and India, 
before I would diaparingly aubmiC to hear AuBtralii 
prooiaimed a barren desert, fit only for the hablta- 

But let us just look around and eiamine what na, 
tare has bo liOerally bestowed upD 
duty aa Christiana as well aa cit 
proper use ef what bas been given 
oase given with no niggard's baud. Hera we . 
HBTOely an indigenous noxinua weed ; the very b 
so mnoh complained of by our woolgrowore, 
spreading to rapidly -...-.■ 



ea^l 
tbrouEb the 






are of foreign origin, and 
them to take i 



folty i 



'ration b. 



a ring our 
ualiylearinE 



d it, I 



■y for 1 



boundooduty, V( 

The auhjeecia 80 BDggesti , , „ .._ 

of tbooghc. (bat one fiuda iiimai'lf astray for lan- 
guage to eipreaa them. A thought or an idea is 
often cODCeired, only'to fly away into oblivion; 
others rush into tbeir place, only to follow, making 
one re^t that BOme apeclea of photography haa not 
been diBoovered wliich could take impreasions from 
mind as well aa from matter. Howover as no stiuh 
diaoovery has yet appenred, we must eoutPnt our. 
eekes with tlia old plaa of doing the beat we ean 
wilhont suob aaaietsrae. 

But to proceed. Let ub now supp.)ae that we 1: 
Enoceeded in covering our hitherto almost bai 
plains with permnui'nt graaa, by whose means we 
enabled to feed a vastly increased quantity of at 
within reach of water. The queslmn now supp 
itBPir,-Wbnt are we to do with the land where 
« with at Ipaat 



feet above the level of the sea, and fo 

not more thin half that "levaiioo. 

nature tlie water which falls npou it during heavy 
rain B mu at have tome mesna to escape. The nr- ■ 
meina, namely rivers and oreeke, being here wi 
ig, eitber evaporation or absorption must be tb« 

That so great a quantity of ri " 

~ -" '- -holly BihauBled by evaponitloii 
lere. seemi impossible. Absorp. 
ID, men, must ee [be main outlet for the mper- 
mndantwH(eF;thBt euch iathec^iae laee no reason 
doubt. Infact. Ibarescenatronglyflowingslreama, 
hose oourse I have traced for » few short inilei, 
id found disappear as It were into the bowots of tba 
,rth. For the most part the nature of the aoil iu 
eifl parts ia well oalculated, from Ita porosi y, to 
iBorb water readily. Again, this tlatoeBS oi the 
rface preventa the oolleotion of water in dams, 
asrvoirs, or tanka, which are uudautilediy the beat 
anaforthia- — ' — ■■■- 



' thia purpoBB, wlieri 



,g thorn 



This 






[tit a amgla day, in this birthplace of the hn 
inda, is sinking wella. And what I have said in 
foronoe to the nature of the country affords ampli 
roof of the probability of securing an abuadan 
ipply by snoh operaLione. t will not pretend b 
ly that, by ainking a few wella, water enough might 
) procured to supply a herd of cattle; but I do 
link that the produce of one well would bo aufll- 
eut to furnish the Urgeat Hook of sheep that oui 
Bhepberdod ; and what matter if it ra- , 
' " ■' ■ 1, the expenditurig 

ruLur" HU auuuuouL profit. That tbll 
>t long since occurred to, and been oar- 
. some of our Squatter Kings, whose only 
ind tresh paaturea for their constanilr 
„ flocki is 
able : but 1 suppoai 






very reniark- 



plai. 



iwiiliirj 



biiahed ayslem from fear ef being isuehed at la 
of fnilore, Ac. It la only a few days einoe, a 
iuteiligent settler from the northern diitrtota 
me he iras laughed at and called a madman by 
quatting neighbours, for endeavouring to form 
._! uf ijjg rona, which ware biujjy 



inded others to do 
quently been lauubed 
nJ BUgEflsting ai 









a fre- 



willh( 



ir Society will ipsodily 
, perhapi. 



improvers, and, in grateful rcmembranno of the 
benefits wc have conferred upon them, earns fyt- 
'ard with their eiperiDiioe and their purses, and 
saist ua in our endeavours to promote tbo welfare 
f our country by assisting vi> inorease and deveiope 



la of Con 



L after 1 



BO greatly increased its oapiitiillties ns regards vege- 
tation ? My answer is, get it. But how ? it will be 
aaked. By trying, will be my reply. Tbe possibi- 
lity of proourmg witer by artificiel meana, at least 
in lUffioient quantitiea for sheep, appears to me to 
be DndDubt«d. The country in question, as we have 
already seen, ia composed almost uninterruptedly of 
level plaiui, seldom attaining au elevation of 50O 



ling now shown the meaue by which the ex- 
tanaive traota ao poorly fnroished with food and 
water may prohahly be aupplied with belli, I maat 
leave detail until i again have the pleaaure of ad- 
rtresaing you, when I will endeavour to point out 
Rome species of native grasses, whlob would be 
liki>ly to anaaer the end in view ; and also tbe best 
mode of proceeding with well-ainkiug. The other 
portiona of my aubjeet must alao be deferred until 
another opportunity, for I fear I have already drawn 
too largely upon your time. I will, therefore, con- 
clude by thanking you for your attention, which 
encaurBi;ea me to proceed with tlie enquiry I havg 
taken il hand; aa your constant presence at our 
meetings will always be sure to encourage tba 
efforts of all those who may have the privilege of meet- 
ing you here for tlio purpose of tuutual in 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



55 



PHOTOonAPHT.; 

Wo ertrart, from a retent nnmbet of the Photogra- 
nbic Societv of England, a noTtioTi if (lie uldroBS do- 
livered bj iha President, Sir P. Pollock, Lord Chief 
Bbtod, at the anaod meeting, held Feb. 6. 1867. In 
lilliudDn ta the pTOoess of PhotogTMih;, to vhich we 
dirwted. aCtentian in Jane last, Uia Chief Baron makea 
KHDe aamirable saggeadons. th« Tslne of which will be 
mnrehighlyestiniatedhere^BninEn^laud, Banished 
Une are from thu tealma uf ait. this wondscful jiro- 
Aai bids fair to enable us to Iwliold ita aiastec-ineres 
cpllticted fhnn the gnlLnritf of the Luovco, of Italy, of 
Dresden, and of Munich, not roprodocod by the uncer- 

of the snn'B rajs. The Chief Baron aays— 

" I cannot avmd noiidng, tno, one fsot, which has 
struck tny own mind, i believe few poraons are una- 
ware. Chat by the comhinatjon of photography and the 

jeda are presented to the public, by wliich the iirt of 
engraving ia, in snrae roeaanro, suporacdRd by photogra- 

ihlc offbrta, comhiued vritli the electro-galvanic hatterv. 
^nde to the pmcesa discovered by Mr. Pretsch, \t 

and eiposed to the light, has ths thickness of its sarfoco 
Toaffectad."-- "^ '■' ■ ■'■--'■- '-■- 



a plate c 



copper 



wuuld bt 



of it is taken by gntta percha, and then by the 
typo proceBa the cast of gutta percha is lakop 
and thna yon get on copiier that which '•■ 
for the original auhatance. There ■' 



Q^cc is, that you ca 
the spirit and char.- 



«nter. or itself rormiajc a aontiHaoai lins of nteps 
Mng 'ua entire lenEtb. and thia again Bumountwl 
with a plateau or termee ; ia this instance. Itom tfao 
Eompnrativo lownosi of the caatleuoua anrfaae, per 
haps not more than some 14 or IB feet in belKht, ar^ 
posaibly aliout 40 or SU feet broad. 1'be wholes, 
thisportionof the gardeoB, at least aa far upw*'» 
as the praiont wall ( which perhaps it would he ""' 
to fBpla«e with a somewhat more eliaible o^"™' 
vanoe.) with perhaps some oitantof the low"-" ""'^ 
tion of the inner Hardens, themaelves being'"'''* °' 
nlso id due proportion. This BpHce might th prewnt 
formed, for its oi tent, one of the moat o^fL""" J^*"' 

pida profuaelt adorned with beds of rari-'"'>!'' .""^ 
lifol plants, and ou the water aide, illi' ""Pa-xIfU" ■ 
the moat part, by the brilliant watonf "• .■"I'l l"'" 
Ihe air fram which no loncer, as hi'l'^fj; '"' ^^1 
with mepbilio vapours, r- g fiw ^f«" °««J 
latinc masses of pol' mW P"? proposed 

wherever praotioah' „■ in»i?niaoa..oe. 

'"^-''^''r'L'"" ■-."rv'f^-'me? 

by merely t! ■ oV' '"" '".""' 



.ghcutter and tVoelloo- 
.•ed by the operation of tbe 



Photography 
that B (lass for .: 
tliH King's Collcf 
lecturer. The repi 



SASITAEY BEFOBM OP TOWSS AND 

CITIES. 

6t Db, Blikd. 

(Continued fTma. last MonlkJ 

The materials for the oarrying out of this list 
leries of sanitary improvements, are not only ample 
bat of Che utmost readlneasof access as well as ap- 
ptioation— ia fact, on the spot, botn tha best kind of 
■tone for aonttruoting the nisuive facements, steps, 
or tor any other similar purpoaaa, aa well as an 
abundance of fragments of rook, and dobrla, and 
Mrtb, for tilling up the basin, and this exclusiTe of 
tha almost ineihaaali hie amount of material of the 
best deseript ion. for tha same purpose, derivable 
from tho Siind-bills, stretchiog along its southern 
border, hitherto complained of aa a mieohiecous 
Duiaance, and wblvh \a the above operation, might 
perhnpa have beea oompletoly "used up," or as 
mooh «, as might have beeu aeetoed desirable, " in 
tbe carrying of it out.'' 

Seit would come. " Farm Cove," in the 
- " Domain,'' the head and aide sliorea of whiah oall 
I loudly for the ■'dredge," aud, with this, the waler- 
line platform, broad, tliough not so broad bh Chat nt 
Roshoutteror Woolloomouluo, but protected wiili a 
aiigilxr maaaive atone facing, and furnished with the 
low atopa befui'c dusciibcd, dusnendiog towards thu 



.a original depth, and gi 






t now dry land- 









frontages 

__. . . . . . iperty, might, and 

doubtlesB ought, the whole of them, to have been re- 
tained aa publio reserves in perpetuity, convorliblH 
from time to time, as oallcd for, into publio quays 
or wharves, capable of almost unlimited extension, 
strotohing by degrees, always somewhat in advaooa 
of the publio demand, along the entire Margin of 
every Cove or Bay, found Bt, or that could be apared, 
forsooh purposes. 

Asaaanitsr]' measare thia would have been of 
high importance, by udC only preserving to the City 
a means of securing the full play of a frea current 
of pure air. Irom a great variiTty of direetions, unin- 
terrupted by walls or other encloaurea t but by its 
creating an endleea eeriea of broad, healthy prome- 
nades, well suited fur the use of the rapidly h — 



proper 

The Circular Quay, built throughout of solid ma- 
sonry, raised perhaps aamewbal above its present 
level, and no where lesa than about 100 feel in 
breadth, would then have formed a fitting ootu- 
meoccment to this extfnsive. brond, waterlinc-rdd, 
furniabed aa from time to time required, with their 
due proportion of welt eonstruct«d public atorea. 

While on tbis sul>jeDt, leannot but notice a praa- 
tiee too prevalent bitberlo,— that of ahenatioK to 
individuals the greater portion, if not the whole, of 
the moat important aiteain the City, and its environs 
— BO much so, indeed, that aoarcoly a fool of ground 
within the ptcviuets of this City uid Ita purlieus 



r 



MAGAZINE OB" SCIENCE AND ABT. 



w remsina to tho public— ■ pmotioe psrtloolwly 
^ wrvublB is our wntir-froriiii. nnil wliich doiibllws 
haa jnfliatiHl an the public health iidcI comfort, as 

tL ORloulable smount of irretrievHl'le injnrj. 
mtlut to return. Tho wharf itiplf would, | 
for I have before BuEeealsd, hare been impro 
beaivn flomewhutrniged iiboveila preifnt lei 
to Itf er tlint would bnTc hetn no or not, doubtleia 

obaerV» paA of the " Quiy." oneht to haie bee 
dreateW four timea tta present width, while Bridgi 
Her grMkeelher with t^a lower border of ■- Msi 
be made mte," if lolul; for the a&nitary purposes of 
— must KiOllOuld hmo been rained, eTen yet, BOme 
ber sheep, ifeet. to the irreat iinproroioent, purtl- 
ftlread; occupunDitary point ef view, not merely of 
there are somefor rcaiona »lre*d; full; eiplsiued, of 
there would aoi 

that commodit'T our nnd BlnokwHttls Svainti, or 
been our sCnpU Roth of these importnnl waters 
that bj meajlf J lo limited, partly by utlor nBRleot, 
BooieCy ^^0fei hslt century. Tlis aoil of our •irGeti 
"Renta of our dralna— the oiTnl fronn imr 




I _- . . I any faahion tl.ay pleaaed — whence, 

about one-fourth of their water are* h«» bMD dlready 
Teplaoed by dry land or mud Sata, aiid spola, furio- 
stance, Dixon's Wharf, accesiible nime 30 years 
since, to TSSiela of oousidemble drauj^lit of v.iier 
Bre now too aha How eren for boats ; while, in a sani- 
tary point of 'lew. they hnve become, no doubt, 
highly injurious. Uerotho " dredge," followed wi 



lo of tl; 






resource, to(;ether with the water-line border, ex- 
tending along the head of both these baya, and eoino 
portion of their side ahorea ; and this surmounted 
with a plateau or terraoe, streCcbing lengthwise 
throufh some amall portion of •' SuaseX'Streot 
6onth," Georfe-slrOPt South," and on n line with the 
entire lenpth of " Parramatta-aireel," to the oom- 
menoement of the " Globo"— while Bpreiidiiij; ouiiB 
breadth, throngh the present " Onttlo or Hay Mar- 
ket,'' inolndingthe whole of the extreme Southern 
portion of Pitt-street, Uastlereagh-street, and Elicn- 
beth-strest, Chippendale, and aomo portiona of lied- 
fern, to the oontorminoua haiithts of 8urry-hilla. 
with which they would have been made to blend. 
The hoad nf Darling Harbour might then have heeu 
converted into a bath for femalee, or. should it have 
been thought preferable, into a ■' Ciroular Quay,'' 
poaaibly tomething like lh:it at tho head of trydney 
Coio. While Jobnaton'a Bay, the whole, or nesriy 
tiie whole of it, would have been deuicated, when 
fully reclaimed and purified, to the purposes of a 
bath, for the aouth ond. or, ere long, the central 
regiona, of the city, aimiiar to those proposed far 
the north end, and, as a bath, in every reapeot, quite 

Beforeqoitting this part of the anhjaot, it ia ne- 
ceaaJirj to obierve that " Doable BajF" and '■ Rose 
Bay." from their proximity to tho oitj, would de- 
mand a management, in man; respects, analogoua 
to that which has alrBBilj been ao fully dcacribed. 
The impurity of the air from these apota {though 



Mrffa" 



I Ttry he'ighta of '■ Waverley." While the 
Ttose Bay'' with that of " Double Bay'' not 
roya to a great extent the Siklabrity of each 



der less tmk and pure, the 



pure, thi 



loDjc line of road immediately bordering upon their 
ahoros, matters in neither obbo, in a suuilary point 
of view, lo be overlooked. 



Taking it now for granW.thst tho entire m«r»- 
imo honters of the city, as ahovo described, 
ind been djveated, or bad been prepared for being 
s of mephitio poUution. and 



t tho c 



of c, 



north ahora. together with the inland or soullun 
lubiirbt. hnd received any little attention that Ibey 
could by any possibility require; tbe next step 
would be the " Ventilation" of the city. Tho oon- 
atruDtion and arrangement of a syatem of air ehan- 
ncli. for oonducting the currents of air, now 
puriSed, as far a* possible, throughout the endra 
city ; and fortunately for this purpose, STduey ii, 
in a peoulinr manner, well suited. inDsmueh u tbii 
ilijeet might bave been readily and largely pro- 



moted. 



iytbo n 



of a 



.tor, ooDsistingof a chain of 
open epnees, extending link by link about S. and E, 
the entire length of the present nod future oih. 
Several of the very links of thta chain, which mutkt 
have been selected as eueh, actually exist up to Uu 

Ing leia perfect, as, for inatance — tbe " Hif 
hour," then tho " Domain,'' bordered and indeidd 
by tho Harbour, with two or three of its nuay 
branches or forks ; then, immediately joiolng tM 
latter, without let or hindrance of any kind, "Hyde 
Park," freed, as we will soppose, from tbe oblteut- 
tion of all superfluons bulldiuga, snob, for iDBtuDK 
as the "convict hnrraoks." and extendioff In ow 
wide open space, as far as the W. aide of €a*(la- 
reagh-atreet South, thence through the " oattle mar- 
ket."' the " Cleveland Puddooka," both considerably 
raised, as already propoaed, above their present va^ 
objectionable levela; next, the oootiguoui "aand 
hilla,'' at the rear of the Asylum; then -Oiou 
Farm,'' divided from the preCBediug locality onl^by 
tlie intersection of the " Nantowa Road ; the bun 
of Gt.tse Farm having been, as elaewhore anggeinit 
convertt J into a reservoir, for the supplying of the 
oity at all times with an abundance of a clear, ftat 
water, if ouly as a becerago. Imme'liately attashMl 
to the 3. border of " Grose Farm" might have ap- 
pertained a strip of land, of about the present 
hmadth of Hyde Park, eitondine about 8-, and in- 
eluding a epaoe of some 3U0 acres, oonaiitiog prin- 
cipally of that broad, flattisb sMi;ht elevation, which 
traveraes successively several of the estates in that 
diractioD. Thia might have been applied, with ^«it 
and daily inoreaaing advantage, to the purposes of a 

as the position, would have particularly rendered 
it desirable. Bordering the 3. end of the " Neon), 
polls," next would come an open reserve, of ahont 

" icrea, to be convortod, by and by, into a park, 

hich would constitute very possibly, at laart 
s present, the last link in thia cxtensiTB Di- 
broken chain of ventilation. The above arrant^ 
cent divides Bydoey into two extensive regions, S. 
ind W., and vbile the uninterrapted suooeaaion rf 
he several links of thia main ventilator would aObrd' 
o "central Sydney," and ita Immediate vieinltieLl 
in abundance of "constitution'' promenadea, B 
lould prevent those aeciimulationa of conSned St' 
vhich at present ao damage Our Hue climate. 

The residue of the intcmiilventilatlon.appendagai 
if the oity would consist of its streets, tquaras, and 
ta other open spaces. With this view, and partly 
rom consideraiion to the lay of the ridges on whldl 
t is built, tbe N. and S. streets would, perhaps, 
lace extended, nearly aa tlioy do at present, distant 
rem each other from 2(X) to 3lK) feet ; the orosa 
treets also, as they do now E. and W., but la both 
ry greatly increased in brcadlll, so that 
the city would havo been of lesa width 
than TO or SO feet, and some few of the more im- 
' mghfaMB, from 100 to 120 Or 13D fsel, 

r e«lusion, in every part of tbe oity, 

uf all lanes or alleys- Eome of the broaduat of the 



MAGAZINE 01' SCIESOE AND ART, 



37 



nmin streets, howoTsr, mieht, porhspa, niUi ailvrn- 

daget would nnt too much interfere vith TontiUticn, 
be OHiutrucCed with lijibt pixiEiB, or oolonailes. aa a 
protection from tlie bud or from ruin. The iquarea, 
■B lucge reaervoirB ef a more tempente and pirer 

triciU; in reBpcDttn their poaition iii the city, which, 
no doubt, would place them, where the; would be 
"St required. CorUin nrrtnuBuianf- -■' '- 



tstiona 
MHttsn . 
hut. witbont 






te\y of m 



X detnil, i 



r the oily 



w utterly frustrated. 

Bbout M feel, nor ehoulil it "Innd on ftn dllotment of 
RTOnnd irf' leSB depth thun l(K) fecCi riaeitlentien, 
both by regulttion and otberniie. Iipine bIsd pnid to 
the entire premise*, boub la exclude tha poggihie ex- 
IitBDOe ofiinj mephitis ancuniaUtion* Nor, nntesB 
wo sre desirous of emulatinjj Boine of the purlieus 
of London of Liveri.ool. or whnt we hour of Ibo 
omeaof Ofaiua Kerierally, should raoro thiin n dus 
number of poteoD9(to lie determined by aiie nnd sc- 
eoniinodalioni} bo permitted to reiide in fmy o=e 
direlllnic. 

Ho fur KB to what might hare been the aanitsry 
oripiniiiitlan of tiiia ell;, and that long Binee. 

Tlie prOiimiLte meaui hy whioh it would have 
been realiiod, may bo lirieBy stitted as follows : 

lat. The ilue loTellini;. or prepirationi for the dne 
U'olliug, the entire frround-plotottheoily, including 

Snd. Arrnngementa fur vecuriiii to theentire city 
a ajBtem of (h-aiua, i*hh eicry detiriible dpgrcB of 
fall, and no more, a»d to iheir deboachurtt Siting 

tin nisht, whfthcr by Isnd, by moana of steim or 
traiv eommunioatiaa, Or by water, but in either 
iDatanoe most probably deodoriied by cnrbonaceoua 

3nl. The remoral of erery Bonrce of mopbitio 
BffluilK, inoludini; 

4lh. The Brraneementa for the ventilation Of tho 
entirE city with 



limited «upplie( of the beat, tncl, at al! tlmea, the 

use and other aimilar purpoaeB, freed from ail poa- 
aibillty of metal'ie or other naxian« impreen^ition, 
Al wbII aa nnlimited supplies of water, not ouly for 
eitinguiahjng firea. flusbiiie aoners, watering atresta 
once or Iwlea daily, or aa required, buc for Jliiekinij 
the <(r«(s tbemselvBB, or thorouithly washing tbem, 
wheneTer deemed deairabln. eithir for Tedudnqikar 









6(h. Arran|>«mBntB for BFCuri<.e [o the citisena 
ths full beneQt of fteah water bathe, aa well aa ecu 
bathing. 

Tth, ArTan;;einentB for eneurine to every part of 
the city an obundanos of " oonaiiititton" walha or 
' 1, ridoH. driios, eioluiliB of parks, public 

ir Cemetories 



^" 



rungementi forcoi 
from heine (aa our Cemetei 

tisption. are at prBeantarid havetver bBen btibarto,^ 
"iJepots'' or "faotories" of mephitic pouoa, into 
tanitAry a^nts. 

9lh. To Biclude all Abnttoirs from the city or it! 
TioiPitiUB, all factories inioUinR operaiions of an 
otfoDiiro or deletarioas tendeuey, (as far ac lea^t at 
raight be consistent with soiuid policy), and the 
tuking of atopB for aecurine, as sooti as poagible. the 
otiolition of all smoke, or at leaat. in the meanlime, 
ot those offanaiie Tofumaa of amofco, which at pre- 
■ant not only pnlluto tho air of tho oity, deface tbe 
beauty of ita buildinga, and deatroy yearly an iDoal- 



cnlable amonnt Of property, but operate to the ereat 
diseomfort of the inhabitants, and to the aericua in- 
jury of their health, 

Beloro olosing this Paper it aiay perhapa bs ei- 
pedient to anticipate any doubts that mi^ht poaaibly 
be entertnineil in respect to the proposed " reforma, ' 
in p»ticular, aa to their eoglneering aud phyeical, 

gineering practicability, analogy, will ha our aafeat 
euide in coming to a oonolusion. Ifso. I have only 
to refer far my proofi to tbe itupendoua worki of 
analogoue deicrtption both of tbB past aud present 
day, in old and in young countries, ir ' 



wlietber 






"Menai.'' tubular bridge, with other otupendoua 
bridge! in our own and other countries, a(-d, lat- 
terly, the gigantic opBrationa at IFnlyliead, for cha 
construoiiun ofa " Tort of Refuge." Birfore moat 
of which the engineering diffloultiea now propoaed 

While, if want of iabourenibe urged as n ploa, we 
h.ire only to refar to the fact that a rery few niea, 
aided by machinery, do that now which aoine time 
ainco, would have required ths Inbuurotthouaands. 
Besides the eieeutioo of the worka proposed would 
not have boBK urgent i on the ooutrarj, thEy would 
naiB reonired in the flrat instance, and most of 
them, foi yeara ifterwnrds, merely to be planned, 
when, generally speutiag. tiiey might haie been 
left to erow with our growth ; in fact, to bo carried 
out cither rapidly oraiowly, precisely as miRbt hava 
been found mont oouTcnient in reepect to our meani. 
As toany poiaibly aopposed phyaical difflunltyi tbe 
practlaahility of aparing the proposed unlimited 



lion : in the contiguous swa.nips, whioh hare, by 
some authorities, been pronounced iaeihaustible, iu 
the bed of the " Cook" rivulflt, which has bean pro- 
pOHU and partly pr^pnrod for tliis purpose, or those 
Bliil more abundant and exoellent suppliea so readily 
procurable from tbe " Ueorce'' and the "NspBan," 
and these not only within a legiiimste distauoe from 



lev^l. 



tittle I 



nal, inasl 



IS the f 



_ . ,__.i!ment# would have scarcely e: . . . _ 
of ths mere feeding and clothing of tho lab 
ployed, together with ita aupurintendenco, and Iha 
trivial coat of a few rewards for due ciertiou sod 
general good conduct. In tlioae days the main cost 



lefur 






n reqviii 



, skilled lab 



of rough. I. 

the colony by tbe perpetual demand for such labour, 
for thoeooBtruotion of our railways and other similar 
works of necoBsi^. And, as to tbe wages, the 
wbolB, alraoat without eioeption, would hafa JOOB 



<r ths ai 



le of tl 



I expen 



what- 



.h from tb 



1 works IhemselvEs, 
general beni:tlt they would confer, as well aa In m 
accordance with one of its prt>fesSBd objecia, a I 
obargo upon tho Loud Fund. 

Let ua admit, however, for the mere aake of ar 
ment. that the 






it any moneya 
t from the u 



1 for 



as I trust 


shall be able to show, the ratu 


na from 


theae refon 








at probably inauitely more than 


deqaatB 



. By Uie greatly enhaucud voluu of tl 



:M 



MA0AZ1N£ OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



iinpraved, ot the oontlgaou 



3. Vj the reduo 
itreew ihrongh tho diMriots fo noprofeil. MEethcr 
ii[ita Clio inflnilslj grentor reduclioQ In ihe coal irf 
koapiae them In repnir 

i. Ry ihe urentl]' decresBed " wenr nnd l«ar ' and 
" rift" to tohiolBs of etarj deioripiion, as well m 
to dnft tnimalB, triversiun ttioae apota. 

6. By ■ total abalenient of Ihrna eileoiive loasea 
to It iatge numlwr of the proprietara of taouaoi froni 
the unxttted itato of the leiela taitlierto. Hhenoe. in 

Ulelj) literally buried below Ibe Mreet, with which 

«Unees, perched like birdi>' neaU to high aa to be all 
but Inasaoaaiblo. if not qeite so. 

Add to the above— 

6. Store reots, ratea for the use of the freah, is 
well »■ the mlt water hiithing plnoea, for the uae of 
the " NecropoTJB." RedueLlon of iaaaranCB on flre- 
riaka, from the groallj inoreaaed breadth of the 
itreets, the ftba^noe of aU lanet and alleys, nod the 
lireatly inoreaaed auppliea of wnCer, aa well ae fn- 
oili lies for uppljiDe it, tn tbeae add the lalue of the 
■ewaae&a B aubitituto for KUBDD, for whiob, it ie 
now well iinown, it can readily bo made, in every 
reapcot. a full equivalent. tOHelhcr with that of the 
afh,\ from the Abbatoin, both now lost to the public. 
or. worse than loit, permitted to beoonie a daniier- 
oaa and offt^nsive nuiBance. Ta the abuts [ would 
only add (not that tho aobjoet is by any moana ei- 
bauateii) ooe obeervatioii. namely, — that the above 

Other obvioua and bighl; important adrantagea, are 
not merely for the hour or the day, but in perpe- 
tnlt]', and I tbink 1 aball then he fully borne out in 
Huertjng. that wbiloeten the more immediate fruita 
of the propoaad "reforma'' would aooo yield, at the 
moat modemte computation, an ample requilai for 
their coat, there would then remain to the public an 
invaluable nett permanent gain. 

But, waivlne all further oonsideration of the 
"direof or "indirect" "Rains" that would or 
might aeorue from the proposed meaaures, granted 
that they would not produos an; one of thoaa large 

ptoduoe. or iodeed any advantage nt all. aave one, 
their aanitary results, (for the proof of wbinb 1 may 
refer to the neeumolnted experienee of all ages, and 
this oonflrmed by modern acicnoo). and I then fail 
back npon what will not— nay, perhapa, I Oiaj be 
permitted to add, cannot be denied, my oritlnsl 
propoaition, namely. ■' That no ptioe, that '"" 



pay. CO 



« high ie 



argeat posai 



tent of proteetiou against those 
so froquently devaatate the entire globe, aa well as 
Co the inhabitants generally, the largest attainable 
amount of longevity, and sound health.'' 



ON A SUN-GAUGE. OR NEW 
ACTINOMETER. 

At the meeting of tlie Pliilosophlcal Society 
of New South Wales, lield July 8, Sir W. 
Deniion ia tho chair, tho following paper 
was read by the Secretary, Dr. Smith, it 
being a euntrihution from Mr. W. S. Jevoaa. 
It 13 doacriptive of the Actioometer, ua Id- 
etrument iDTeoted by Mr. Jevons, for mea- 
Buriog the daily amount of BuushiDe. 



Scientific gontletnea present, competent to 
offer an opinion on the subject, stated it to 
be a very valuable nud ingenious inven^n. 
We have, therefore, prepared diagrams in 
ordA to give a mure intelligible idea of ita 
construction, and shall be glad to record tba 
.ults obtaioed by its tneans. and give any 
other information in our power oonceroing 
We should also be glad to iiear the 
opinion expressed upon it by the Europeaa 
scientific journals. 

It ii allowed, 1 bolievo, that meteorologiila axe yaij 
nperfectly supplied with inatnimenta for measniii^ 
te heating effect of the ann'« rays. 
The Actinomiter of ffir John llerachel, though nnei- 
CEpCionahle in prinoipla. haa been found verjr eipeniin 
and very dlllkalt Co uae, and the common blaik-balh 
tharmomBlori which ia generally employed, dees ast 
appear to give reanlti of my direct valua OE eompan-' 
liility. ButitseematomethatevenifwedidpoaMHS 
convenient sctiuamotet. fitted to determine, at any gin 
place and uloment. the inlenait; of the sun's raja, that 11 
to saytbe raff of the son's liealiog pwur, there iaadlli 

the accumulated amannc or total effect of the nm'snii 

In sltorl, tliB aon's heat should be collected aa it wai, 
ujd gauged, at every Moteacological Obsorvatory, aa It 
falla npon the sur^ice of the earth, day afUi day, and 
^ear after year, precisely in the manner that ^lluunia 
la collected by the rain-gauge, and its accomnUdsl 
depth measured at the end of any lonveniont peiiod. 

The instrumeot which will effect this. I should fp- 
p«e to call a nm-gaiige, from analogy with the pie- 
gauge, azid this paper la intended to describe a nMol 
which, after projiei elaboration, will. I hope, beftui 
saccBsaful. The method in •(aestion is, in iiict. aanlx 

known aa Dr. VoUaiCDn'u Orgophorui, which I 
first of all describe. 

The Cryuphurna consists of a simple glaaa tabs 
down and terminated at each end by a round glaai 
One flf then hulbs is half.filled with puro «UU 

of air ia liermotically soalod up. In diis conomon iia 
interior is occopied by aalhing but water and watery 
tapoui', tlio latter of a temdun which depeuids on IM 
tempetatare, and increaaea as the temperature ritai, 
" therefore, one bnlb be warmer than the other, tba 
m in the former, and nnt bong 
of «r, rapid! y (tows into ^ 

1, BUppoaing there be liquid water in both bnlbh 
until the atream of vapour lias conveyed away auSeiBtf 
latent heat from tho warm bulb 1o reduce its tempon- 
ture to that of the colder. The aiugutar effect ia dua- 
produced, which the Cryophorus ia used in leotoi*- 
rooms to demonstrate, and From which it derivea iti t^ 
peUaeion, namely, the apparent conveyance of cold foM 
one bulb to the other. For the whole of the ir^ 
being loured into eitlier of the bulbs, and the oppgJI 
ontf bemg plunged into a freezing mixture, ancb a nqid-' 
evaporation and distiUatlon ia occasioned aa soon In 
freeze tho porliaD of water which yet remaina in die 
bulb distinct frnm that to which iho cold was applied. 
Fur oar own purpose, it is only necessary to atlaid to 

heat contained in. or combined with aqueous vaponF' tt 
any given temperature, is not only invariable and da- 
tariuinalo, but baa actually been detennined itith | 
accuracy. Thus, at a temperature of 32 degrew, v 

vapour 03 would raise it in Che liquid condition, if 

a thing were posaiblo, to Clia exbntt of 1002 decrees 

Fab. of tvmperkturv. Hence if we nui determine the 



vapour ia of gcea 
impeded by the 



MAOAZINE OE SCIENCE AND ART. 



59 



■weight of watsry vaponr. or which « the same thing, of 
voter, coaveyed from one bulb to ths other (at 32 de- 
grees), TO have ddI}' to maltiijly it by 1092, to eipresa 
«a simply u it can be eiprenaed, the amount of heat 
carried over. The mere addition of airaduated glasi 
measuring tube to one of the bulbs of iht cryophinis. 
time eoOTBiiB it into an effectual htat-^ai^t. 

To apply it as a sun-gauge, it is only neceisaiy to 
allow the ann'a rays to fall upon the surface of the water 
contained in one of the hniha, while the other is shel- 
tered from the son. but freely exposed to the air. In 
lUn ease, the tenuon of vapour irithin the instrument 



can never rise pereendbly above that eorrraponding to 
the temperature of the coldest part. •nx,.. that cooled by 
the ur. Thus all heat ab«>rbed fiom the ann'a rays 
by the eipoaed hnib will be immediately converted into 
latent heat, and conveyed across into the other bulb, by 
distillation, aod as I have jnat etplained, the actual 
quantity of heat Uiua conveyed over, may be directly 
determined by measuring the amount of water caused to 

The principle of this sun-gauge I may say, ia theo- 
retically pertect, for as no part of the inaUTimBnt ahould 
rise in temperature perceptibly above thM of the lur, 



1 




TW interference will he prodnfed hv the conduction of | which shall be continually maintained at the tempera- 
baat. But to carry the principle into j^ractice anccesa- turc of the air. 

fiilly, the following qnaliflcations are necessary in the Fourthly, a graduated labe to measure with sufficient 
inrtniment, vii. :— | accuracy the quantity of water collected in the conden- 

First, a surface of an invariable and determined area \ ser, and thna to determine in an almost direct manner 
■nd nature to absorb the dirert rava of the sun, but not the quantity of heat received bv the absorbent mrfaee. 
•iposed to radiation from any other direction. If the The only instrument which 1 have been able to con- 
mitl'e heat-rays be not entirely absorbed, it is sufficient struct is a mere Mmple ajid rough model, in which all 
if a constant proportion of them be so, these four parts are coufused tj^ethcr. It conaiats, that 

Secondly, a surface of water. likewise of constant and is fignre II. of the diagram, (tteiig. l.) of an oblong 
determinate area, to which the heat ao absorbed shall be frlasa balh. abont 3 inches in length and I^ in diameter, 
r eornmunicaled, in order that it maybe con- into the mouth of which, a half-inch glass tube has 



verted into the latent state, and carried off by evapora- heei 

tion, Itwill nodonbt be moat convenient and simple reaches within th. 

to Billce the surface of water itself the absorbent area bent, however, to 
(ai« in the instruments to be presently described.) 



Thirdly, a condeiuing snrtace of ct 



part of the tube 

lb almost to its opposite end, being 

Is one aide. The exterior part of 

me luuB, It incnes (or more) long, is strMght, and 

graduatol into milemeters, which read from the bi^tom. 



60 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



The water is rendered opaqne by a weak solution of 
sulphate of indigo, and is introduced in sufficient quan- 
tity to fill about two-thirds of the bulb. The instru- 
ment being tlien cleared of air by continuous boiling, is 
completed by hermetically sealing the extremity of the 
graduated tube. 

To use this sun-gauge, the whole of the liquid must 
first be poured into the bulb, which can be readily done 
on account of the bent position of the interior part of 
the tube. It is then inverted and placed in some sup- 
port where the sun's rays may fall upon the bulb in- 
terruptedly throughout uie day, while the tube beneath 
is completely shaded from the sun, but freely exposed to 
a current of air. 

It is evident that, as long as the sun is above the 
horizon, and the heat of the rays is at all preceptible, 
water will evaporate from the bulb and condense 
colourless and pure in the graduated tube, by the 
divisions of which its amount may be quickly and 
easily read off. The quantities of water distilled over 
will be roughly proportional to the total amoimts of 
heat falling upon the bulb. 

This rough model is subject, however, to many 
serious defects, the chief of which is that, when evapora- 
tion has proceeded to a considerable extent, the quan- 
tity of liquid remaining in the bulb, is of course 
diminished, while the tube is partially filled. Thus 
both the absorbent and condensing surfaces are lessened 
in comparison with the evaporating surface, and the 
distillation of a millemetre's depth of water will in- 
dicate less amount of heat rays at the commencement of 
the exposure than towards the end of the day. 

A more complicated form of the instrument (see fig. 
II.J is intended to remedy these and other defects, 
but as this instrument exists as yet onlyr on paper, it is 
a matter of doubt whether practical mfficulties would 
not be encountered in its construction. 

It consists of three distinct parts, viz. : — 

1. The evaporator. — ^A. 2. The condenser. — ^B. 

3. The register tuhe^ — C, 
The evaporator is, of course, exposed to the sun, but so 
that no rays fall upon any pai-t of the included liquid 
but the upper surface, which tor that jmrpose is placed 
exactly on a level with the surroundmg screen. The 
condenser is connected with the evaporator by a wide 
bent tube, something in the manner of a retort, but is 
placed several inches above the evaporator. The lower 
parts of both these bulbs are also connected by the 
register tube, which is of narrow bore (about one-tenth 
of an inch) and of considerable, in fact, of any desirable 
length. Being open at both ends it serves to conduct 
any water collected in the condenser back again into the 
evaporator from which it originally passed in the state of 
vapour. Yet the amount of evaporation is clearly marked, 
as it proceeds, by a small globule of mercury (D) which 
is placed in the narrow tube, and as it does not allow 
any water to pass, is forced along with the column ; 
if then, the index globule of mercury be at the end of 
the register tube next to the condenser, when the instru- 
ment is first exposed to the sun, the length of the 
column of distilled water between it and the condenser 
will indicate at any subsequent moment the amount of 
evaporation, or, in short, of radient heat absorbed by the 
evaporator. 

It is evident that as the water runs freely back from 
the condenser into the evaporator, the surface of water in 
the latter will remain invariable, or very nearly so — ^not 
quite so, indeed, for as mercury is fourteen times as 
heavy as water, the index globule will balance a column 
of water fourteen times its own length, so that the ex- 
tremity of the column of water in the register tube will 
be caused to oscillate about 1^ inch above or below the 
level of the water in the evaporator according as the in- 
dex globule is in an ascending or descending bed of the 
register tube; this, however, will scarcely affect the 
level of tiie water in the evaporator, and the length of 
the column of distilled water may^ be easily ascertained 
by reading the position of botii its extremities on the 
divided scale ana taking the difTeraice. 

The instrument is to be set for observation by first 



pouring the mercury and water into the condeniwr, then 
separating off the water through the wide tube into tiie 
evaporator, when upon setting it again in the usual 
position, tiie index will take its |)lace at the head of the 
register tube. The glass-work is fixed, (as shewn in 
fi^. III.^ on a frame of wood, covered by a curved non- 
conducting screen, (mofrhed ¥.) and placed for use in a 
case made of three sides only, which we may term tiie 
exposing case. 

It is dear that of the total amount of heat-rays fall- 
ing ujion the bulb of a sun-gauge, only a part will r^urh 
and bo absorbed by the evaporating surface, the remain- 
der being reflected or absorbed by the glass. This is a 
defect, peiiiaps, unavoidable in any instrument applied 
to measure radient heat, upon whatever principle con- 
structed. In the same individual sun-gauge, however, 
the results will probably be proportional to the total 
amounts of radiant heat falling from the sun, and dif- 
ferent sun-gauges being compared together or with a 
standard instrument in actual use, correction factors, 
may be determined which will reduce all results to 
complete uniformity. This experimental comparison is 
necessary with Sir J. Herschel's actinometei. 

The aW>rbent surface of water being perfectly hori- 
zontal, intercepts an extent of the sun's rays, which will 
be proportional to the sine of the angle of elevation of 
the sun. Thus the full intensity of the sun's heat will 
be indicated only when the rays fall vertically ; and 
when the sun is on the horizon, no rays at all will fall on 
a horizontal surface. This, however, is rather an advan- 
tage than otherwise in meteorology, since the precin 
quantities of heat are thus represented which fall in like 
manner on the horizontal sunace of the ground.^ 

It is very difficult with the sun-gaug|e, as with any 
other sort of actinometer, to prevent disturbance ftom 
heat reflected or radiated from neighbouring objects, 
such as parts of the case which is necessary to hold and. 
shelter the instrument. This is an objection still to be 
remedied. 

Amounts of radiated solar heat may be conveniently 
expressed by the depth (in parts of an inch or in mille- 
metres) of evaporation that they will produce from a 
surface of water exposed with perfect freedom to his rays, 
under the condition that all aqueous vapour of a greater 
tension than -199 inches of mercury (the tension at 32 
degrees Fahr.) shall be instantly conveyed aviray. Or 
the numerical ratio of this unit inch of water to the 
actine* or the " abstract unit of solar radiation " adopted 
by Sir J. Herschel, having been once determined, all the 
results could of course be equally well expressed ac- 
cording to this unit. In practice, the vapour in the 
sun-gauge will not be conveyed over into the condenser 
or sheltered part of the apparatus till its tension rises 
above that due to the temperature of that bulb, which is 
the same as the temperature of the air. As, however, 
the latent heat of vapour diminishes as the sensible heat 
rises, a small correction must be made according to the 
mean temperature of the air during the time of obser- 
vation, as given in Table I. of the Appendix. 

A thermometer, T, is inserted in the evaporator of 
Figure II., with its bulb just beneath the evaporating 
surface. The readings of tliis thermometer should agree 
almost exactly with those of the temperature of the sur- 
rounding air, since all the sun's heat, as I have before 
explained, is instantly conveyed away by evaporation. 

It is evident that as we increase or diminish the area 
of the surface of evaporation, the weights of water caused 
to evaporate by the same intensity of radiant heat, will 
increase or diminish in the same proportion. Supposing, 
then, the capacity of the divisions of the register-tube to 
remain always the same, we must construct the instru- 
ment with a veiy large evaporating bulb, if we wish it 
to be very sensitive, or to give large indications to a 

* The actine is "that intensity of solar radiation 
which at a vertical incidence, and supposing it wholly 
absorbed, would suffice to melt one-millionth part of a 
metre in thickness from the surface of a sheet of ice 
horizontally exposed to its action per minute of mean 
solar time.**— Jl<fe»»ra% Manual, page 807. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIfiNCB AND AET. 



^ dmogt inde&utf extent, 

might have soD-fauga epeciallj adapted for 

D bo read oS 



Tkiu 

reps<«ria|; sU the 1100-9^108 ^oi 
or merely one day. and only reqniriog 
tind re-tet xt the ends of ^eae periodi. 
ought have ui ioBtrameot so delicate as tt 
'"■ doriop * ' ' -- ' -■ 



J. like 
inteuity of die b 



Ofm 



willni 



T J. Herchel's 
le ann-B heat at i 



loiforoi 



Ji-gaogea 



;h differai 
to of heat tiil the 



maporofion, 

the ana gaage as described wodM oot be adapted for 
dimitei mach older than that of Australia, becanae 
tlie mter contained in it voold nndoDhtedly often 
freeiB. Alcohol or some other liqoid not eaulj frozen, 
should then be employed, and afler taking iDlo con- 
sideradon the different latent heats of the vapoorsef 
these liqoi^ (he aotion and retolts of the inaCtument 
woold be joat the aame. 

A modified form of the instrnment conid ea^ly be 
contriTed to measure and register terreitn^ radiation, 
01 the cooUog of the anrface of the earth at night by the 
TadiatJon of heat into empty apace. The model ta ^ 
Biu-g:ange, figure I. is often found to give disduct indi- 
cations of Eoctnraal radiatioD, 

To show the use* of this instramont. I may just re- 
science occupied with inTestigating the almost iofinite 

complication of phenomena exhibited by ^ — ' ^ 

elemeals, air and water, 1 

of force and motion oommoBly called 

clouds, nun, and in short all changes 01 amereDCea 01 
weather or climal« are In a more or Icsa direct manner 
produced. The snn is the sole source of all Che heat 
engaged io these effects, but the quantity and intensity 
of his rays, which reach and act on ^ snrface of the 
eaith at any given place or time, are regulated by many 
cilcnmatances, of which the principal are — 

lat, The latitode of the place, nprai which depends 
the elevatjon of the mm and the length of the day. 

2nd, The imperfect tranaparmcy of atmoapheric air. 

3rd, The acreening effect of clooda. 

4th, The difference of the absorbent propertia of the 
groand. ocean, Sc. 

To estimate the effects all thrae ciirmmstanca pro- 
duce would be clearly impoeaible, and in order, there- 
fore, to take BD accouot of^all the auppliu of heat which 
the earth receives, it is necessary we shonld poeaess an 
iostrnment of a cotiiinueia character for meaauring 
accumulated amounts of radient beat. Not only should 
■ ' ■ " ilnable for disentangling the 



complicated causoi 
is engaged ; hut, i 
yearly or daily a^ 



rology 
w, the 



Fob Heddcik 


a ItBStlLTS OF 


5d!> Oauqb. 


of air. 


Latent Ik'ut 
of vapour. 


L'uri-cctiun 


33 degrees. 


lOlEdeg™™ 


■000 
















ion .. 


'OSO 


72 „ 


1064 .. 




ea „ 


106T .. 


-032 




lOSO ,. 




102 „ 


1013 „ 


■045 


a-r^dingo 


sun gangs. 





True result ^ a — - a .j. correctioD- 



TABLE II. 



I 

a 6 



N,C.— The place of obsorvatioo is shaded till near 
i.m., hence tho absence of indicatiDni hefaro that honi 
rhe firet two days wore a little cloudy. The mark - 
Ludioatea that the eipoaed or sun-thermometor rea 
lower than the sheltered thetmouieter, which marks th 






9 

10 


2] 


1;^ 


23 


14 


lil 




a 


18 
19 


Htor 
25 



62 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



The indications of the sun gauge represent the total 
amounts of sunshine^ or rather of sun's heat, self- 
registered on the days of observation. The mean extent 
of cloud, which of course partially obstructs the sun's 
rays, are given for comparison, being taken from obser- 
vations at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m. The readings of a sun 
thermometer in degrees above the temperature of the 
air are also given, but being single observations, but 
little correspondence can be expected. 

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY. 

On Wednesday evening, the 12th instant, 
the usual monthly meeting of the above 
Society was held at the Australian Library, 
the Governor-General in the chair. There 
was a numerous attendance of members, 
notwithstanding the threatening appearance 
of the evening. Four new members were 
proposed, and five new members were ad- 
mitted. 

A specimen of artificial stone was exhi- 
bited by Messrs. Bensusan and Weston, 
concerning the qualities of which the ixo- 
vemor stated he had requested experiments 
to be made by Captain Ward. It appeared 
to be of a bituminous character, as it rea- 
dily took fire when held in the flame of a 
candle. 

His Excellency then proceeded to read 
the following paper on Railways, which he 
stated was to be regarded as a supplement 
to the paper read by him at the inaugura- 
tion of the Society last year, and pub- 
lished in our first number. 

RAILROADS. 

In a Paper which I read to tiie Society last year, I 
gave a sketch of the development of the railway system 
in England, together with some general remarks upon 
the advantages which might be anticipated from the ap- 
plication of a similar, or, perhaps, I should say analo^ 
gous, system to New Soutn Wales. 

These advantages I was in a position to assert would 
h% very great ; but, as my object at the time was to 
brin^ the question in its broadest features under the 
consideration of the Society and the public, I abstained 
from any attempt to discuss it in detail. I expressed 
no opinion as to the particular character of road, or as 
to the power which it might be advisable to employ 
upon it. These, as I said at the time, were matters 
wnich ought to be determined by observation and ex- 
periment ; and it is with a view to bring under the 
notice of the Society such facts and observations as 
have been elicited in various ways during the last 
twelve months, that 1 now lay before the members this, 
which may be looked upon as a supplement to my for- 
mer Paper, 

I may remind the members, in the first place, that 
the subject of railways has been under the considera- 
tion of a committee of the Legislative Assembly, and 
that facts and opinions have been elicited during the 
examination of several witnesses, all of which, having 
been printed, are now in the possession of the public. 
In addition to this published matter, I have been placed 
in possession of a mass of information having reference 
to the employment of horse power, both on common 
roads, or wooden trams, and on iron railroads ; all of 
vhich has an important bearing upon the questions 



which will have to be determined — ^namely, the charac- 
ter of the road which it would be advisable to constract, 
and the nature of the tractive power to be employed 
upon such road. 

I have also b«en furnished with a report on the rail- 
roads of the irnited States, addressed to the Committee 
of the Privy Council by Captain Douglas Galton, K^E., 
which contains much valuable information. Having, 
then, such a mass of information at my disposal, I feel 
that I am now in a position to discuss those questions 
upon which, in my former paper, I declined to expren 
an opinion. And as the suoject is daily assuming mme 
and more importance, whether it be regarded as a mere 
question of economy, or as one, upon the proper solution 
of which the future advancement of the colony must 
mainly depend, I do not think that the Society can be 
called upon to consider one of greater interest. Before 
I proceed to enquire into the character of the roads 
wnich it would be desirable to substitute for tlMse at 
present in existence, I may as well attempt to give a 
more detailed sketch of the latter than I attempted to 
do in my former Paper. The following general de- 
scription, from personal observation, will apply to bodi 
the Western and Southern roads. 

From the terminus of the railroad at Parramatta or 
Liverpool these roads pass, for a certain distance, (some 
twenty or tiiirty miles) through enclosed proper^. 
They are, as a general rule, badly laid out—that u, 
but little attention has been paid to the form and incli- 
nation of the ground. The culverts and bridges have 
in very many instances been constructed of perishaUe 
matenals, and with little reference to the quantity of 
water which would have to nass through them. ^ Little 
or no attention has been paia to drainage, the soil beii^ 

Ssnerally a stony tenacious clay or loam, and the road 
aving but in few instances been metalled, these por> 
tions of the line are in wet weather almost impassable. 
In dry weather the clay gets baked and hard, and tlie 
power expended in moving a load upon these nsdi is 
then a minimum ; but the surface is at that time 
covered with a soft impalpable dust, which is not only 
most unpleasant to travellers, but also causes a great 
resistance to traction. From the point where titese 
roads enter the bush, that is, when they cease to be 
fenced in, they do not improve. The difficulties whi(^ 
are opposed to locomotion do not diminish, thoogk they 
var} in character according to the nature of ^e conntiT 
through which tiie roads pass. The observations which 
were made as to the faulty direction of the road, tfae 
absence of drainage, the bad construction of culverts, 
&c., apply with as great force to the roads throa|^ tiie 
bush as te those mrough enclosed land. Where the 
bush is not too dense, it may occasionally be possible, 
where the usual track is very much cut up by traffic, 
to diverge, for the purpose of escaping some particular 
obstacles ; yet, when tne weather is wet, the ground li- 
the bush is as saturated with moisture as the road it- 
self, and where the crust of vegetable mould, consoli- 
dated with roots and vegetable fibres, is once broken 
through, 'he sub-soil is incapable of resisting the action 
of the wheels, and constant accidents take puu». When 
the road passes through a sandy soil, the draft, which is 
very heavy in dry weather, is less so in wet ; but the 
drains are speedily choaked by the sand brought down 
by the rain. In rocky soil the inequality of surface is 
a constant impediment to traction, both in wet weathor 
and dry. In tne former, as drainage is nev6r attempted, 
the hollows are filled with mud, and the road consists 
of alternations of mud holes and hillocks, the effect of 
which is most injurious upon both cattle and carriages. 
Tliis description, which from personal observatiaii I 
can testify applies to the Southern and Western roads, 
is, I believe, equally applicable to the Northern line 
from Maitland, with the additional obstacles arisii^ 
fi-om the more numerous watercourses in that line, 
which, not being bridged, become impassable in wet 
weatlunr WBSid which, besides the delay and hindrance 
to communication they occasion, entail annnally tiie 
loss of several lives. The correctnete of tiiis account of 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



63 



the state of the main lines of communication through- 
out the colony will. I think, be vouched for by many 
of the members now present, and it will not therefore 
be a matter of surprise that the cost of conveyance upon 
these roads should vary from a minimum of Is. to a 
maximum of 28. 4id. per ton per mile ; or that the 
average rate upon the Northern roads should be Is. 
10^. per ton per mile, on the Western roads Is. ll^d. 
|»er ton per mile, and on the Southern Is. 11^. per ton 
per mile. The loss and inconvooience which such a 
state of things occasions cannot of course be measured 
by the difference of cost between the transport on these 
roads, and that upon either a good turnpike road or a 
railroad. Allowance must be made for the delays 
irhich constantly take place. It is not an uncommon 
occurrence for a dray to be upwards of a month in 
going from Sydney to Ooulbum, a distance of 125 
miles, or six weeks between Sydney and Braidwood, a 
distance of 185 miles. The farmer is often prevented 
from, sliding down his wheat at the time when the 
market would suit him, the roads being too bad to per- 
mit him to venture his teams upon them ; or the price 
of transport so high as to swallow up all the profit on 
' his crop. As, however, the difference of cost upon these 
roads and upon a good turnpike or railroad is the mear 
sure of the mininum amount of injury done to the 
colony, it may be as well that I should prove an ap- 
proximate estimate of its money value. 

Along the Northern road 25,800 tons of goods are 
moved for various distances, which, when reduced, give 
1,183,770 tons moved one mile for £110,653, or, at the 
average rate of Is. IQ^d. per mile, the cost of moving 
goods upon a good turnpike road should not exceed 9^. 
per ton per mile, which would be a saving of Is |d. 
per ton per mile, or in round numbers of £62,887} 
while on a railroad this quantity of goods might be 
moved for 6d. per ton per mile, or less, and the saving 
in this case would be Jb81,059. 

Along the Western road the traffic is equivalent to 
1,615,725 tons moved one mile for a sum of £156,737, 
or at a rate of Is. ll^d. The saving, then, in this case, 
at the rat^ stated above, would be £92,800 in the case 
of a turnpike road, and £116,344 in the case of a rail- 
road. 

On the Southern road the traffic is equivalent to 
1,916,022 tons njioved one mile for £188,672, or at the 
rate of Is. 11^. per ton per mile. The saving in this 
case would amount to £112,830 in the case of a turn- 
pike road, and to £139,709 in ^e case of a railroad. 

Along these three lines, which may be termed the 
main arteries of communication, the loss to the inhabit- 
ants of the different districts, occasioned by the badness 
of the roads, amounts, on the transport of goods alone, 
to £268,517 per annum ; and were a railroad tihe 
means of communication, the saving by the use of it 
iROuld amount to £338,175 per annum. This I have 
said is the minimum amoxmt. I have allowed nothing 
for the increased expense to passengers. I have said 
nothing of the diminished value of land. I have merely 
taken me returns of existing traffic, and have shewn 
that the saving in the expense of conveying it would 
justify an outlay of capital on these three lines, amount- 
ing altogether to 843 miles, of £5,370,340, in making 
turnpike roads, or of £6,7^,500 in tiie construction of 
railways — ^that is, of 6,370 per mile upon the one, or 
8,000 per mile upon the other. I have assumed 9^. 
per ton per mile as the fair charge upon a good turn- 
pike tobA. This was the average charge in England 
previous to the construction of railways, and it covered, 
not only the cost of transport, but also the tolls, which 
produced a sum adequate to maintain the road in re- 
pair, and in many instances to the payment of some 
interest upon the capital expended upon the formation 
of the road. In this colony, however, the sum taken 
as the avenufe cost of transport is chargeable with but 
a very sniall amount of the repair of the road. The 
tolls received upon the different roads do not ,%mount 
on an ayerage to more than £5,600, or to £13 per mile 
•n the wholo length of the road, while the LegislatoN 



has appropriated, during the present year, a sum of 
£29,000 towards the mamtenance and repair of these 
roads, which sum ought properly to be added to the 
amount of saving which would accrue were the roads 
placed.in a proper state, and would represent an addi- 
tional capital of £580,000. 

The state of the roads then is such as not only to oc- 
casion a heavy annual loss to the community, but to 
saddle it with a heavy amount of taxation in aiddition. 
By what means can so unsatisfactory a state of things 
be remedied ? 

There are three modes of doing this which naturally 
present themselves. 

1st. By the construction of turnpike roads — ^ihat is, 
of roads^roperly laid out, drained, and macadamized. 

2nd. By tiie construction of railroads on which horse 
power should be used. 

3rd. By the construction of railroads on which the 
traction will be performed by steam power. 

The preference to be given to any one of thffse 
schemes over the others must be determined by a com- 
parison of the advantages and disadvantages attendant 
upon each, and by a correct estimate of the charge 
wnich it will be necessary to impose upon goods and 
passengers, in order to cover the cost of traction, that 
of keeping the road in repair, and the interest of the 
capital expended in making the road. To an analysis 
of tiiese matters I will now proceed to draw your at- 
tention. 

1st. As to turnpike roads— 

These, when in their best condition, are tracks broad 
enough for different vehicles to pass each other. Laid 
out at as gradual a slope as the nature of the country 
will permit, properly drained, and covered with a 
stratum of haixl broken stone of sufficient thickness to 
resist the action of the traffic, and to protect the foun- 
dation of the road from the rain falling on its surface. 
Upon such a road, when properly constructed and kept 
in repair, a horse will draw from 15 to 20 cwt. net 
weight, and the cost of conveyance will be from 9^d. 
to 12d. per ton per mile, including, of course, in l£is 
the sum paid for tolls, out of whidb the cost of main- 
taining the road in repair must be defrayed, as well as 
the interest on the capital expended in its construction. 
The amount of the capital required will of course de- 
pend upon a variety of circumstances. The character 
of the country, the nature of the soil, the quality of the 
materials, and especially the price of labour. Taking, 
however, all these matters into consideration, the cost 
of constructing properly one mile of road may be esti- 
mated roughly at £3,000 per xnile. 

The cost of a railroad, wnich is intended to be worked 
by horse power, will not differ much from that of a 
turnpike road. The heavy expense of cuttings and em- 
bankments for the purpose of diminishing gradients, 
which, when locomotive power is employed, are works 
of absolute necessity — are in this case not required. I 
am aware that in making this statement I am placing 
my opinion in opposition to that of engineers of some 
experience, but the difference between us is more in ap* 
pearance than reality, and is due to the fact that we look 
at the subject from different points of view ; my object 
being to show how a given amount of goods and passen- 

f^ers can be conveyed from one point to another at the 
east possible cost, and theirs bemg to explain how the 
greatest result can be derived from a given amount of 
power. It is, of course, unquestionable that the advan- 
tage gained by the substitution of the hard and smooth 
iron rail, for the soft and rough material of the road is 
a maximum when the road is absolutely level. In this 
case we learn by experience that a horse can draw on a 
railroad, about eight times the load which he can move 
along a turnpike road. On an ascent the power which 
the horse has to exert is compounded of tnat which is 
necessary to overcome the force ot gravity, and of that 
which balances the friction of the road, &c. The force 
of gravity is, of course, the same on both road and rail- 
road, and varies in proportion to the steepness of the 
slopA of the road ; while the friction is a constant quan- 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 

:he tnm]Hke rood being eight 
a railroad. While, therefore, 
mlivB power of a home on a 
miMd read, when both are on 



railread. md on a macadamiied isad, vl 

a level, is aa eigbt to one ; Ihia ratio is n 

to tvo when the ntad is on an u<:flnt of 

and to seventeen to thirteen vben the ai 

ten. It is, therefore, evident; of couiH, that to get the 

full benefit of the power eroploTed upon a railroad, the 

tbe cost of rednciSg the ro&d to this state, that ia 
miking the extra cuttings and embankments, be grea 






t of the 1 



ia extra charge m 
-—-^power-L 






in. — BaiU and Chain. 

AialMbnil ■*• eonildved to ba raOoleM fc( Hu 
iTcrpool aod Manthnttr HiUwiy, wtwn wotkad b; leait- 

oUia inglDeh thi lune welgbt of r^l wtU be amply «& 
:lint foi a m«e hone [nek, than 1 1 3a x 5000=1 M.OM 
n. oiUT63toni, vlllbs Ibe weight of nlla required ftr 
Kb mill or Touli and tblimt £l!per ton will amoualti 



evidently be 

increased charge upon the conveyance of onods and paa- 
Bengers. or by a general tax upon the whole commnnity. 
Taking this view of the subject it ia evident that tht 
I of the question must depend upon the qoantitT 
onveyed. If the traffic it 



at per paasenger m 

when the traffic is 
otive power bearal 



of goods and pa ,, 
heavy, a amall aavmi 

amount of interest ; bi 

when the coet of loco 

proportion to the sum chareeable aa interest, or to the 

oHt of maintaining the road, it ia evidently desirable 

In comparing tbe cost of constructing a macadt 
road or a railn»d when the gradients are tbe sai 
that ia required ia to determine the relative out of 
ing the former widi meUl, and of laving down th 
on the latter — the items for feocing-drainage, inc _ . „ 
bridges, culverts, Se.t will he the same, or nearly the 
aarae in each, the advantagee being a little in favour of 
the railroad, as, from ita narrowness, the width of 
bridges, cnlverls. 6c.. would not he so great as upon the 
turnpike read. Now the coat of broken atone depends 
on a variety of circnmstancea. Mr. Brady, in his evi- 
dence before the Committee of the Legislative Assembly, 
aaya that it is worth 10 ahillinga per square yard, or for 
t, road le feet wide. £3 per running yard, or £5Z&3 per 
mile. This statement, however, must have reference to 
the vicinity of Sydnev, and cannot be admitted as an 
element in determining the coet of soch work elsewhere 
On the Southern Koad the surveyor estimates the cost 
of macadamidng at from £2500 to £3500 per mile. It 
will, however, be safer to calculate the actual amount 
of labour which wonid be expended in preparing and 
spreading metat of good quality, and this may be 
roughly stated as foUowa : — 

1st, QuaTri/iiig,^A man should quarry 2} cube yaids 
per day; and this quantity will not vary much, 
whether it be necessary to use powder or not- The 
cost of quarrving a yard of metal vrill. therefore, be 
about tvo-fifUi iS the dailv wi^es of a labourer. 
2nd. Breaking. — A man will break about half a yard 



1§ of the dailv wages of a 
3pd.— Ott! of Carting.— Tiaa would depend upon a 
variety of circumstances, but taking an average lead 
of two miles, the cost per yard might be pot at'ls. Sd. 
vdiile that of apreading might amount to Is. 6d. 
-Summing up time various items it would seem that 



d. — Stone Blocki, or Wooden Sleepari 

UKd very getjerally i 



ying ai 



cu(d a 



about 12s. 6d. per cube vard. labour being 

6s, 6d. per day ; add to this 4s. 6d. for cartage. Is, 6d. 
for spreading, and the cost, per cube yud, would be 
J3b. 4d. If the average thickness of meUl be taken 
aix inches, and tbe width of the road at six yards, ol. 
eabo yard will cover a runnino yard of road, and the 
met of metalling will be about £1,613 per mi' 
What tlien will be the cost of a single lin 
way, InelwUng, of eoune, a lufltclciii number o 
Ae. lo accomraodst* Ibe Iraffie In bolfa dlrectlo 



Lrosdi in Kugland, but II wh 
•y ingln* upon tbam tmU 
ttalt, howem, would wot ki 

by ttie employment of atsu 



W Cube feet of iqusred tl 



£190 



fay £500 by proper arrad^ementi, by making uae of ibBni 
Awer. and by applying a vmriFty of mechanleal expedlna 
Ibe preparation of the timber, this coil mlgbt ta vny 
nucb redured. Tht coat thenof Ibe materials of the 
-oad vould Dotaiceed 1.1.500. 

Sid Fixing Chain, and lai/ini/ Eailt. 

ThecDilDf tbe labor of doing tfali may bepitat£lW 

Ive rsUioul, ii about £S00, but, looking to tbaeatiaaie 



betaeen the BuiU. 

A very heavy item In Bxing the rails on ■ loeomMlvi 
railway lithe " BilUit," u It IsciIIrI, or tbabedupoi 



•olid btd fOi them 



lengitudinsl bei 

thej mlghl be bedded lo the ull, nc 
' ig tikes to iQiui* their lUtuliI 



Iba dlituitring I( 
.aid upon rrois alei 
light be placed atu 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



66 



American lines, when it has been difficult to procure ballast, 
a ditch has been dug at each side of the road, the soil 
Arom which has been banked up so as to cover 
the centre of the sleeper, but sloped off on each side leaving 
the ends of the sleepers exposed in order to allow the rain 
to draw off rapidly. Looking, therefore, at the difference 
above stated, between the irailroad for locomotive and that 
for horse power, the cost of ballast may be merged into that 
of the horse track — the material required for which will on 
a length of 2000 yards, allowing a depth of 18 inches and a 
width of six feet, amount to 1380 cube yards, and taking 
this at an average of 6s. per yard, the cost will be £337 per 
mile* 

Summing up these various items* vIe. i— 

£ 8. d. 

Rails and Chains 1,000 

Sleepers or Blocks 500 

Labour, fixing 300 

Ballast or road 340 

Would give .£2,140 

as the cost of forming the track for a railway, while that of 
macadamizing the turnpike road would amount to £ 1 613. 
The difference, or about £527, would be the excess of the 
cost of the railway above that of the macadamized road, 
and if the cost of the latter be put at £3,000 per mile, 
(hat of the railroad may be taken at £3,500. 

Having thus arrived at an approximation to the cost of 
the turnpike road, and the horse railroad, it only remains 
to determine the cost of a railway for locomotives. For 
this we have a variety of data. We hare the average cost 
of English and American railway ; and we have the actual 
cost of railways already executed in this colony. And if 
the comparatively easy line between Liverpool and Parra> 
matta has cost upwards of £11,000 per mile, we may feel 
sure that in the more difficult country, where the cuttings 
must be deeper, the embankments higher, the bridges more 
numerous, £12,000 will be a very moderate estimate. 

The comparison, then, between the different modes 
alluded to in the former part of this paper, of remedying 
the evil arising firom the miserable condition of our present 
lines of communication, so far as the first cost of each is 
concerned, will stand as follows :— 

First cost Annual charge for 
per mile. Interest per mile. 

Turnpike Road £3iH}0 £150 

Horse Raihroad 3500 175 

Locomotive Railroad 12000 6j0 

The next matter for consideration will be the annual cost 
of maintenance of way, as it is termed, namely, that of 
keeping the road in a proper state of repair, by applying 
labour when it is needed, and by renewing the materials as 
they decay. 

In all cases the outlay for these purposes must depend to 
a certain extent on the amount of traffic, but if we assume 
this to be such as to require the renewal of the metal upon 
a macadamized road every ten years, and that of the iron 
ralla of the railway every twenty years, while the wooden 
sleepers may be taken to last eight years, the relative out- 
lay may be roughly estimated as follows : 

On the turnpike road a single station man will, on 
an average, with light traffic, take charge of four miles 
of road, and his wages will amount to £100 per annum, 
or £25 per mile. The total cost of metal has been put 
at £1,613; 1-lOth of this, or £161 6s., will be the 
annual cost of metal, so that the total annual charge 
per mile for maintenance will, on the turnpike road, 
be £186 6s. 

On the horse rail the labour would be trifling in com- 
parison, as the station man would only be called upon 
to look after the general drainage, and would never 
have to fill in ruts, &c. However, to make ample pro- 
vision, two men may be allowed to every three miles 
of road, which, at the ordinary rate of labour, would 
give £66 10s. 4d. per mile. The charge for rails and 
chairs has been taken at £1,0 JO per mile, and, as these 
are supposed to last twenty years, the annual renewals 
will cost £50. The charge for sleepers was put at 



£500 per mile, and if these last eight years the annual 
charge for renewals will be £62 10s. — should stone 
blocks be used, this charge would almost vanish. I 
have not made any allowance for the maintenance of 
the horse track between the rails, as I consider the 
amount of labour allotted is amply sufficient to make 
good the very slight damage which would be done by 
the feet of the horses.. The total charge for mainte- 
nance of way on the horse railway will be, as follows : 

£ s. d. 

Renewal of rails 50 

Ditto sleepers 62 10 

Labour 66 13 4 



179 3 4 

On the locomotive railroad the charge for renewals, 
assuming the rails and sleepers to last as long as on the 
horse road, will be 2000-20, £100 per annum per mile 
for rails, and say 150-8, £18 lOs. for sleepers. For 
the cost of labour we must be dependent upon the data 
afforded by the returns from the English railroads, and 
the expenence which the Parramatta railway will 
afford. From the returns which have been furnished, 
I find that the contract price for labour only was £16 
per mile per fortnight, or £416 per mile per annum, or 
Is. lOd. per train mile. In America the cost is about 
half of tms, amounting to 11 ^d. per train mile, while 
in England the cost varies from 13*92 to 30 72, and the 
average may be put at 7*66 per train mile. The greater 
the amount of traffic upon the road, the greater of course 
will be the absolute cost of maintenance of way, but the 
less will be the rate per train mile, as there are several 
items which are almost constant, or which, at all events, 
do not vary with the amount of traffic. Under these 
circumstances, if the charge per mile of road is put at 
£250 annually — ^that is, at £166 less than is now ac- 
tually paid on the Parramatta line ; and if to this be 
added tne cost of replacing rails and sleepers before 
estimated at £118 10s. per mile, the total charge for 
maintenance of way will be £368 10s. The propor- 
tionate cost, therefore, of the maintenance of way on 
these three descriptions of road will be as follows : 

£ s. d. 

Turnpike road 186 6 

Horse railroad 179 3 4 

Locomotive road 368 10 

Having thus established an approximation at all 
events to the two great items of permanent charge on 
the different kinds of roads, the only question which 
remains to be inv^tigated is the actual cost of trans- 
port — I mean the cost of the power employed in haul- 
age : including in such cost all incidental and contin- 
gent expenses, such as the repair and renewal of rolling 
stock, coaching, traffic, and station charges, &c. 

In entering upon this investigation, I will commence 
with the locomotive railway ; for, with regard to this, 
we have not only the experience of the English and 
American railways to guide us, but we are also in pos- 
session of the returns of the cost of working the line of 
railway from Sydney to Parramatta and Liverpool. 

The actual cost of locomotive power may be classified 
under the following heads : 

1st. Interest of purchase money of rolling stock. 

2nd. Repair and renewal of ditto. . 

3rd. Cost of working, including wages of en^eers, 
drivers, foremen, &c., and charge for fael, oil, &c. 

4th. Station expenses, that is, the wages of persons 
employed in various capacities, but not actually en- 
gasred in working the locomotives. 

The whole of these charges are (with the exception 
perhaps of No. 4) directly proportional to the amount 
of the traffic upon the roaid. In order, therefore, to 
estimate their amount, some specific number of pas- 
sengers, and of tons of goods, must be assumed as liKely 
to pass over the railway. The total tonnage passing up 
and down the Southern road between Goulburn and 
Sydney is shewn by the annexed return to amount to 
30,543. Of this, however, 10,000 tons passes down the 
railway from Liverpool, and an additional 10,000 tons 



66 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



is assumed as the amouBt of the Campbell Town traffic. 
10,000 may therefore be assumed as the existing 
amount of me traffic along the line of road from Camp- 
bell Town to Goulbnm, a distance of about 90 miles. 
It is difficult to form any probable estimate of the num- 
ber of passengers. The replies to queries sent to the 
mail contractor shew that the maximum capacity of the 
vehicles employed by him is adequate to the conveyance 
of twenty passengers per day, or between six and seven 
thousand per annum over the whole distance. If, then, 
we assume 30,000 tons per annum, or thereabouts, to 
be the probable amount of goods traffic from Campbell 
Town to Goulbum, that is, about 100 tons per day up 
and down, and that the present number of passengers is 
also trebled, or that 60 per day are conveyed by the 
different trains, we shall have some definite data upon 
which to estimate the relative cost of conveying them 
by locomotive or by horse power on railroads, or by 
horse power upon common roads. 

Basing the estimate of rolling stock required upon 
the data supplied by Mr. Brady in his report on the 
comparative cost of haulage by steam and horse power, 
the cost of rolling stock would stand thus : 

£ s. d. 

4 Engines, at £3,000 12,000 

4 2nd class carriages, at £350 . 1,400 

4 3rd ditto ditto, at £250 1,000 

4 Brake vans, at £250 1,000 

30 Waggons, at £150 4,500 

19,900 
Say £20,000. 

The charge, then, under the first head of interest of 
ccfflt of rolling stock will be : 

Interest, at 5 per cent., on £20,000 ... £1,000 
Or £11, 2s. per mue of road. 

The second and third heads are in the accounts of 
English railways combined together, though data are 
given by which the actual charges for locomotive power 
can be separated from those for repairs and renewals. 
On reference to these returns, it would appear that the 
cost of locomotive power, inclusive of repairs, amounts 
on the English lines to about one shilling per train 
mile, while the repairs may be averaged at 5d. ; so that 
the actual cost of locomotive power is in England about 
7d. per train mile. 

On the Parramatta line the returns shew that the 
charge for locomotive power, including repairs, was 
33'518 per train mile, and if we assume, what was, I 
believe, the case, that the charge for repairs was unduly 
enhanced in the particular penod to which the return 
had reference, yet it is very evident that the charge for 
both working and repairs must be much heavier here 
than in England. From the returns of English rail- 
roads, it would a])pear that the charge of 7d. per mile 
for locomotive power would be divided between wages, 
materials, and superintendence in the proportion of 2*27 
to the first, 4*37 to the second, and "36 to the third. 
While on the Parramatta line the charge for materials 
was 12*36 per mile, or about three times the amount of 
the English charge. The item superintendence amounted 
to 1*85, or six times that in England, while the labour, 
including the charge for repairs, was 19 "308, or nine 
times the amount of the English charge. Looking to 
the relative cost of labour here and m England, we 
may assume, without much risk of error, that the 
charges in this country will be about three times as 
heavy as those in England, and, therefore, that the 
charge -for locomotive power would be 3s, per train 
mile ; and if the train miles be assumed to be equiva- 
lent to the number of miles actually traversed by goods 
and passenger trains, running twice a-daj, the charge 
will, for two trains per day, be 6s. per mile, or for the 
vear of 313 days £93 18s., or say £95. The fourth 
Item of station expenses averages, in England, about 
11*85 per train mile ; on the Parramatta line the 
charge has 2011 : and if we take 18*00 as the fair 
amount, the total charge would be £49 198. per mile. 



The cost, therefore, of working the locomotive line 
will be: 

£ 8. d. 

Interest, per mile 11 2 

Locomotive power 95 

Coaching charges and station ex- 
penses 46 19 

153 1 

The cost of traction upon a horse railway, mar be 
inferred so far as the goods traffic is concerned, nom 
the annexed return wmch has been famished to me 
by the Engineer of the Australian Agricultural 
Company, Mr. Whyte, as well as by informati(ni ob- 
tained by me, relative to the working of a contract 
svstem, previous to that now adopted. From Mr. 
Whyte*s paper, it appears that the actual cost of mov- 
ing 18,565 tons of coal an average distance of 1,963 
miles, and of hauling back the empty waggons amounted 
to 2d. 83 per ton per mile one way, or 1.415 for each 
mile travelled by tne power in this charge, is included 
an item for the repair of harness, and also an allowance, 
though apparently too small, for the depreciation of 
horse stock. By the returns formerly procured by me, 
it appears that the contractor who supplied the whole 
power, delivered 516 tons daily, which were equivalent 
to 1418 tons drawn one mile by 36 horses ; each hone 
therefore drew 39 tons, net weight, one mile daily, 
besides taking back the empty waggon to the nik 
Starting however, from the data afforded by tneee 
returns, we may infer that one horse will move from 
50 to 60 tons daily, over one mile of road, and as ao 
cording to the supposition upon which the former 
calculation was based, 100 tons have to be conveyed 
daily over each mile, two horses per mile, will be re- 
quired for the goods traffic, and allowing fi» Iobks 
accidents, &c., 2^ horses per mile of road woflM be 
a sufficient stock. The carriages or trucks fer gods 
would contain about three tons each, and aboot 150 of 
these would be required for the conveyance of 100 tons 
daily, over a distance of 90 miles. For the pMWffier 
traffic of 60 jwrsons backwards and forwaras dauy, 
four carriages would be required in constant work, and 
two additional, to provide against contingencies. These 
carriages would be drawn by two horses, and the number 
of these required to secure the re^lar working of the 
passenger traffic, would be, allowmg for contingencies, 
about 60. 18 sets of harness would be wanted. 

The capital expended in what may be termed the 

rolling stock, would be — 

£ B, I 

6 carriages for passengers at £250 each 1500 

60 Horses at £35 2100 

18 Sets of harness at £15 270 

150 Goods Trucks at £100 16,000 

210 Horses at £25 6,250 

180 Sets of Harness at £3 10s 630 

£24,750 

Say £25,000. 

The interest of 25,000 at 5 per cent, would be £1290, 
£13 18s. per mile of road. Repairs and renewals of 
the carriages may be put at ten per cent, on the cori^ 
as may also that of the harness, while the horse stock 
must be put at 20 per cent. The charge for repairs 
and renewals thereof, will be — 

Passengers Carriages £1,500 ■ 

Goods trucks 15,000 

Harness f 270 

I 630 

£17400 

10 per cent on £17,400 £1740 

Horse passengers 2,100 

Goods 5,250 

£7,350 
20 per cent on 7,350 £1470 

Total repairs and renewals £3210 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



67 



Boual to £35 13s. 4d. per mile of Road. 

The cost of working the traffic so far as the goods are 
concerned, has been shewn to be rather less than 1'415 
br labour, maintenance of horses, shoeing, &c. Let 
,t be put however, at 1^ per ton per mile, then as 
M),000 tons have to be convoyed in the coarse of l^e 
rear, the cost per mile will be £187 10s. 

The cost of working the passenger traffic, may be 
ronffhly estimated as follows : — 
^ ^ £ 8. d. 

4 Coachmen at £180 720 

12 Grooms at £108 1296 

48 Horses keep at £50 2400 

Shoeing and incidental expenses 210 

£4626 
Or £61 88. per mile. 
The charge thus for working will be as follows :— 

£ s. d 

Interest 13 18 

Bepaiis and renewals 35 13 4 

187 10 01 

238 18 



Working 51 8 . 



£238 18 OJ £288 9 4 

The charge for station expenses will be trifling in 
xmipariaon to that on a locomotive line, as all the 
trrangements would be more analogous to those on the 
nmpike road. If therefore, the cost of working be 
mt at £300 per mile, this will leave an ample margin 
br all charges. 

The cost of the conveyance of goods on a turnpike 
■oad, have been put at 9id per ton, per mile, this 
lowever, includes the charge for tolls, which is sup- 
K)sed to be sufficient to pay the cost of keeping the 
oad in repair, and also the annual interest of the money 
torrowed to construct it. The charge for locomotive 
tower would thus be reduced to 7^ per ton per mile, 
ehich, for 30,000 tons, would give £637 lOs. per mile 
br the goods traffic only. The cost for passenger traffic 
vould be about double that on the horse rail, or £140 
)er mile, giving a total of £1077 10s. per mile for 
vorking expenses. The general comparison between 
;he cost of conveying the given quantity of goods and 
lassengers, by either of the three kinds of conveyance, 
vill stand as follows : — 

Railroad. 
Turnpike Road. Horse. jLocomotive. 

£ 8. d. 

nterest 150 

iaintenance 186 6 

}08t of Working... 11077 10 



£ s. d 

175 

179 3 

300 



£1413 16 654 3 0112111 



£ s. d. 

600 

368 10 

153 1 



An analysis of the above table, will shew that, while 
ntibe turnpike road, and on the horse railroad, the 
nterest of the first cost of the road will be paid by a 
harge <m the traffic, amounting to one penny per ton 
ter mile on goods, and ^d per mile on passengers. 
The charge on the locomotive railway to cover the 
nterest of capital, will be 3id per ton per mile on 
"ogds, and 2d per passenger per mile. Taking, how- 
ver, the last item, namely, the cost of workmg, the 
harge on the turnpike rojid will be 7^ per ton per 
dile for goods, and l.^d per ])assenger per mile, (this 
atter charge is too low, but X have been anxious not to 
zaggerate) On the horse railroad, this charge for 
rorkmg would be l^d per ton per mile for goods, smd 
!d per passenger per mile, wnile on the locomotive 
me, the charge for working would be less than one 
enny per ton per mile for goods, and ^d per mile for 
assengers. As the traffic increases upon tiie road, the 
d vantage which the horse road possesses over the loco- 
lotive road, will diminish rapidly. As the interest 
f capital expended is a constant quantity, any increase 
1 the traffic will diminish the charge i)er ton, or per 
monger, which will be required to pay this interest. 
t is evident, however, tliat a lar^e amount of business 
LOst Im doBO upon a railroad, m order to cover tbo 



fixed and permanent charges upon it. These fixed 
charges must, in this country, be heavier than they are 
either in England or America, for lal^our is much 
dearer here, than in either of these two countries, and 
the interest of capital is certainly higher than in Eng* 
land, though not probably than it is in America. It 
becomes then a matter of the utmost importance to us, 
in dedding upon the adoption of some improved system 
of internal communication, to weigh carefully the 
various circumstances which may operate in develop- 
ing such an interchange of products and people from 
one part of the country to another, as will defray 
all tne charges upon such improved communications. 
The example of England, of the United States of 
America, and of the Xiorth America Colonies, are all 
held out to us at justifying the assumption, that where 
improved means of communication are provided, traffic 
is sure to be created ; and to this, as a general rule, 
I am quite prepared to assent ; but the question we 
h^ve to consider is, what will be the probable emount 
of such increase? Now we may at once set aside the 
example of England and the United States. The 
circumstances of those two countries are so diametri- 
cally opposed to those on which we find ourselves 
j)laced, mat to reason from that which has happened 
in either of them from the construction of railroads, to 
what will follow from the construction of similar works 
here, would lead us into error. The position of the 
British North America Colonies is so far different from 
that of the mother country, or the United States, as to 
warrant a belief that a system which has been applied 
with success in Canada, may possibly answer here. Is 
there then such an analogy between the present state, 
and future prospects of New South Wales, and those of 
Canada, as to justify us in expending upon our internal 
communication, a sum larger than our present neces- 
sities require, in the confident expectation that in a 
few years the traffic upon such lines of communication 
will increase to an extent sufficient to enable us to 
reduce the charge for transport to a level with those 
which would be sufficient to pay the whole charge 
upon a cheaper system, but one fully adequate to our 
present wants. 

The North American Colonies, extending, as they do, 
from the Atlantic to Lake Superior, cover an area of 
455,000 square miles, and support a population of 2^ 
millions. These colonies border fer a length of about 
1800 miles upon the United States of America, with 
which they carry on an increasing trade, and the popu- 
lation of which amounts to upwards of 30 millions. 
The communication of the North American colonies 
with England and Europe can be made in ten days by 
steam, and in 25 or 30, bjr sailing vessels. The land, 
especiall}r that in the vicinity of Lakes, Erie and 
Ontario, is of good quality, well calculated for the 
growth of wheat, and other cereal crops, for which there 
IS a ready demand, either in the colonies themselves, 
or in the United Statesj or in England and Europe. 
Land therefore, especially that in the vieinity of a Rail- 
road, is eagerly bought up, and bronght under cultivation, 
as there is a certainty that, although the price of wheat 
may be influenced to a certain extent by the quality of 
the harvest in England, or on the continent of Europe^ 
the value of the crop will be sufficient at all times to re- 
munerate a farmer, who pays ordinary attention to his 
lend . The construction of a railway, by lessening the 
cost of conveying produce to market, encourages both in 
Canada and the United States, the settlement of the land 
in its vicinity ; thousands flock to avail themselves of the 
advantages Uius held out to them, and the result is an 
amount of traffic which is not only sufficient to defray 
the cost| of working the railway, but also to pay the 
interest on its construction. If, however, the settler in 
Canada had lo depend upon the consumption of Montreal 
and Quebec, that is if he had not the certainty of a better, 
or at all events, a larger market for his produce, the 
amount of land disposed of would be much less, and the 
passenger and goods traffic upon the railways would not be 
suffieient to Justify the cost of constructing them. 
In New South Wales the population, by the Uat C«q.- 



68 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



sns, was 289,000, and the amrnal increase may be taken 
to be 8 per cent. This population is spread over an area 
of abont 230,000 scjuare miles. There is a large quan- 
tity of good land in various parts of the colony well 
adapted for the production of cereal and other crops ; 
but the distance is too great to allow the settler to look 
to the English and European market for the disposal of 
his surplus produce. He has the markets of India and 
China at no great distance, but these countries will not 
take his wheat in exchange for the rice and tea which 
he purchases from them. He must, then, so far as the 
sale of cereal produce is concerned, depend upon the 
home market, and this though the population is increas- 
ing rapidly, affords but a nmited demand — ^he may, it 
is true, if the cost of conveying his produce to the coast 
be much lessened, compete with the farmer in the ad- 
joining colonies in the market of Melbourne, but the 
demand there is not large, nor is it permanent, as the 
Government of Yictoria is already taking steps to con- 
struct railroads, and facilitate the means of communi- 
cation throughout a country, much of which is admi- 
rably fitted for the production of cereals. 

In estimating, therefore, the increase which is likely 
to take place in the exciting traffic upon any given line 
of road, we must not merely be able to say that it opens 
up a tract of country admirably adapted for fanning 
0]>erations, but we must be prepared to shew that there 
will be sufficient inducements to settlers to purchase and 
occupy such lands productively, in numbers sufficient 
to create a traffic for the railway. In some parts of the 
country, as for instance, in the neighbourhood of New- 
castle, there will be an increasing trade in Goal, which 
will be brought by the railroad to Newcastle, as the 
port of shipment — in other parts of the country there 
may be, and indeed there are, local sources of traffic 
which only require cheap means of conveyance to admit 
of a large developement ; but the principal receipts of 
the railroads in New South Wales, must, for many 
years to come, be derived from the movement of pasto- 
ral and agricultural produce from the interior, to the 
port of shi])ment, or place of consumption, and of siip> 
plies of different kinds, and of imported articles of 
comfort or luxury from the capital to the settler. 

The pastoral products do not admit of any rapid de- 
velopment, though their extension is certain, and may 
be eventually very great — and I have already shewn 
that as the agricultural products can only command a 
limited market, their increase cannot be dependent upon 
to an extent sufficient to create a traffic for any great 
length of railway. I am, therefore, of opinion that the 
analogy between Canada and New Soutn Wales is not 
close enough to justify the inference that railways will 
succeed here because they have done so there. 

The conclusion which I consider myself justified in 
drawing from the facts and calculations euiibited in 
this paper are as followss ; 

1st. The cost of transport by a turnpike road is in 
excess of that by a railroad, whether such road be worked 
by horsepower or steam. 

2nd. llie cost of steam power is much less than that 
of horse power upon railroads, but this cheapness is, 
with a limited amount of traffic, more than compensated 
for by the increased coit of construction and mainten- 
ance, if such roads be compared with these on which 
horse power may be used. 

3rd. That the circumstances of the colony are not 
such as to lead us to expect so large a development of 
internal traffic as would compensate, by the saving on 
the cost of motive power caused by the employment of 
steam, for the increased charge for interest of capital, 
and maintenance of road. 

4th. That the railway on which horse power is used 
would under the present, and probable future circum- 
stances of the Colony for several years to come, be the 
cheapest means of conveyance both for passengers and 
l^oods, and that it would be, therefore, advisable to adopt 
It on all the main lines of communication. 

W. DENISON. 



RAILROADS. 

Results of experiments at Newcastle. 

Cost of IX miles near Newcastle, including land, lav- 
ing originally with wood, and relayiiu^ with iron rails, 
351b8. to the yard, £9,500, or £6,332 per mile. The 
next mile cost £1,800. 

The contract price for the carriage of the coal from 
the pits to Newcastle, and delivery on board thip is at 
the rate of Is. 3d. per ton, or, <m an average, about 5^ 
per ton per mile. The lengtlis of the braaches are 
3-2^ and 2^ miles, but the same price is paid for all. 
For this the contractor finds horses, harnen, drivers, 
grease, and men and boys attending the staitba, but he 
does not keep the waggtms or the permanent way ia re* 
pair. The contractor delivers about 616 tons dailf of 
which 260 tons come 2J^ miles, and 256 come 3 mile»-- 
equal to 1,418 tons, drawn one mile. 

To do this work the contractor has 40 horses, four of 
which are kept at Newcastle, to haul tiie coal up to the 
staiths. 

He employs seven drivers ; five men at the stailJi^ 
to assist i^ shipping the coal, and four boys. 

In order to find tilie actual charge for ^ locomoiM 
powery the four horses kept to work the staitii, and the 
five men and four boys employed for the same puipose, i 
should be deducted from the establishment, the estiiaatt 
for which will then stand as follows : 

£ s. d. 

36 Horses, at, say £1 per week 36 

7 Drivers, at£3 21 

Grease for Waggons 4 10 

Boy for greasing 1 

£62 10 



for this sum 3096 tons can be drawn from the pits to 
Newcastle, or 8,508 tons can be drawn one mite, the 
actual cost being If, or a little more, per ton per mile, 
to this, however, must be added — 

1st. Interest upon the capital of tihe cootnctOTs, 
which may be calculated as follows : 

36 Horses at £40 £1,440 

Harness for ditto at £5 180 



£1,620 

and this at 10 per cent, will amount to £162 per 
annum. 

2nd. Sinking Fund for replacing stock, at 30 per 
cent, per annum, £486. 

3rd. Supervision or payment for contractor's laboui 
say £500 per annum. 

4th. Interest of cost of rolling stock— this stock for 
the conveyance of 120 tons of coal at each trip, would 
amount to 70 carriages, and if each carriage is pot at 
£50, this will give £3,500 interest upon this at 6 pet 
cent.— £210. 

5th. Repairs and sinking fund, say 15 per cent upon 
above amount, £525. 

If all these items were added together, the amoonft 
will be as follows : 

£. 

Locomotive power, 62'10 x 59 3250 

Interest 162 

Sinking Fund 486 

Supervision 600 

Interest of Rolling Stock 210 

Repairs and replacement 525 

£51S3 



or say £100 per week, for which as has been shewn be- 
fore, 8508 tons can be drawn one mile. The cost, there- 
fore, of conveying goods upon a railway by horse power 
may be put at 282, or rather more than 2| per ton pa 
mile, this includes taking the carriages back. 

The experience gained by the working of the New- 
castle coal mines is sufficient to show the relative ad- 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



@9 



vantafes of the different kinds of roads. It appears 
that the coal was formerly brought in to Newcastle by 
carts along an ordinrry bush road, and three horses 
brought in twenty tons per week. When a wooden 
tramway was laid down four horses brought in 30 tons 
per day, or 180 tons per week. When iron rails 
were substituted for the wooden tram, fire horses 
ean bring in 100 tons per day, or 600 tons per week. 
ISms, on a bush road, a horse will draw 7 tons per 
week. 

On a wooden tram a horse will draw 45 tons, and 
on an iron railway 120 tons per week. 

This is conclusive against the employment of 
wood, at all events, as a tramway. The friction 
would possibly be less upon an edge rail of wood, 
but still the difference between wood and iron would 
probably double the cost of traction, and altogether 
DeutraUze any benefit which might be derived from 
the comparative cheapness of wood. In Mr. Bell's 
Paper there is an estimate of the comparative cost 
of horse and steam traction, and there is no ques- 
tion but that, with such an amount of traffic, steam 
power would be much cheaper than horse power. 
According to his calculation, the engine would have 
to travel 288 miles per week. Now; the cost in 
England per train mile, including repairs, dec, is Is. 
3d. per mile. The experience of the Parramatta 
railroad gives, I believe, is. 6d. per train mile, if 
we assume 28. 6d. as a fair price, looking^ to the 
preat expense of everything in the colony, 
288 X 2*6-20 £36, the cost per week of locomotive 



power, <bc.; and as 309& tons have been brought 
down, the cost per ton will be 2*79, or the cost per 
ton per mile will be, as near as possible, 1 penny. 
This, however, does not include interest upon roil- 
ing stock, including engines and carriages ; neither 
does it provide for repairs and replacement, or for 
supervision. In fact, it is the mere cost of locomo- 
tive power, and it must therefore be compared with 
the horse power, which has been shown to cost 
rather more than l|d. per mile» In fact, the cost 
of conveying about 160,000 tons per annum would 
cost, so far as mere traction is concerned, by steam 
£666 ISs. 4d. per mile, and by horse power £1,166 
13s. 4d« Against this, however, must be placed the 
interest of the outlay on the construction of the 
road ; which, if put at 12,000 for the steam road, 
and 4,000 for the horse road, would be £600 and 
£200, and the increased cost of maintenance of way 
which for the steam road may be pat at £260 per 
mile, and for the horse road at £100» The com- 
parison will therefore stand as follows : 

Bteam. Horse. 

Interest 600 200 

Traction 666 1166 

31aintenanoe of way 250 lOO 

1516 1466 
With a smaller amount of traffic, such as is likely 
for many years to pass over the Southern and Wes- 
tern roads, the comparison will be muoh more, in 
favour of horse power* 



Particulars of the Actual Cost for Traction of Coals on the Austealian Agricultural Company's Railway^ near 
Newcastle, New Sou^ Wales, from the 1st of January to the 31st March incluaiye, 1857. 



Tons. 



Miles. Qrs. Frigs. Yrds. 



PromDPit... 8164 Length of Railway... 2 1 42^ 

From E Pit... 6531 2 11 21i 

From FHt... 3870 3 184 

18,565 



Lineal yards. 
30,880,330 
2,743,996i 
5,820,480 



64^40,806 Avg. mileage p. ton, 1*963 



The above quantity is delivered at the Coal Staiths by contract, including grease and oil, at the uniform rate 
of 3d. per ton all through, which also includes the haulage ef the empty waggons back to the pks, making the 
cost for manual labour and lubrication alone to average 1.53 pence per ton each mile for the loaded waggons one 
way. The Company furnish horses, harness, and provender. 

Cost of Maintenance during three Months. Summary of Cost. Avrg. Cost. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 

390 bushels of maize, at 58 97 10 Haulage on 18,565 tons, at 3d.... 232 1 3 153 

12i tons of hay, at £5 62 10 Cost of maintenance 184 4 1-21 

Runin paddock 9 15 Add Jth of ori^nal cost of stock 

Horse shoeing bill.... 10 2 6 for depredation, per annum... 13 7 3 '09 

Saddling bUf. 4 6 6 -— 

^^ 429 12 6 2-83 

184 4 Or say, in round numbers, nearly 3d. per ton. 

Original cost of Stock and Plant. 

* £ s. d. 

15 horses, at £25 each 376 

15 sets of harness and gears, £70 52 10 

427 10 

(Signed) ROBT. WHYTTLB^ 

27th April, 1857. Manager A, A. Co.'s Collieries. 



In consequence of a press of matter, Mr. Peppercorn's paper is imavoidably post-^ 
poned till next number. 



70 MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AKD ART. 

ABSTRACT sbmriDg Om Total Tomuce, the Rate per Ton. the diitance coaTejed, ud the cost of Carriage for 
Ooodi on the WESTERN ROADS annnaUy. 



Katance. 


Road. 


Sondrie. 


Gmn. 


Total 
Tonnage 


Rale par 

tko»bole 
diatimce. 


Co 


tof 




Rate per T 


D 


Tons. 


Tons. 


Con.e).an«.. 


per Mile 




HiLBR. 


To BlDSlY 


4,415 
487 
S20 

5.150 


1,8T5 


4,41 S 

487 

520 

4.633 

7.-n25 


£18. 

fl5. 
£14. 

£9. 
£3 


79,470 
7,305 
7.280 
41.607 
21,075 


I 


;: 




2 

1 








S 






















629 


Total 


15,193 1 1,875 


17,071) 


ToUl. 


150,737 


., 


,. 




S 


^ 



OOTHER K. MANN. 



Ooodi on the aOTTTHERN ROAD u 



DistancB. 


Eoad. 




Grain. 


Total 


Etile per 
Ton for 
LtiowLoU 


Co 


tof 




Hate per Ton 


'""• 


Tons. 


""•'-■ 


per Mile. 


Kmb. 


To Syhsky 


108 

8.570 

818 

800 

5,000 

10,000 


SO 

le? 

5,000 
108 


198 
614 
8.570 

975 
10.000 
10,108 


£45, 
£13. 
£13. 

£7. 

£4. 

£3. 

£2. 


8,910 
7,D82 
111.410 
6,386 
3,808 
50,000 
20,000 


;; 


" 




a 4j 

2 ? 


























33 




; »• 








srr 


Tolal 


26,000 


5,355 


31.3,'o 


Total. 


188,672 „ 


„ 


„ 


12 Hi 



QOTHER K. MANN. 



ered, and the Cost of Carnage fsi 



Distance. 


Eofld. 


Sundries 


Gr^n. 


Total 


Rale for 

:hE>vimle 

per Ton. 


Co 


tof 




It ate 


per Ton 


Tqm. 


Tona. 


Conveyance. 


per Mile. 


Miuts. 


To MalTLiKD 


674 
210 
400 
454 
780 
634 
22,648 


;; 


674 

400 
4.'H 
780 
63* 
22,6i8 


£28. 

£18. 

£15. 

£9. 

£7- 10s, 

£6. 10a. 


16,872 
3,780 
6,000 
4,086 
6,850 
4,121 

67.fl44 


;; 


ii 


I 


1 

1 
2 








lOO 








70 




m 








1,075 


Total 


25,800 


. 


25,800 


Total... 


110,653 






11 


10 


i 


40 


Wulluiubi 


300 


2,400 


2,700 


£a. 


6,*X) 








I 


„ 



Aveiage Rate per Ton par Mile, la. 8d. 
Note. — The traffic from Warialda and WeUinireie does not pais throDjth Nnnabaud Cawlu, but coBMi nira 
the Noithem Road near Mnrmmndi.. 

Ttaa Wollombi Traffic paiaa along abont five milea of the Maitland road onlr. 

(SiSNiD,) GOTHSR E. HANK. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 
METEOROLOGICAL REPORT. 

SlDUBY, MOBTH OP Jdlt, 1857. 

From obsertations taken at 9 a.ra, and 9 p.m. each day. 



« 


1 


Tkm 


BHATU 


„.,A,.. 


Mois 


TrHE 






Cloud, 


Winns. 




























Eeniarhii 




1. 


"1 








^ 




i 








i 


|5 

1 


1 


s 


1 


Si 
1^ 


i 


ii 


i 






■3 g 

if 


Wcatbor, olc. 


~ 


a9'S29 




60-1 


4GB 


13-5 


39-2 


-00 


5 




Ci, 


w aw 


1 Fine and clear 


2 


29-969 


44-7 


61-0 


38-3 


22-7 




'00 


6 




Cu -St. 




[ Frcah dry braews 


3 


30037 




67-5 


302 


37-3 




-00 


5 




Ci.-St. 


aw. N 


J«ofi inch thick 


4 




57-1 




50-3 


16-6 


43-5 




7 




Cu. St. 


WNW 


1 Strong dry hreeia 


63 


20738 


55-4 








43-G 


-00 


5 




Cn. St. 


wsw 


( 




29-B.)3 


50-( 


633 


37-6 


25-7 


41-7 


00 






Cn.-at. 


ssw 


Fall cumuli 


7 


30'073 


45-3 


ei-4 


35-7 


a57 


40-7 


-00 


7 




ci.Ch..oi.at 


sw 


Varied clouds 


8 


30'19S 


49-0 


eu-a 


3S-0 




43-2 


-00 


7 




Cu. 


s 




e 


30-334 




59-2 




20-4 


10-9 


.00 


7 






8 


Quite clear 


in 




44-4 


G41 




28-6 


41-8 


■00 


6 




Ca 


WSW. NNB 


Changs of irinil 


11 

12S 


30-316 
30333 


45-5 
53-3 


61-8 


37-8 
40-4 


2! -4 


44-7 
47.0 


-00 
-00 


5 
6 




ci-st. 
Ci-St. Cn. 


Calm 
NNE 


Calm and delight- 
ful weather 


13 


30-276 


49-5 


61-4 


394 


£20 


4-79 


-00 


6 




c;-.cu 


Calm 


11 


30-221 


49-0 


64-3 


396 


S4-7 


48-2 


'00 






Cu.-9t- 


Calm 


Night miatafidewB 


15 


30-150 


52-0 


63-5 


41-3 


22-3 


50-2 


•16 


6 




Ni. Ci-St, 


NNW 


1 aiu and thunder 


le 


30-110 


51 -4 


61 ■! 


450 


16-1 


45-5 


•00 


6 




Cu.-gt. 


BW 


Fi=.o 


ir 


30- U8 


54-5 


61 -3 


45-3 


16-0 


44-6 




T 




Cn. 


S 


JFmhbree-OB 


18 


30'2a0 


52-6 


61-0 


50T 


10-3 




■00 


8 




Cu- 




19E 


30289 


47-3 


635 


41-1 


22-4 


45-4 


-00 






Cn, Ci.-St 






20 




48-9 


61-8 


419 


19-9 




-00 


5 




Cu, Ci.Cu. 


Calm 


Gloomy 


21 


30188 


60-9 


645 


40-3 


24-2 


50-0 


■oo 


4 




Cu,-St. 








30199 


62-0 


62-1 


434 


18-7 


49-4 


-09 


8 




Cn. 




Shower 


23 


30192 


60-T 


oa-e 


43-0 


19-8 


50-3 


.12 






Cu. 


SE 


Heavr dem t miMa 


34 


30' U9 


63-3 


63-8 




16-8 


50-7 


'00 


7 




Cu, 


SW. 8 


Fine and olaar 


25 


30-105 




64-0 


40^3 


23-7 


47-3 


■00 


6 




G.-St. 


SW. BE 


Redinnset 


208 


30.079 


53-4 


60-7 




143 


52-9 


■06 


B 




N!. 


Calm. SB 


Black KlDoniy clouds 


2T 


aS'flOG 


55-2 


57-9 


52-5 


5-4 


54-0 


3-27 


10 




Hi. 


E. ENK 


1 Floods of rain and 




30-062 


65-8 






0-6 


496 


1-67 


7 




Cu. Ci-St. 


SE 


( high gale* 


SQ 


30-115 


54-8 


620 


53I 


8-2 




'09 


8 




Cu. 


SE 




SO 


29-978 


i&2 


BO-3 


415 




45-4 


-10 


7 




Cu. 


W 




31 1 


29'S20 


55-2 


68-2 


40-4 


27-8 


43-8 


-00 


6 






W 


Fine and dry 




30103 


60-7 ' 


02-0 


42-3 


19-7 


46-0 


5'5G 


6'4 






Meiins and 


suma. 




30-3S1 




68-2 


30-2 


380 


54-1 




10 


10 


H 


Bl™t 1 .f.in 


glo rea^lmgs 




29-451 


38-1 
















Lo 


west } at 9 


■.ui.orBp.m. 



N,B.— Tha observations are no( corrected for dii 
variation- The principal instmments have been com- 
pared at Greenwich, and Iba readings are all tednced 
Bccordinglf. 

Pressfre, — The barometer ia 11 feet above the-sea-Ierel. 
Tha greatest range of pressure is 930 mch The 
mean gaseous pressure of dry air is 29792 inches. 
S^perattire qf jfr,— Tha mean of all self-registered 
maxima and minima is 621 degrees. 

The adopted mean ten^ralure of llie monlli from 
all observations is, therefore, 61-4 degrees Fahren- 
heit. The adopted mean of the ' '--■-- ..-. ^— 






l7.9ot31d« 



ilculatsd from readings of 



JfoM(««.— The del 

Negretti'a and Lamoras ury ana w&z duid mermome- 
ters, by the use of Glidsher's tables. 2nd Edn. 

The mean temperature of eTapoialJan at 9 a.m. and 
p.m.. is 48-4 degrees. The mean elastic force of 
vapoor is -311 indies- The average proportional 
humidity of tiie air is denoted by 85, perfectly dry 
_.-_ ■._-__ ._T n -.3 — -omj^ ^mp air as 100. 



ir being taken a> 0. and satoii 



nnd meaanied it B p. 



which 



Cloud. — The eifent of clond ja eipresaed by the tmtia of 
the whole sky covered by it. 
The forms of clouds are denoied as follows, the num- 
ber of days on which each kind occnried during 
the month being added in fijnras- 
Cn. Cumulus 15 Ci -Cu. Cirro-cnmulns. ... 3 

a. Cirrus... 1 Ci.-St. Cirro-stratus 8 

at. Stratus 2 ' CaSt. Cnmulo-stiatns ... S 

Ni. Nimbus,... 3. 
WiniU. — The muds may be thu;s sniomed uj 



NNW 
WN W 

West 



1 day 



2 day 



Calm 4} „ 

W. 8. JEVONS. 
Double Bay, near Sydney, N.8.W. 

Errata in Table, p^ 45, of last (July) nnmber of 
Mavszine: — 6th column, for 511, read 60-6 1 far 691, 
raild 69-4. 7th colnmiwfor 1-8 read 2-8i &r VO. road 
4. In last line, for lim gears read two pairt. In pag» 
■46, Jun* ITtk, (or E E read N E. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



HEALTH OF SYDNEY. 

The following table is published by the 
fiegistrar-General ecery month, and will be 
carefully re-printed in this journal, form- 
ing at the close of each year a valuable 
statistical document. 

The table printed for the present month 
contains the a^regate amount of deaths 
during the months of May, June, and July, 
1857. These are printed in one table, in 
order to enable ua to overtake the usual 



monthly issue, which will in iuture be a 
copy of the official document. 

The following is a statement of the birthi 
registered during the first seven months of 
the present year. 



91 im>1n 


. 101 fomils. 






as do. 


. »8 do. 


14 da. 


. 105 do. 


B3 do. 


. Ill &.. 


18 do. 


. 100 do. 



SUMMARY OF DEATHS of both sexes Registered in Sydney, during the thtt 
months from Ist of May to 30th July J857. 



C»uaK9 OF DB«m. 


1 

k 

■S 


i 


1 


1 
1 


« 

] 


is 

r 


i 


1 
1 


i 


1 

i 


1 

i 


i 


1 


j 

i 


iiiii 

SS3S|| 


iiiii r 


ZtmOTIO DlSBiBM. 

Bndemic Kpidemie, & Con 


2S 
17 

E 

2 

a 


s 
h 

2 
U 


2 
3 

... 


1 


1 


11 

23 

20 
10 

2 
... 

S 


z 

1 
a 

3 


1 
I 

1 


2 


2 

6 
2 

3 

1 


2 
6 

2 

1 


i 


3 

5 
2 
2 


1 

2 
3 

a 


2 1... 1 

2 1 3 1 

... 2... 1 

fi 3 4 

2 2 1 1 

2 3 2.,. 1... . 

1 


21 

4J 

« 

It 

K 

as 


0/ Uvctrlam Sinf .—Dropsy 
lUid other DiMOMU of Virf 


Of NeTVom ^itm.c. Din- 
eas« of ibe £r^», Ik. .. 

JUseisen of the Hnirt and 


Of DigettijK Organi. Ms 
e^ses of the Stoinact. 


0/ UHnary Oroani.— Dis- 
eases of the KidnofB, &c... 

Of Lommotim Orgaia.— 
the Bonos, Joints, At 

DiteascB of Uio Skin 

OldAgi: 

Bzferrud Causei. ■Vlolenceo, 
Privation, « intemperance. 

Un^cified. 


■ 


. 




i 

1 11 

1 25 

r u 


1 


1 


' 


i 

1 


1 


1 


: 


2 4 3 

2 3 1 1 


Tofeil from all Causps 
in thf tlirea Months 


63 


2i 


S 


£ 


1 


96 


2 


4 


^ 


9 


22 


10 


20 


nii|is|ii ij| rfaP 


... apl t\^ 



CHKIS. BOLLEBTON, Jtegabt Goienl. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



73 



AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. 

We have noticed with great pleasure the 
recent establishment of Agricultural So- 
cieties in various country districts. There 
can be no necessity for us in these days to 
enlarge upon the pre-eminent importance 
of agriculture, — we do not now need the 
political economist to inform us that the 
soil is the source of all wealth, — but it may 
be useful to impress upon our agricultural 
population the importance of conducting 
their farming operations on the most im- 
proved and scientific principles. 

There is, perhaps, no method by which 
the knowledge of these principles can be 
disseminated so effectually as by the agency 
of Agricultural Societies. We may point 
to the vast improvements that have taken 
place in the agriculture of England and 
Scotland within the last few years, in con- 
firmation of our assertion, for in both these 
countries Associations of this character 
have been formed, and circulate the 
varied experience of hundreds of practical 
farmers in the records of their proceedings. 
In England, also, it must be remembered 
that there is a large class of country gen- 
tlemen who take up the pursuit of farming 
for their pastime, and who are constantly 
making costly experiments with a view to 
its advancement. They are, no doubt, 
stimulated to such efforts by the competi- 
tion that is fostered by these societies, 
which thus prove of the greatest public 
benefit. 

In this colony, Associations of this kind 
are even more necessary than at home. 
Here the Anglo-Saxon finds new condi- 
tions of climate, of seasons, and of soil ; 
and a great portion of the rural population 
are strangers to the best modes to be 
adopted in cultivation. How desirable 
must it be, therefore, that associations 
should be formed where each might detail 
the results of his experience, and encou- 
rage the followers of this noble andbene- 
ficsnt pursuit ? 

In our first number we detailed, at some 
length, the constitution and the rules of 
the Australian Horticultural and Agricul- 
tural Society, which appear to us to furnish 
some very good hints for the formation of 
similar associations in the country districts. 
Since then we have received the prospectus 
and rules of the Cumberland Agricultural 
Society, which we hear has enrolled a large 



number of members, and bids fair to take 
an influential position. Another society 
has been formed in the county of Argyle, 
and there are three in the Ulawarra 
district. We hear that there is some 
prospect of establishing one in the Hunter 
River District, where recent calamitous 
events have demonstrated that such an 
association would be productive of the 
greatest benefit. We shall most gladly aid 
these various societies by all the means in 
our power, and we heartily invite the re- 
spective secretaries to forward to the ofllce 
of this journal condensed reports of their 
proceedings, which we engage to publish 
with the same regularity that we do the 
proceedings of the metropolitan society. 

By this means it may reasonably be ex- 
pected that a great stimulus will be given 
to intelligent farming, and instead of the 
solitary agriculturist discovering for him- 
self, by painful experience, the proper 
rotation of crops, or the right seasons for 
the various operations of the farm, he will 
at once by this agency be associated with 
those willing and able to instruct him, and 
thus conduce to the wealth of the conunu- 
nity. 

We wish we could conclude these obser- 
vations by recording that our Government 
had evinced any intention or any desire to 
aid the development of the agricultural 
resources of the colony. We have looked 
careftilly through the estimates for this 
year, and the only item that we can con- 
strue into an indirect recognition of the 
value of agriculture is, that a sum of 
£16.00 is appropriated for the application 
of sewerage water to the Botanical Gardens. 
This is a step in the right direction, and if 
carried out, will, we are convinced, demon- 
strate the immense value of liquid manures 
in this climate. We sincerely trust that 
this vote will experience a better fate than 
it did last year, when it was rejected in 
the Legislative Assembly. Our neighbours 
of Victoria are far more liberal, and we 
believe more sagacious, for we observe 
that this year the sum of £10,000 has been 
appropriated by the Legislature of that 
Colony for the promotion of agriculture. 
If this sum is judiciously expended, it will 
return itself a hundred-fold, and instead of 
being stigmatised as a piece of extrava- 
gance, we are disposed to applaud it as an 
instance of large and statesmanlike eco- 
nomy. 



74 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AKT. 



TRANSACTIONS OP THE 

AUSTRALIAN HORTICULTURAL 

AND 

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

EIGHTH MONTHLY MEETING. 

Held in the Royal Hotel, on Tuesday 

Evening, 1st. September, 1857. 

Mr. W. S. Wall in the Chair. 

Members of Council present : — Messrs. 
D. Mc Innes, E. K. Silvester, W. S. Wall, 
P. L. C. Shepherd, Dr. Houston, H. R. 
Webb, and several members and their 
friends. 

The minutes of the last meeting were 
read and confirmed. 

Mr. Theodore West read a paper on a 
singular insect production found in some 
parts of Australia. 

On a motion of adjournment having 
been negatived, it was resolved that the 
reading of. 

Mr. R. Meston*s paper on the effects of 
Acrid and Poisonous Plants upon Grami- 
niverous Animals be postponed until the 
next monthly meeting. 

The following communication on the 
Bitter Aloe, received from Mr. Ransom 
Hood, was read by Mr. P. L. C. Shepherd. 

THE BITTER ALOE. 

This prolific plant is worthy of the most enconragiDg 
notice of the Horticultnral Society. It is admirably 
adapted for New South Wales — will grow any where — 
and is always laxnriant in spite of soil or neglect 
When it flowers, as much as five gallons of oil may be 
extracted from one plant, and its arms or barbed leaves, 
afford at all times one of the most searching vegetable 
medicines I ever knew. The smallest bit of the pure 
white pulp of the leaves will suffice to clear the com- 
plexion, and cool the whole system. Care must be 
tjEtken not to take too much. 

I wish to draw the attention of Colonists to this plant, 
and to express my firm belief that the principal ingre- 
dient of Holloway's famous pills is extracted from the 
bitter Aloe. 

N. S. Wales. 1857. RANSOM HOOD. 

The Secretary read the following letters 
from Mr. Augustus Appleford. 

To the Secretary of tJie Horticultural and Agricul- 
tural Society of New South Wales. 

Yine-*hill, Camden, 

25th July, 1857. 

Sir, — Respecting the irrigation of Vineyards, or the 
inexpensive means of supplying Yillaffes with water, I 
have to ol»erve, that if there be a runnmg stream within 
a inile or two of the vineyard or village, such may be 
easily accomplished, if a cistern or tub can only be 
placed on a conical scaffolding, high enough to elevate 
the water in it above the level of any intervening hill 
or eminence. The cistern at the top may be supplied 
with water by means of tin or quart pots, fastened on a 
belt, and turned by a plain water wheel stationed in the 
current — the belt passing over an open pully at the 
lop ; the quart pots or vessels will empty themselves 



as they topple over into the cistern, from which a pipe, 
or gutta percha hose of any kind, will carry the water 
from the cistern to buj distance, and to any given point 
of the height of the cistern, witiioat farther expenae. 

I am. Sir, ' 
Your obedient humble servant, 

AUGUSTUS APPLEFORD. 

THICKENING OF WINE. 

To the Secretary of the Horticultural and Agrtcid- 
tural Society of New South Wales, 

Sir, — With reference to our Colonial Wine making 
allow me to remark, that it does not yet appear l^at 
any of us have discovered the exceedingly powerful and 
pernicious chemical substance now frequently used is 
European establishments for the sole purpose of thick- 
ening the wine. Of late it has been used more freely 
than in former years, and is worthy the attentimi of 
your Society. 

The nature of the substance is so lasting and tena- 
cious, that an empty wine cask will turn water into 
starch-like thickness months afterwards, even after it 
has been emptied and refilled with fresh water half a 
dozen times. That this deserves the attention ctf mem- 
bers I now respectfully submit. 

I am. Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

AUGUSTUS APPLEFORD. 

Mr. P. L. C. Shepherd exhibited a very 
beautiful cut specimen of a seedling Ca- 
mellia, from the seed of C. wanatah, 
remarking that he desired to see more at- 
tention given by Nurserirmcn and Amateurs 
to the cultivation of this and odier plants 
from seed, in ovder that new varieties may 
be produced. 

Mr. Shepherd also laid upon the table 
cut specimens of Kerria Japoiiica» Mag- 
nolia conspicua, and some very fine Hya- 
cinths, which he considered would thrive 
very well in this Colony, if properly 
treated, although it was the general opinion 
that they were not suited to our climats ; 
it was further stated, that he intended try- 
ing some experiments with this really 
beautiful flower ; he thought that an ad- 
mixture of salt was required in the soil to 
perfect their culture. 

No ballot being demanded, the following 
gentlemen became members : — 

Mr. G. H. Cox, Mr. Geoige Woods, Mr. 
William Wilson, Mr. W. J. Inman, Mr. T. 
G. Sawkins, Mr. Smith, Greorge-stieet, 
Mr- Smith, Rope's Creek, St Mary's, Mr. 
W. Jagers, Mr. James Thompson, M.P., 
Burner, Shoalhaven. 

The following gentlemen were proposed 
as members : — 

Mr. J. Boucher, Bombalo, life member ; 
Mr. A. Davy, Harrington Park, Camden. 

The following notices of papers wero 
given for next month :— 

Mr. Robert Meston — On the Deteriafa^ 



MAOAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



I of Colonial 



tion and necessary ri 
Pastures. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd— Native PlttDta, 
and the Pastoral, AgricuUiirnl, and Horti- 
cultural Resources of Australia, No. 7. 

The firat Spring Exhibition will be held 
in the Botanie Gardens, on Thursday and 
Friday, lat and 2nd of October; and the 
next monthly meeting will be held 
Tuesday, 6th of October. 



A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF A SINGtTLAR 

msKOT PRODUCTION FODND IN SOME 

FAET8 OF AUSTRALIA. 



Tais -nbatBucB (of w 



riie name wm given by the AlioriiiDe. 
It part of Australia Felii. 




4 ■■Lerp." 

rhia tnngni&ed view ci 

tbaCpoMofNstnnil Hiil 



" WliiHte shape wouM luitko them, had tboy bulk uid 



With hairnet heads, and dragan <cal«B adorned. 

The mi^ty myruuii, now tacurelj Kornad, 

Would mock Iha majastj of man's high birtb, 

DiiB)iise bit bDlwarks, and unpeople eartli." 

Tig cbamical conitCtution appears to b», for an animal 

secrEdon, perfectly aDomalous, so far as known, being 

cooipued of pure starcli, which laata aweet on tlia 

tongiia, it ia sopposad by a rapid change into (near by 

the action of the saliva. It baa bocn suggeited, Chat 

from it! large ^nantities in some parti of the coontiy, 

and the easD with which it may bo obtained, it may fbnii 

3 snbatitutB for ■ '' =" Ji-^-ii.^™ ir it 

really ba pni 






in may teach the " praO' 



aid, the i 



of this singular ])r<)dnct, which he could only hi 
CBitaiDod liy randDm and tedions trial, is with ease 
determined, and the nses to which it maybe applied are 
at once indicated. 

Tlio writer being desiroiis to lay before the Society 
an actual specimen af " Lsrp." made emjuiries for that 
purpoie. In the cmirsc of thtBe. he received a sample 
of what was supposed might be "'LBrp," but which wsa 
recognised as "Mannai" uu almost pore sugar, which 
yielded to the several tests no trace of starch. As one 
valuable object of a Soriety like this, is to bring togo- 
tlier time who have greater opiwitanity for collecting 
spedaiena than otlien, it would be esteemed si a favour 
■liiiuld any member have one, of the true " lerp," to 
exhibit it, that opportunity may be afforded of cooflrm- 
ing the foregoing observationB. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE PHILOSQ- 

PraCAL SOCIETY OF NEW 

SOUTH WALES. 

pROCKEDiNO with our record of the Trans- 
actions of this Society, we furnish our 
readers with a brief abstract of the Paper 
read by Mr. W. G. Pennington on the 1 1th 
of July, 1856, on " the means of construct- 
ing railways financially considered." 
The writer introducea tie subjeflt with 
careftil analysis of the railway systems 
of America and Canada, and expresses the 
decided opinion that railway traffic will 
supersede even the great natural means of 
water communication that exist in those 
countries, and that the construction of 
canals may be regarded as an obsolete 
idtJa. He points out the mistate into 
which the Americans fell in the constnie- 
tion of their public works by borrowed 
capital, of which they were unable to pay 
the interest. The consequence of which 

that for a time several States repudi- 
ated their obligations. The writer, how- 

, affirms that " every dollar of the 
original debt, both principal and intaieatb 
has bean paid sinue." 



76 MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



Instead of the interest being made pay- ***« ^^^^ expeditiously for the lake of th« reward, our 

able from the revenue of the State, the iTZT^^l^:"^:,^,:^^:^^::^^^^:;, 

writer proposes that it should be charged grauU ofland.ftrom the yeryearliett period of our eoloDial 

upon the waste lands, and instances some h"tory, of arightofreiumptlonliythe state of all such 

A> di. J. 1. xi.*-i.-L i. portions of the land alienated as might thereafter be re- 

Amencan fetates where this has been most quired for the purpose of making highways. TheGofem- 

SUCCeSsfully accomplished. The following ment may regulate its arrangemenU accordingly. The 

extract will give the conclusions at which ""^^ thellne,whetlicr passing through public or private 

. ^. land, ought to be free of cost. The OovemmeDt ought to 

the writer arrives : — give the projectors the right of selection of an agreed 

The examples which I have cited establish two prin- q«an«»ty of public land, the land so selected to be an abso- 

ciples of railway finance for countries of good external *"^ donation on the part of the public. If capitalists can- 

credit, but with* insufficient local resources. 1st, Con- "^^ be stimulated by these tempting advantages to undei- 

struction by the Government, with the aid of loans, take the work, it might then be worth our wbiie to 

foreign or domestic, secured upon the general revenue «'««der whether the SUte should offer to guarantee to 

2nd, The subsidising of external capitalists by dona- the shareholders any and what amount of Intereat on their 

tions of the waste or unalienated lands of tho territory, •^^'f "-^ ' ^"^ °°' '»»*" V "^^Yr"' !^^ 2?***' ^^^^'^^ 

with or without reservation. ^«"'<* ^ necessary, as I am disposed to think that the tree 

Upon tho first point I must be understood as speak- grant of land would attract British capital for Australian 

ing with great sibmission, when I give my opinion, ""''^y* '^^'^^y- ?^^^'« " °° '«»wn to suppose that rai - 

with some confidence, that this is not the* coirse of ;«'«ycnterprlw would be less succwsful In Australia than ^ 

policy for us to pursue. A country whose public '\«« ^«° '" ^!f "^'^ Canada.inl849 had not fifty miles 

Revenue is raised mainly by import duties, is not justi- ^J "'»!^«J' "°?;»*« ^j?*^l" """"^ •'~*L7* **?* ** ' 

fted in imposing, as it must impose, further burdens ^^^Preciatlon of from 60 to 80 per «»»« It had at the wm- 

upon current industr;^ to defray thv annual interest n>:-necment of the present year about 800 miles of working 

upon undefined i)ecuniary obliyations, however urgent ^^\Trt^[v. j ^^ .. .j. . . i . 

aid necessary. 'A.ssuming the amount borrowed to bo ^^H^^^f'^l ^^^L •"»»;di.ing principle jbo^ •«! ' 

most advantageously expended, it may be generations «<^tcd, the State riiould grant the line of perpetuity, or 

before the effect of tlie expenditure will be appreciable, •^'^"/i*^!"^^ ~" / '* " *! ^ r«ice. for a term of yearju 

Adam Smith has properly laid down the general prin- ^""'d »>« » °»«"er for experience to determine. It would 

cinlo " It does not seem necessarv " savs he *' that "**' "*^*''*^' **"* principle whatever course wa; Uken. 

cipie. It aoes not seem necessary, sa> s ne, that ^ j^ ,. ^ constructed. I confew my prefbreoec 

the exiKjnse of public works should be defrayed from *„ \i u -i* n u *u j * !»•«»••»««- 

Ai . 'ii* -1. ' 1 11 1 "^ r> I- L for well-built railways, whether we adopt a single or a 

that public revenue, as it is commonly called, of which ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^ ^ J ^^ 

the collection and application are in most countnes as- ^^^ ,^^„^ Americans Lve found that eb«^ 

signed to the Executive power. The greater part of J^„^ ^^ „^, ^ ,„^ ,^^j, experien«i is a r«d 

such works may easily be so managed , as to afford a .^^ ^^ „,, ,^ ^^„ ^ „^ „^, const^^ by the Ste^ 

particular revenue sufficient for defraying their own «„, j.^^ ,^ ,,^j^ enterprise. It would be neoeJary Ibr tfa^ 

rS«r; ZfZ «o^X?' Th«"^i?.T'' ^' TTl Government to take securit; for the filthfS7«tofm«« 

revenue of the society. 1 he imjirovement effected ^f ^j^^ ^q^jj^ 

ought in fact to i)ay its own cost, but only under very 

special circumstances ought tlie general revenue of the ^^s^*/*/*^ 

country to bear it. In the case before us, the object to At the meeting held on Wednesday, Oc 

be effected is to enhance the value of our waste lands . •, ^., 1oci^^^-/•^^ • ^-i. 

by making them productive or rather of bringing them ^^"^^ ^^"f 185b, the tolJowing paper On the 

nearer to the market. If the road itself cannot, by the Parramatta Water Works was read bv 

revenue which it is made to yield, promptly and readily w /\ ir • _l -r. t. * r^- m •« . 

defray the cost of its construction, why not throw the ^' ^\ Monarty, Esq., B.A., Civil Engineer :— 

burden of that cost upon the land which, hv tho con- There is perhaps no subject connected with the aodal 

struction of tho road, you make saleable. 1'his seems economy of a country of more importance to Ae 

a preferable course to that of nnticij)ating future re- comfort and health of its inhabitants than its 

venue, or tax-paying ability, by the iin])osition of pre- water. Being one the iBrst necessariea of life, it has 

sent burdens in the form of* loans. Tho loan, moreover, always been considered, and undoubtly is, of die very 

is a very unnecessary one, as we have no ])cculiar pride greatest consequence that is to be obtained aa pore, and 

in keeping the estate intact, and wonld much prefer free froni all deleterious matter aa possible, 

selling to mortgaging. The direct mode of accomplish- That it was so ^teemed by the ancients, is at once 

ing the obiect in view, is better than the circuitous one. proved by the magnificent remains of reservoirs, aqne- 

Public debts are more easily contracted than Hquidatetl, ducts, and tunnels, which exist to the present day, and 

and it is bad policy to start in tho wrong direction, as which exhibit, perhaps, even more strongly than their 

our American brethren have found to their cost. classic writings, the civilization and enlightenment of 

For the reasons I have ventured to urge, 1 doubt tlu* t.lieir times. That the subject is not neglected in these 

policy of imposing upon the Government the duty of 'lays of practical wisdom may be. learned fbom &e 

railway making. It is not a part of the legitimate rnuny noule and ingenious works by which towns in 

province of Government, which is rather to a.ssist or tlje old country are supplied with water. And when 

encourage euter})riso than wholly to snpereede it AVc the extended works now in progress for supplying Sjrd- 

cannot construct the works ourselves, it is bad policy to noy are completed, the people of the Metropolis of New 

construct them with borrowed cajntul. "We have not South Wales, at all events, will have no cause to fiear a 

the money, but we have tho land. Why cannot we give comparison in this res]>ect with other cities, 

tho land in exchange for the rcnuired services? Tlie Tlie sources from which water for the supply of towns 

capitalists who would lend us their money upon a mort- is gene<ally derived, may be classed under three 

gage of our estate without considering wliether they could heads : — 

get principal or interest back, would readily adventure First, — rivers and running streams, which most nn- 

thcir c-ipital for the making of our highways. In congider- douhtedly be considered the best and most economical 

ation of a wholly or partially free donation of land, the undf r all circumstances where they can be fbiud 

sale of which would repay them their outlay, and, with in- within any sufficiently convenient distances. fI^om tiie 

fallible ceruinty, yield them a handsome profit thereon, places to be supplied, inasmuch as the running water is 

The private company or association would most probably a'moit always purer and more free from organic 

make the railway much better and more cheaply than the njatter of all kinds, unless where it receives the 

Co veiumcnt, and it would have a direct interest in doing sewerage of towns, or the drainage of lands under 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



<!ultivation. The action of the atmosphere, and the 
passage of the water over a sand or i>ebblv bed, appear 
to combine in purifying and rendering it more fit for 
the Qse of man. 

The next source from which water is frequently 
obtained, where riviersare not available, is from springs, 
wells, or artesian borinra, driven into the water-bearing 
strata which may underlie the surface of the ground ; 
but the waters obtained in this way, although frequently 
sparkling and clear, almost always contain chemical 
salts in solution, differing, of course, in quantity and 
kind with the geolo^cal formation of the country, aad 
the constituents of its soils ; but water is rarely got by 
artesian borings in any but the tertiary formation, as 
in the earlier formations the absence of those cl ay or 
chalk basins with their alternating beds of clay, gravel, 
and sand, into which the water percolates, and in whicli 
it is retained, renders it useless to attempt to procure 
it; and even in the secondary and transition soiies the 
water obtained from this source is seldom abundant or 
of good quality. 

The third meant of obtaining a supply of water is one 
to which recourse must be had where neither of the other 
sources are available,— it eonsisU in storing the surplus 
rain water which falls during the wet seasons, and 
holding it in reservoirs artificially constructed fur rhe pur- 
pose. There are but very few parts of the earth where 
water iufflclent for the use of man does not fall annually 
in the shape of rain— and« consequently, there are very 
few places where water may not be had in sufficient 
quantity by adopting the commonest precautions for re- 
taining it. Very many-plaoes may be insUnced in which 
the Inhabitants are entirely dependent on rhe rains for the 
necessary supply of water. And I am Induced to think 
that it is the principal source from which we must loolc for 
a supply for the wants of this country. Any person who 
hat seen much of the interior of New South Wales cannot 
but have been struck with the scarcity and utter insigni- 
ficance of the running streams, and we hare all heard of 
the fearful losres of stock which have occured during 
those seasons "f drought to which this country (like many 
others under the same parallels of latitude) is occasion- 
ally subject. 

I allude more particularly to the middle districts of New 
South Wales, for to the northward of the tropic, within the 
sones of the tropical rains, water appears to be more 
abundant; it appears to me, therefore, that every en- 
eouragemeot should be given for the formation of dams 
for ttie storing of water in all situations where they are 
practicable. 

The inhabitants of Parramatta having long felt the 
want of a permanent supply of good and wholesome water, 
had, after a careful analysis of the waters of Parramatta 
River and its various tribuUries, at length finally decided 
in fkvor of Hunt's Creek, a branch running into the river 
on the north tide, about three quarters of a mile above the 
town. The country drained by the creek is a rugged 
sandstone tract of about 2100 acres in extent ; being 
unfit for agrlkilture, there is little or no risk of its 
waters becoming tainted by the decomposition of animal 
or vegetable matters which might be used for manure, or 
by the mod brought down by the rains, should it ever be 
brought under cultivation. In this particular it diifered 
l^om the Parramatta River and iu other tribuUries, ail 
of which drain iMsIns, either now under cultivation or 
capable of being brought so, and whose waters might con- 
sequently be tufaject to the objection before alluded to. 
A sabtequent analysis of the waters of Hunt's Creek and 
of the Parramatta River by Professor Smith, of the Syd- 
ney University, has fully established the fact of the superi- 
ority of the former, and I trust it will not be considered 
oat of plaee if I avail myself of this opportunity of e^- 
prewlng my thanks to Professor Smith for the politeness 
with which he furnished me with copies of hit analysis, at 
well M muofa other valuable information on the sufc^fect of 
these waters. 

At the spot where the dam wall hat been constructed 
two preheating masses of sandstone contract the valley to a 
width of about t«0 feet, above this it expands into a wide 
basin tztettding for about a mile up the ereek. The wall 



is 31 feet in height from the centre of the culvert through 
which the mains will pass, to the coping, and about 12 feet 
from the bottom of the foundation coume to the centre. 
The thickness of the wall at the base is 15 feet, tapering to 
7 feet 6 inches at top. It is built in the form of an arch 
of 160 feet radius. All the masonry in the wall is of the 
best ashlar throughout in two feet courses, set in Roman 
cement, the stones having all been carefully dressed to 
templates, so that all the vertical joints have been made 
to radiate truly to the centre of curvature ; in the lower 
coursesof the wall, where every succeeding course greatly 
lengthened the span of the arch, as will be seen by the 
accompanying sketch, and where on that account there 
might be some inequality in their resisting powers, I had 
the stones notched down one inch on the beds so as the 
better to resist any tendancy to slide. This may have 
been perhaps almost unnecessary, and the section of the 
wall shows it to be sufficiently strong to resist the pressure 
of the water (which will amount to about 2019 tons) In- 
dependently of its arched form, (from which of course it 
derives its principal strength), but then I have always been 
of opinion that when dealing with water, an engineer can • • 
not be too careful to have an access of strength in all works 
intended to resist its pressure. And I thought it would 
be well to have the power of increasing the capacity of the 
reservoir (which may easily be done by adding a few feet 
to the height of the wall) bhould the requirements of 
Parramatta ever demand It. When complete the wall 
will cimtein about 78,930 cubic feet of masonry ; and 
the entire cost of the work will amount to about £15,000. 
The quantity of water which the reservoir above the 0am 
will be capable of storing, may be estimated at 105,726.700 
gallons. The inhabitants of Parramatta, according to the 
last census r.turns, amounted to 5,429, and if we allow 
2 ) gallons per day for each person, and say as much more 
for cattle, manufactories, and waste, we may estimate 
that the daily consumption will amount to 217,160 gallons, 
and that the annual consumption will be 79,263,400 gal- 
lons So that the reservoir being once filled will contain 
483 days water. In this estimate I have neglected the 
evaporation, the amount of which it Is difflcult^to calculatet 
but, as there Is a permanently running stream (though a 
small one), and a certainty of the reservoir being filled 
several times during the year (as I shall presently show), 
it may I think be omitted. 

The rain gauge kept at the South Head shows that the 
mean annual fail of rain during the twelve years from 
1840 to 1852, amounted to 44-35 inches, and the least 
quantity which fell during that time was 21 48 Inches, 
which occured during the dry year of 1849. These 
measurements having been made close to the sea coast, tome 
deduction — one- third say— must be made for the inland 
situation of Pairamatta. 

This will leave 14 inches as the probable fall near Par- 
ramatta In the driest year which we have had since 1810; 
and if of this 14 inches we allow one half for evaporation 
and waste, we may, I think, safely estimate that the re- 
maining 7 inches would drain down into the reservoir ; 
this multiplied by the area of the basin, equal to 2100 
acres, gives 320,166,000 gallons, or over six times the 
consumption during years of the greatest scarcity; in 
ordinary times it would exceed twelve times the greatest 
demand. 

In order in some degree to purify the water before its 
distribution, I propose constructing a filter round the 
mouth of the pipe, through which It will be drawn off from 
the reservoir. 

This 1 intend to effect by enclosing the end of the main 
in an oblong brick tunnel, the top and sides of which will 
set in cement, so as to prevent the water passing through 
them, but in the lower course, open spaces will be left at 
sUted intervals for its admission. Then, by covering the 
ground around the outside of the tunnel with a filtering 
bed, 5 or 6 feet In thickness, composed of alternate layers 
of broken stone, gravel, sand, and charcoal, through which 
the water will have to descend before entering the tunnel, 
most of the lighter particles of organic and other matters 
will be deposited. The water will then have to pass 
through the openings in the side walls of the tunnel, and 
ascend through a filter Inside of It, composed of binoilar 



7R 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



nattrlalt to that oo tbm ovtslde, for s depth of four feet, 
in which I sm in hopes the heavier partielet of solid mstter 
held in mechanical sospenslon hy the water will be re- 
tained ; so that after this double process of upward and 
downward filtration, the water wil enter the pipe in a 
state eomparatively pure and fit for use. The dam wall is 
now rapidly approiidung completion, and I thlnii I may 
say that when finished it will, as a specimen of masonry, 
bear comparison with anything else of its kind in the 
ecriony. 

The contractor for the work has been Mr. Handle, of 
whom I consider it only justice to say, that I have always 
found him most anxious to carry out his work in a manner 
creditable to himself and satisfactory to me. 

At some future time I propose to do myself the honour 
of laying before the society a drawing of the travelling 
derrick, by which the heaviest stones used in the construc- 
tion of the wall, weighing sometimes as much as five tons 
and upwards, can be moved about by four men and set in 
their places with as much ease and accuracy as a bricklayer 
could place a brick. Without such £Mdlities it would have 
^been impossiUeto set stones of the magnitude of those 
used in the work with the requisite degree of precision. 

The only thing now remaining to be done, to supply the 
inhabitants of Parramatta with an abundance of good 
water, is to lay down the piping for its distribution, and 
this it is to be hoped will not be long delayed. 

The paper was listened to with attention, and loudly 
applauded at the dose. 

Some conversation on the sut^f ect treated upon then took 
plaoCf after which the proceedings terminated. 



'^'Xr^^^^^N^^'^^^'^f^l^'^f^^^l^^^^^^^^ 



At the meeting of the Philosophical So- 
ciety, held August 12, 1857, the following 
Paper was read hy the Secretary, after the 
Paper on Railways by His Excellency the 
Governor-General : — 

REMARKS ON COLONIAL RAILWAYS. 

WITH BSRBBNCE CHIEFLY TO MOTIVE POWER. 

Ih deciding upon tiie principles according to which a 
great national work, such as a sTstem of railways, 
ihoald be laid ont in a coontry like Aostralia, many 
circnmstances and facts mast be taken into considera- 
tion. 

It would be an endless task to point ont the interests 
and relations which woald be more or less affected by 
the introdnction of this mode of traffic on an extensive 
scale, and it may be well to look to the proceedings of 
other coantries in reference to this important suQect, 
so that we may avoid their errors. 

The present social aspect and condition of the Aus- 
tralian colonies differ considerably from those of Euro- 
pean countries, and it is well known that they present 
a surface very different from that of other countries ; 
and that the pq)ulation is by no means a dense one ; 
and that this sparse population is in New South Wales 
scattered over an extent of country more than 900 miles 
in length, from North to South, by about 300 miles in 
width from East to West. Various circumstances have 
since the first occupation of the colony led to the wide 
dispersion of the inhabitants, while in their natural 
' fftate the lands, though far from being rich, offer very 
extensive pasturage, and afford the easy means of rear- 
ing Aeeo and cattle in large numbers. Bat as every 
step in tne Western interior leads the sheepowner fur- 
ther from tiie sea, the limit in this direction appears to 
be already attained on the borders of the great central 
desert 

When the great expense of constructing railways is 
taken into consideration, formed alter the model of 
British and European lines, it appears obvious that in 
the present circamstances of tne colony, such costly 
works as high speed railways must be superseded by a 
more economical method ; for it is a well known fact 
that the cost at which goods and passengers can be car- 



ried on a railwaT,so as to affind a rem-aatutJdv ratora, 
will be as the in'tere^ on the o^iital •xpended./ilMf tin 
cost of working the line, and inversel j, as tlie nnmher 
of passengers, or quantity of goods carried. 

It is clear that the prc^ ^ a railway are deMrmined 
by the ratio of the proceeds to tbe cost. The pablic, 
tiierefore, is interested as much in the eooooiny of rail- 
ways as in the eouiomy of mannfactttrea ; and if the 
public is to be benefitted br eomom^ Wing exercised 
in the construction of a railway, canwng a redactiQa in 
the rate of conveyance per mile, this shews how eawn- 
tial it is to the success of any railway aystomoaa lane 
scale in Australia, that the coat of coastmction ahonld 
be kept as low as possible. 

The principles of railway economy are better under- 
stood now than they were some few years ago. Had 
they been equally well known and acted cm at that 
time, an immense saving might have been ^fected in 
the cost of construction of British railways, as well as 
of the first Anstralian railway to Parramatta, a work 
which has involved an outlay of nearly £600,000, or 
about £40,000 per mile, which is the avenge ooat of 
British railways, the average net ivtams of which do 
not exceed 3 per cent, on the amount oi capitiU ex- 
poided. Such is the result of the vast catlap upon 
railways in Great Britain. For instance, callii^ the 
groM revenue of a road paying 10 per cent £1,000, and 
calling the cost of working the tine 50 per eeuL or 
£500 ; then £500 will be left, which will be equal to 
10 per cent, on a capital of £5,000. 

But if we double the capital, and make it £10,000, 
then £500 will only yield a net return of 5 per cent 
Double the capital again to £20j000, and the vetam » 
reduced to 2^ per cent. 

The capital ought not to be doubled, tiienfore, nale* 
one of two things is to be accomplished^-cither ^tmt the 
cost of working the line be greatly reduced, or ^bat die 
gross proceeds be doubled. In order to increaaa die 
latter, the rates of ccmveyance have been raised ; but 
this method is seldom effective, as an increase of 
chai^ges beyond a certain limit has been genenlly fiNmd 
to diminish the proceeds, and to drive the travelli^ 
public off the rail, and back to the road. If it dioald 
oy chance prove effective, the public will saffior-by 
having to pay the higher rates ; and the &ir inlwenoe 
to be drawn from these fscts is, that such works as rail- 
ways should be promoted so as to produce sood ms- 
chanical results, at the least posstide eoitt and iSbat the 
probable traffio be sufficient to justify this oost. 

Before any general system of railway oommnnicaiion 
can be adopted and acted upon in Australia, die great 
question of the motive power to be uaed moat first be 
decided. And, in order to enable us to decide whetiier 
the mode of working a line by horse power <» by loco- 
motive engines is the most suitable and advantageom 
under the peculiar circumstances attending the intro- 
duction of railways in Australia, it is neoeaaary to re- 
vert to some of the first principles connected widi die 
laws of motion, and of retardation. T^ieae first prin- 
ciples will enable us to trace die points of difBaienee 
between the two methods, and will afford the beet 
means of arriving at a just and rational ocmclnaion on a 
subject of considerable importance, both in an engineer- 
ing and an economical point of view. 

According to the first principles of «"**^^mifft we an 
told that the same power whicn conveys a load at die 
rate of ten miles an hour will convej doable that wt^^ 
at five miles an hour, in the same time ; vt the genanl 
law is, that die product of a weight, and die ^reloe^ 
with which it is moved, being the same for two diflannt 
velocities, the same power will be required in beth 
cases. This is only expreadng, in odier wwds, the 
general law, that the velocities will be in the iaTHW 
ratio of the weights, the power being the same. 

Mechanicians define this principle by sayiitf dMt 
** what is gained in power is lost in time.** AfJ Ais 
simple proposition, abating fiction, is of nnivenal s|k 
plication to all machines, however complicated thty 
may be. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



79 



It is a fact, however, that this law is not found to 
apply to weights moving upon a rulway, for, in this 
case, mechanical science has introduced a new and 
grand principle, being nothing less than a means of ex- 
tinguisning almost tiie whole effect of friction — that 
great natural opposer of all motion. 

From a series of experiments on the performance of 
locomotive engines on the Liverpool and Manchester 
railwav, made by the Chevalier de Pambour, in which 
the value of every force which operates either to effect 
or to retard motion has been deduced from actual ex 
periment, the following results were obtained : — 

Weight in Tons. Velocity in Miles per hour. 



25 


40.07 


60 


31-34 


75 


25.74 


100 


21.83 


125 


18.96 


150 


16.75 


166 


16.50 



One of the most important results of these experi- 
ments is that the velocity on a railway is not, as is 
usually supposed, in the inverse ratio of the weight ; 
and it we examine the velocities here given as cor- 
responding to different weights moved, we shall find 
that ^e most useful effect produced is when the weight 
is the ^atest. 

For instance — Taking the extremes in the table, we 
find 25 tons conveyed at the velocity of 40.07 miles in 
an hour, equal to 1 ton conveyed 1,002 miles ; whereas 
166 tons, at 15.69 miles sn hour, are equivalent to 1 
ton conveyed 2,588 miles. Hence the useful effect 
where a load of 25 tons is carried on a railway, is to 
the useful effect with a load of 166 tons in the ratio of 
1,002 to 2,588, or as 1 to 2^. Hence we see that the 
most useful effect is produced h^ conveying the greatest 
possible weight that the engine is capable of, and that 
any less weight is carried at a sacrifice of useful effect. 

An ordinary passenger train may be estimated to 
weigh about 50 tons, which, at the ordinary railway 
spe^ of 31 miles an hour, gives an effect equal to 1 ton 
conveyed 1,550 miles But if the weight of the train 
be reduced to 25 tons, the speed being the same, the 
effect produced is equal to 1 ton conveyed 775 miles 
only. Now, in cases of moderate traffic, it will often 
happen that the weight of the load carried is less than 
25 tons, while the power of the engine may be equal to 
the conveyance of a load of 150 tons. The loss of effect 
in this case is apparent, for the engine must always be 
kept in readiness, whatever may be the number of pas- 
sengers or the quantity of goods to be conveyed. This 
evil is a constant one and cannot be remedied. In 
bringing into view so prominently the value of steam 
as a moving force upon railways, it is too common to 
overlook the fact that the great weight of locomotive 
engines is a positive evil. It is so because they have 
to carry this weight constantly, and because their 
"wdlght does more harm to the road than anything else, 
and that a railway must necessarily be made much 
stronger and more costly on account of it. 

Again, it is well known that in order that the same 
locomotive may travel, without any assistant power, 
from one end of the line to the other, the steepest incli- 
nation must be taken as the guage eif the power of the 
engine, and that the weight of an engine must be in- 
crcuued, in a certain ratio, to the power it is intended to 
exert. 

The weight of engines and tenders varies considerably 
on different railways, according to the gradients. On a 
line with variable gradients and with a narrow guage, 
the weight varies from 15 to 20 tons ; and on the bnMid 
goage nom 25 to 35 tons. Here, then, we have a dead 
and unprofitable weight to bo moved, equal in the first 
case, wnen the mdiole weight^f the train does not exceed 
50 tons, to no less than one-third of ^e gross weight to 
be Gonve^red, and the increased weight of the engine and 
tender will add very materially to the weight and 
etroigth of the rails, which must of course be provided 



of a strength sufficient to support the engine int^ided to 
be used. ^ ^ 

It must be borne in mind that the gross weight of the 
goods to be conveyed on a railway does not affect the 
strength of tiie rails, as the load, independent of the 
engine, is distributed in a train of carriages over a con* 
siderable length, without materially increasing ^e 
pressure on we rails at any one point. But an in<^ 
creased w^ht of engine must evidently require an 
increased strength in the permanent way over which it 
has to pass, because in the engine the weight can only 
be distributed upon four or, at m«st, upon six wheels. 

Another consequence of using a large and heavy 
engine is that a much greater supply of water and fuel 
will be required, and the quantity of these regulates 
the size and weight of the tender employed to carry 
them. 

Since it is the steepest plane or incline on a line of 
railway which determines the power and weight of the 
engine, it is found in practice that unless the inclina- 
tions are of very great length, little advantage can be 
taken of the diminished resistance in going down them,, 
as regards the expenditure of steam ; for although it is 
not wanted to an equal extent, as in ascending the in- 
clines, yet a great portion of steam is wasted by blowing 
off at the safety valve. Again, the consumption of 
steam will be in proportion to the power which it is 
necessary for the engine to exert ; but, on account of 
the limited area of the boiler of an ordinary narrow 
guage locomotive engine, there seldom exists more 
steam than is immediately required, for the supply and 
demand are in general so nearly balanced, that the one 
can hardly be said to exceed the other. 

If the line be greatly undulating, and an average 
velocity be not maintained, it will of course be neces- 
sary to increase the speed on the descending planes, in 
order to make up for the loss of speed on f£e ascending 
ones, and when compelled to proceed at very hi^h ve- 
locities, the working parts of an engine are subject to 
considerable injury. The pistons ought to travel with 
great equality of speed, because any sudden changes in 
the rapidity of the stroke give rise to concussions which 
are highly detrimental to the engine, and occasion the 
slides to become leaky, causing a great waste^ of steam. 

All these circumstances entail the necessity of con- 
stant and vigilant attention on the part of the persons 
entrusted with tiie care of the engines. A steam rail- 
way requires not only rails and sleepers of great 
strength and durability, but also turn-tables, switches, 
points, signals, expensive engines, tenders and carriages, 
together with costly workshops, tools, and a host of 
skilled workmen and mechanics, all of which, in Aus- 
tralia, preclude economy. But the cost of working and 
maintaining a railway by steam power does not consist 
solely of the expense of en^he power. There are also 
other expenses which remain constant, and which are 
termed fixed expenses. These expenses vary in Eng- 
land from £250 to £300 per mile, and they embrace 
every charge except that appertaining to the en^es, 
the carriages and their attendants — as the salanes of 
the resident engineer, the secretary and the suporintoi- 
dents, the wz^es of station keepers, tumplate and signal 
men, the expenses attending the supplv of water and 
fuel at the stations, the repairs of buildings, bridges, 
culverts and viaducts, and the keeping in repair the 
permanent way. 

' It is difficult to fix these ex])enses, with any degree 
of certainty, in Australia, or the cost of locomotive en- 
gine power. In England this cost varies from Is. 2d. 
to 2s. 4d. per mile per train, at an average speed of 31 
miles an hour. The latter sum, at 80 miles per day 
for 313 working days, amounts to £3,077 per annum. 
It is believed that, taking into consideration the higher 
rates of wages in Australia, the cost of locomotive en- 
gine power may be estimated at 38. 6d. per mile per 
train. The cost, therefore, of a locomotive engine 
travelling 80 miles per day for S13 working days, will 
amount to £4,382 per annum. 

In England passenger trains frequently travel at a 



80 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



speed of 40 or 50 miles an hour ; but this rate of tra- 
velling involves considerable risk, from bad joints, and 
from collisions with other trains. In Australia such a 
speed is totally uncalled for, and a speed of 20 to 25 
miles an hour appears to be the highest velocity re- 
quired. 

In thinly populated districts, such as exist at present 
in Australia, single lines of rails, with sidings for trains 
to pass each other at appointed times, appear to be 
amply sufficient for all useful purposes, and tlie advan- 
tage of the single line is that of its superior economy. 

The necessity for double lines of rails exists only in 
thickly peopled districts, where the traffic has outgrown 
the single line ; but where, as in Australia, a moderate 
traffic only can be expected for the first 10 years, it ap- 
pears premature and unadvisable to expend large sums 
m the formation of double lines, although such expen- 
diture might be justifiable in cases of considerable 
traffic. 

Assuming the foregoing to be the correct principles 
that should govern the structure of railways in Aus- 
tralia, the next consideration is that of the gradients, 
and " guage," or distance between the rails. 

The gradients must, in fart, govern the power of the 
engines, their speed in one direction — the size and 
weight of the trains ; and it must always bo remem- 
bered that their operation is a permanent one, which 
nothing can alter, and the effect of which nothing can 
diminish. That level and straight lines are desirable 
for railways, no one will for a moment dispute ; but 
every advantage has its money value, and there is 
reason to believe that engineers are too' apt to incur 
heavy and sometimes rumous expenses, in order to 
render their lines mechanically as perfect as possible, 
without duly conaideriDg whether the advantages thus 
obtained will compensate for the expenditure required 
to produce them. 

The following Table will serve to illustrate the effects 
of gravity and friction on different kinds of road. The 
amount of friction is that assigned by Mr. de Pambour 
as the result of his experiments on the Liverpool and 
Manchester railway. 



Nature of the Road. 


Friction in 
lbs.perton 
on a level. 


Inclination 
on which the 
gravity be- 
comes equal 
to friction. 


On a w^ell made paved road ... 

On a broken stone surface or 

old flint road 


lbs. 
S3 

65 

147 

46 

8 


lines 

lin 84^ 


On a cravel road 


lin I5i 


On a broken stone road 


lin 49 


On a railway 


1 in 280 







This Table is so simple that it requires no explana- 
tion. Some writers, however, assume 9 lbs. per ton as 
the amount of friction on a level railway ; and if 9 lbs. 
per ton, or l-250di part of the load, is the amount of 
friction and surface resistance, it is demonstrable that 
an inclination which rises 7 feet in a mile, or 6 in 750, 
will increase the resistance to the amount of 3 lbs. per 
ton. In like manner, if the incline rive at the rate of 
14 feet in a^ile, or 1 in 375, three pounds more will 
be added to the resistance. And apin — Supjjosing an 
inclination to rise at the rate of 21 feet in a mile, or 1 
in 250, this would add 9 lbs. to the resistance, and, con- 
sequently, the dra\viiig power must be doubled or made 
equal to 18 lbs. per ton. 

From this it is apparent that railroads intended to be 
worked by locomotive engines ought to be constructed 
80 as to be free from any considerable inclinations. In- 
deed it may be safely asserted that no gradient exceed- 
ing 21 feet in a mile, or 1 in 250, ought to be permitted 
on a steam railway, for the power of the locomotive en- 
gine should not be expendtjd in overcoming the resist- 
ance of gravity, or, in other words, in ascending steep 



inclines, and is most beneficially expended when it is 
exclusively employed in overcoming the resistance of 
friction. 

But it has been assorted, on the snbject of gradients, 
that on a series of inclinations the power required to 
transport a weight from one end to soother is precisely 
the same, whatever inclinationa are adopted, pnmidid 
none of them exceed 21 feet in a mile, or 1 in S50^ 
which is the limiting slope of a plane on which tiie 
force of gravity becomes equal to, sod conaeqaently of 
balancing, the retarding force of friction. In order to 
explain this apparently paradoxical result, let ns snp- 
])oso that the railway rises from one extremity to the 
other by one continued ascent or inclination of 1 in 250, 
and that the road is 100 miles long. Then the resist- 
ance or force required to transport a load in ascending 
this incline would be 18 lbs. per ton ; but, on the other 
hand, in descending it the resistance wonld be nothing, 
since the load would move down by its gravity. The 
total power, therefore, required to transport a ton wogfat 
from end to end, in both directions, wonld be a force of 
18 lbs. acting through lOO miles. 

Now, a road of the same length, absolntely level, 
would offer a resistanoe of 9 lbs. per ton both ways, and 
the total quantity of power necessary to transport a ton 
from one end to the other, and back again, would be a 
force of 9 lbs. acting through a distance of 200 miles. 

It is obvious, therefore, that 18 lbs. actaxtff throngk 
100 miles is mechanically equivaloit to 9 lbs. sctiiu; 
through 200 miles. And if we su]>po6e the law«whi» 
regulates the descent of a weight on a railway to accord 
with that which the science of mechanics establishee — 
namely, that the spaces passed over are directly as the 
squares of the times of descent, we should, <hi any in- 
clined plane, acquire, by the aid of gravity, an aven^ 
velocity wliich might be consistent with the speed re- • 
quired. 

But it is essential to remark that, in the case of a 
railway, the velocity is by no means increased in that 
ratio. And even supposing that this law of meefaaniai 
were applicable to the case of a weight moying on a 
railwa^r, there exist several important reasons whidi 
render it impracticable to take advantage of this law of 
increasing velocit)r. 

The first and principal of these reasons is fbunded on 
the necessity which exists for preserving an equality <^ 
velocity throughout a line of railway, whether for goods 
or passengers. It must also be considered that on a 
plane incliniog 21 feet in a mile, a certain power must 
be exerted in order to cause the train to moye with the 
same speed as on the level ; for although, as a direct 
consequence of the law of gravity, it might move, it is 
by no means to be supposed that it would move at any 
speed at all compatible with that required. Henoe a 
piower must still be exerted to propel the train with the 
required velocity. 

These remarks render it clear that, in a jprantieal 
point of view, an inclination of 21 feet in a mil« is not, 
in fact, that limit at which it is rendered unnecessary 
to exert anj propelling power ; and the theory of 
** compensating gradients" must be considered as fid- 
lacious, as applied to the locomotive engine, for inde* 
pendently of the difficulty and disadvantage of making 
It change its energy, and supposing that a loooBiodTe 
engine could be constructed so as to change its power to 
the extent of double its average force, it must be borne 
in mind that on an acclivity of 21 feet in a mile, it 
would require engines capable of exerting a double 
power, and, therefore, of nearly double weight that 
would be required on a level. The moving power is 
thus burdened with a load in that additi<Mud weif^t of 
the engine, which is unnecessary save in i3b» ascent of 
that acclivity. The injury arising from this is not oalr 
the loss of power necessary to move this additional 
weight, but tne increased weight of the engine produces 
increased wear and tear of the rails, and of ihe euffixie 
itself. Either the danger arising from accidental mo- 
tures must be encountered, and the increased wear aad 
tear of the road incurred, or rails of greatly incTMsed 



MAGAZINE OF SOIESCE AND ART. 



tbeir bencea be proiuDltid. Witb mpei-t to the 

anCagfl of ona uDifarm braadtli of way between tha 
K-, but wbal ^at hreadtli or ^oga Ennuld be, U a 
Btioa af Eome importaAUi. 

tub rBilways, tke ^ageof 4 ft. Si in. was Bila{}ted 



Mr. Brunei was the first en^oeDr wlia deviated rram 
tho ordinarv mode of conatrndOuc railways, by increaa- 
ing the gunjra to 7 feet between the rails on the Grant 
If^Gtem Rulway ; and tba proKinBnt masons assigned 
for Ibis deviation wei'B, fiist, increafied fiteodiueH to the 
«aTTiage« and eaifinas-, second, inrreaaed pan^r and tlie 
sttuDment of aliii^bernitfi of ejieed; and, thirdly, a 
-^mjnuQon of aila-frietian by the use of wbeeli of a 

The broad gnags whidi baa bean aa much reviled by 

tiw admirera of lie narrow gaaee, is most irncjoeiilion- 

ably the best la attain the bentflts above mentioned, at 

. » certain increase of eipendilure in the first instance. 

lioabtad fact that joit a.B goad a road <:aa be made with 
a 7 feet gnage as with one of 4 ft, SJ- in. 

In dalemiining the qnestioa of gnage in a tonntry 
like Australia, as };et aimoBt untoncbed by tkase works, 
it should be considered quite independently of the 
enage Idiat has been adopted io olber cvuntries ; for it 
^an be demonstrated that 4 ft. Si in. i> not exactly the 
proper width for al I railways, and tlint to adopt any 



icz 



bund tn be CO 

beir cent™ of gravity. The wheels imght 
with outside beadDgs, and their diameter 
eased to 4 or 5 feet, which would reduce 
tba amonnt of friction in the proportion of 10 to 7. A 
greater distance, as 7 feet, vould allow of wheels of 6 
«( 7 feat in diameter, which would reduce the friction 
hj .'nearly one-half; but it is donbtfnl whether tbe 

It it clearly advautagnii 
the axle, and the resistanc 
possible, which, all otiicr l 
titveri^ proportional to, I 






tbe fcic 



ats, and of regulating oc 
dittt any lutthet im[ 



of the wbeelfi, 

Ltom of "tE™ 



the rails, the adva 
J)e cheaply purcba 



ad by a 



HoRB»-PowKK.— It is loo common for the advocal 
-of high speed and high cost railways, to overlook e 
tiisly lie beautifnl confonuation of the home. So ai 
dtrably is thia uDbte animal adaptifd by physic 

portof weighiji, that be I 



Dclination that ca 



IS than I in 3 



veSbrt, almost an 
vay I and, therefon 





nW 


hnr™ 








ra worked 






the 1 












raffir 


mi 








« hpf 




-1 




stmction 


Jti 








work of 28.000 0. 




owro 


™railie 





States and the cost of censtruction per mile has geldom 
or ever eaceedeii £10,(100 or £12/X)a per mile, as com- 
pared with noarly £*J,00O nn Biirish i-ailways. 

Mr. Jndgold in his valuable and nndcrvalaed publi- 
cation on railways, has divoctad bia attention to the 
aniiject of horse-power, and the following table of hii 
affords information of great practical utility in eati- 
motiagthe average labour of boises, at diU'eranc volotd- 
riea. in tuns drawn one mile, on canals, railways, and 



turnpike 


roads. 










t 


«« 


£ 






,3'^ 


lug I day, in ton 


diawn 1 




.i 


a 


mie. 




.ai 


ii . 


1 


■l' 


£. 


l| 


1 


Ill 




3 


;l 


M 




" 


k. 








Miles. 


Hours, 


lla. 


Tons. 


Tona. 


Tona. 








5ZU 


115 


14 














34 


CO 
















102 






5 
6 


2.9 
2 


I 


fa 

30 

19 

13.8 

9 


57 
41 
32 


7.2 
6 

i.S 

4 


lU 


0.75 


" 


6.8 


28.8 


3.G 



It must, however, bo noticed that although these de* 
ductions of Mr. Judgold'a are safflciently accurate up 
to rates of 4 or l> mfles an hour, yet, when boats are 
moved on canals by horses at rates of 9 to 12 miles an 

diminisAet ai 






aea so small ti , 
It the high velointy of 



whicii 




r work better 


at the inctessed 






; one, as boats 










manner; and it ia 


bonco probab 






als will admit of 


, competition 


ncli as the sup- 
















oftlia 


raoght horse, it ii 


as follovts, TU., (15-ti)2 for 






















™"oM4i"!b^' 


thera' 


ofS miles an ho 


r exerts a fo 


and accocdmg to tbe seco 


d, 81 Iba. 


'J:.„?.lfr 



lutable pace of a draught horse to be 2! miles an hour, 
B hoise of ordinary strength will draw, at this I'ats, 
with a force of 150 lbs., a distance of 20 uiiles per day. 
anch a hoiM would, therefore, draw on a level railway, 
the friction being i) lbs. per ton, a gross load of 161 
tons i or two 5u^ horses would draw a gross load of 
33j tone. Considerably heavier loads than this have 
hcnn ,1rawn nn a railway hy a single horse, for short 
the above may be considered a (air 






MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AET. 



will be dimiimbDil ta abaul 42 Eba., equal to a lo^ af 
neulv file buu, and taking Ills liours of labour nt onlr 
Ml par day, Iho majimiini of uaefal efTect is aasi^ed 
b; Jodgold at J25 Iba. maviDg at tbe rate of 3 mili» 
per hour, and [eluding ibe eiiieniu uf lAiriago in ChaC 




goods, ii not 30 for pasaiiigon, with whom a apeed of at 
least lU or IS miles an hour ia aauall^ required i and 
this has been urged is the great objection to the eoi- 
plqyment of honi-i oD railnayi. 

In order to obviate thiion the Amoricau iises worked 
bj boiwa. it is usual to divide the diEtance into short 
eUgea of 5 or 6 miles, and to urge the horse to his ot- 
IDDSt speed. Ia this manner we are inforiDBd by Mr. 
D. Stevenson that on the Mohawk and Hudson railway 
he was coovevod by boisea a distance uf 16 miles from 
Schenectady 'to Albany in T5 minutes, being at the as- 
tonishing rate of 1 5 miles an hour, stoppages included. 
The tar tarried 12 passengers, and was drawn, by 2 
bonllB, which ran short stages of 5 miles. This method 
ia one, however, wbicji cannot be recommended to bo 
put in practice in Australia, if only on the score of hn- 
manity, for where horses are emplojed for the high 

urgfing them to their full speed at once ia most in- 

A irimple method of employing the power of borses 
on r:ul«avB in such a manner that Iho greatest possible 
.«e u e^ 01^^ ^ ^ 



trafflt,iBstjllad™ 
ingj and althongb < 



itlioda have been pruposed 



ordinary 



The writer has devised a method_ which 
ally fulfil thesB conditions, so as to increasi 
speed of a hone to a maidmnm of 25 m 
without the slifbtest distress to him, and 
Bwuhl, which IS the true source of his power, is brougl 

Now. as it has been ascertained that the re«stani 
from frietian on a level rulway does not increase wit 
anincnaseof Bpeed, it follows that much advantage 
might bo obtained by au iutrease of velocity greatly 
Biceeding that at which a borae could travel on t'-- 
road, without exerting any power of traction, whi 

A detMlod descri]>tion of the method will form t 

The neit question is as to the cost of working a ra 
way ij horse-power. The daily cost of 2 horses ani 
driver may be estimated, in AnBtralia, at 10 shillir 
lier working dav, or £3 per week, which is equivab 
to £l5e pe« annum. 

The work nerformed on a level railway will be S 
tons carried daily a distance of SO miles, or per anni 
of313 working days. 33J tons carried a total distal 
of G.SGO miles, at a oust of £156, being at the rate of 
about 6d per tnun per mile, or S4-33^ farthings pei 



b have been furnished from differenl 
parts of the uolony, it appears that the cost of tnmsport- 
ing goods variei from Is. Id. to 6» per tun par mile, on 
'■ y roads of the colony. 

i:ts are auStcicnt to shew the great supenonly 



oftbBT 






„„ „ „„ .juvojance is generally 

proportioned to the quantity of goods conveyed, and lbs 
same holds good with regard to -"■"!■ '■'■ "il-"v> 
worked by horses ; but with tiie loo 
is not the cose, ai it is imposuble t 
Bmiill scale, except indeed at a loss. 

If we take, for instance, a line similar to that of the 
Sydney and farramatta railway, of 15 miles in extent, 
a Hdgle engine wnuld be capable of making 4 trip* io a 
day. and of transporting each time, and iu each direo- 
tioB, a gross load ot 120 tons; that is, it i 
capable of tranaterring 481) tons of goods from ^. 
of die line in a day. But, unfortunately, the t 
ance of any lees load than 120 tons at each tnp 
be liable to the same char^ for conveyanoe ,- -» 
wbolo, so tbatif only 50 tons were carried in ■ day in 

Bnt with horee-power this is not so, as in tiiia caue SO 
tons, or even 20 tons only per day, might be carried at 

more goods or passengers than can be convoyed by 2 

promrlioned to the load, as well as the eipense. 

Another consideration ia fiivour of horse-power is 
' ' ■ iparatjvely cheap, and 



ve engine tlus 
bustnesB on a 



would ba 



their employment on 
encourage the breedini 

growth of the bay and 

Again, in laying ou' 
a gieat saving could 
gradients than are coo 



irsee, from which tha agri- 
required for their HLbsiM- 

rnys to be worked by hones, 
Foiited W adapting steeper 
y used for the locamoCiTS 

be effected in the penna* 
ails, so that a line Of hone 
brougb districts at ■ ybtt 

culties only to be tvr- 



sligbt eiiwnse, whereas (he co 

'^^Inature of the coontiy 

presents ereat engineering di 

mounted DV the formation of 

ments. and bridges, of an expenditure so immense, as 

not to be jnatiRed by any well founded calculsliDnB of 



r, and we might take a 
India, for the Proapei 
■ ■ ary last, of the No 



ompany. w 



opulous 



letmct 2aO n 



ghur to Delhi. They are intended to be worked ^ 
animal power. atthoDgh capableof being made availihta 
for light locomotives' Some portions of the line ar* 
estimated to cost £6.000 pet iBile. and others cnly 
£2,500 pec mile. 

These sums form a striking contrast to the elpendi- 
tnjB on British and colonial railways, and when tba 



linking Ci 
oloniaf n 
periority of oi 
re with refereni 






_... jfrml- 
. - , 'S^ district, u- 

sumes a certaia character of natdonality, the qncMJOB 
evidently becomes one of great and pre-eminent im- 
portance, for roads of some sort we must havB, nnlsM 



mud-ti 






B for the » 



lis-called ro 

for which railways are wanted in Ana- 

Lpect. different from 

-sut»d not limply sa 



in one very imports 
eat Britain. They 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



raitiriiji, bat alw aa roads, 1 
tcrior, sad U> wrry offlu pn 
lii!ii<]«d, tb«nfore, that it n 
bring lbs velocitj in i^ rata n 
the bast public " 



conatBDl frieoil tlie b«rae, uui to on imprgved Disihoil 
of employing bis power on ■.'nlonial railways. 

in coming- to thin cooclmion, tbe wtitur withaa to 

euard Bgajprt Imiog miaondentood. In ibinly pb]ia- 
ited diMiiru the hone rulwU]' is auiply iutGri<:aI Tor 
mil parpoiBB, but botwoeo nreat and popuLoiis rilioa it is 
not, md Ihoro are certain lor«lilies in the colony nbere 
there ia t, tail prospect Ihat incrEsud facilities will lead 
to inrreaied traffic, in which it may be deMrabls to con- 
atroct a railway capable of being worked niduiately by 
ateam-power ; bat 11 ia equally true that, ai a part of a 

tommflncB with horae-powor until the increase of the 
tratacandofthepopolationiball beauchu tocsU for 
the aioi« powBrful aid of tbe locmnoiive engina. 

FREDERICK S PKPPEKCORN, 

Civil Engineor and SutTejror. 
Rifhrnuid Kirer, July 21st, 1857. 



tba> 



It wQ] be observed tbat we b 
the proceeding of the Philosopbica] So- 
ciety for the present month. The meeting 
was held on Wednesday, the 9th inst., Dr. 
AVoolley in the chair. A valuable paper 
was read by Frank Haea, Esq., on Photo- 
graphy, which we hope to be able to insert 
in our next number. 



THE INFLUENCE OF AN AUSTRA- 
LIAN CLIMATE ONf THE CON- 
STITUTION OF THE WESTERN 
EUROPEAN. 
With StatiaHeai R^torti on the Sicktus*, Morlality, 
and Invalidiiiri among the Troopi in the United 

Kiau'dom and New South Wale$. 
By P, DiYOBTv, M.A., M.B., L.B.C.S.. Edinburgh. 
Aiaiitaat Surgeon II. If. XI. Efgiment. 
The following important contribution has 
been kindly supplied by Mr. Divorty of 
the XI Regiment. The aubji 
this paper affects so deeply the health of 
our population, that we are sure we need 
not bespeak for it an attentive and earnest 
perusal. 

PEELIMINAKY REMARKS. 

Tbe period of olisatvatioa embraced in the Stati! 
Report baring been completad only on th« Jth of 
month, and little tpare time being at my diipoeal ai 
the bustle in nreparing for an early embuksdon for 
Europe, the following paper ii hurriedly conceived and 
written. It nas not at Bnt intended to give it pablici*- 
in this country, but havii^ been advised to lay it befo 
tbe Philosophical Sodot J of Now 8onth Wales previo 
to my departure i and, ■ "- 

detached form 






— GHNERAL RBPOKT. 
mis fpaturei of Interest snd ii 
>ii- fur uie oven to allude tn, i 

Directly, oonneoted 



with 



)antr]' is inUreating to the )[so)oeitt, ■■ It 
appear to have pleased the Most lljgh, in hla 
-ciinble wisdom, to suspend, for a season, the 
play of an ineiontlde law in Dreation, tbe terrible 
■' ' ■' -•-'■-'- WB have before us in other 
p«r(a of the elobe. Prom what is at present known 
of geology, the crcatico power deems to have been 
exeroiaed by the AlmiKhij with (treat uuiformjly 
thraughoat the difTerent ajies of tho Prendsmite 
wnh, until that sucoeedinjt theonrbonlferous, when 
a have been, in New Sooth Wales, at 
ily or interruptioB in the gequonce of 
MiioH. Ill oihpr eountries are found 
the difftrent strata (with tliElr respective fossils) of 
if geologiBts, BupBriropossd 
through the a|;eiioy of central discurliini; foraex ; 
-'' coudtry theBo upheaving foroei appear 
'.a kept at bay fur many long ngee. Krom 
the period when tho type of thfl vsrtehrnta was first 

pears to have t)ceo oompsratively free from general 
canvulsions ; so tbaC man, instead of havloK the dif- 
ferent layersof the tertiary formation under hia feet, 
ia here treading on the aatbeDiremui sandstone, 
whereon the reptile may have been oraw ling for per- 
bspi myriads of years before tbe time ef Adam. 
Allboughtt' ■- ■-- - ' ■ 



I, for n 



t tbe Ii 



igas. yet 
progressive organisation appears to hav ... _ 
operation. Were it supposed otherwise, botbioi 
might be looked for In this country hut the fann 
and Tegctahlea, chBractoriitio of tbat era; witlj 
perhaps, the ohelonian reptile &c the bead of ahi 



lated c: . ... 
From what has been said, it o 
lived ihat a wide Held Is open 
!eing the long abKnce of any gi 



It eruption c 



■list. 






in its iijfloence, lor there 
many living specimens, 
getahle kingdoms, long 



to tho present time, especiMlI; amDng the 
n reptiles, as also among tbe iquatio animaJs, 
■someemnct speoiesof flshes msy be looked 
id various epaciea of the marine inrertebrita. 
e vegetable kingdom interesting suecimcns 
id may be found among the vascular ferns and 



sores, for their singu 

less InlerDiting for their hahita t 

of the mammals, especially tbe s 



espeoiallj Che Sonu- 

B. and others are no 

Most 

peds, 

the explorer oi 
especially as oi 
detoted to it h; 

Australia is interesting ftnd i: 

moralist and the atatetn — 

new psychological and i 
devaloped themselves in conseqaence of the late ir- 
ruption in " social physics.'* There are evidences 
ofdistarbingfonies in physics; so in metaphysics, 
by diving into the depths of time, there are found 
manifestations of many past convulslans. But there 
has been, in onr own day, a moral diaturbinee in 
the " Gold DisEOvery," tbe extent of whioli, of its 
hind, has never been equnlled In the bistorf oi the 
world. Tbit, at Brat, prodoesd but a ripple o- "-- 




MAtiAZLVK OP KOIENCE AND ART. 



B» of life; buts tempest endiintl/ a 
fell in b1] parte of iJie worlil, ruJled on 



dliNrKBDLHd rocietf. 



ama practlciJly lUuBtciited ; Bud Lbe 
StBlfsmaD, nnLODg DumtrouB oiber aooaidcrjitioDa, 
will find it intBreBliDB and iiuporunt lo diacoscr in 
tow far the different polioius purauml by Britiili 
SUtesmon ■=-^---. - . . - ^ 

moBt iotpoi 



! npplietble te 
hue 



r. No ona osn be blipd 

... iiaa ihe " Gold FuTer" ItSB oomriiitioil in 

(ho rBEkB of Her Mjijesty'ii troops, BBpuoialij in Vic- 
toria, wiiere. heinfi more liiiuiedlaielr under Its in- 
iinviioe, it h»a deciiriBted tbe entire foroL'. b; in- 
docing deiettio'i and disease, tij Tiening tin; 
rLfarila of the militarf piiaon, and taking into coa< 
sideraiion nil the faota there raveslcd, no other hul 
thii painful conclaBion can be arrived at, Chat the 

fir from proof against tbo inv" """ "' """ ' 



naladj. B7 ei 






t brought the uohi 

the prison vails, it nould appear that the youiij 
Bolder sent to Aualralia in hiB present noproteoteii 
stale is unneueasarity Bipoaed by blB eonntry. Tbi 
preoediug remarks have been mads merely in as tni 
SB health is dependent On good uonduet : but M tb( 
Bubjoot lielongs more to the financiul than the phj- 
Biological eoOQOmy of the armj, it will be well tc 
leave it for the oonsidenitiou of others, auiliuji 
merely that, from tbe facts revealed by the record) 
of the military priaoo, and from many oiroumsiansei 
of daily ocflurrenoe, nothiog is more apparent thai: 
th t the grestest conBorvBtive an^iosi the attacli 01 
■' Gold Fevei'' is leogtb of aervice and marrkgu, 
A practical eiample of thlB baa beeu in the ease 01 
the Koyal Artillery, where moat of the men having 
Been ooueiderable scrvioe, and tho married men id 
the oompany ijeing three times the number allowed 
by reguli ' 



perhap 



Bickni^ 






the troops of 

To the pbysiijisu jiuBiraim II vj uu uioiuio uiiiu- 
tereating or u'jimportaot. la many cases diaeaae 
manifesta itself in a comparatively simpleform; not 
that, as will be seen, there la less diacaaed sctiou lo 
this oounlry. but iu roost cases the protess developea 
itnelf with less complexity. To tbe nulicary medical 
officer, thia oonotry ia intenaelj inWCBatiug, in as 
luuch as the knowledge of the scldier'a pant medical 
history, hia proaent habiti and mode of hfe, the ei- 
IKieures be has been subjected to, tbe ei:ueasea ho 
has iodalged in, his length of residence in tbe 
nountr}', being taken into conaideratinn, in oooneo- 



ticn with thi 
ought to be little leaa than thaati deduced from a 
eiperUneiit in the physician's enquiry into the 
cnoe of climate, buch obaervacious might in 
time lead to tbe discovery of mora general U< 



by the diioovery of suob that the sr 
tonily be perfected. Looking al 
science, I oandidly confess tba^ the 
(iljoujiii we trust perverEe) pblloso 



e that 



S tile 



I'^jia la not to be woodered at when it is considered 
that tbe piiyBJoian, before he cun expect to do more 
than trace the oulline of the aoience, moat dhiit 
largely upon slmoat all the pbyaical and not a few 
ofthemencal acienoea; and, seeing tbe imperfect 
state of many of thooe he moat depends npoii, it 



would ha idle, at prvspnt, to look fur a tnpd'Oal 
■cience Ha perfect as any nf (he induolive. By iha 
rapid advance* that have hecu made in medicine 
during the last 15 yeara, espvaially in phygioloin, 
cbtDiislry, and pathulney, and having men of tit 
higlitat iDtelllgenee engnecd in the profeasioD. il is 
fir from unlikely tliHt before long mudicine will ha 
able to take ita place hn a tcienee. I do think Pn- 
feaeor Blaokii' uiado a mistake when he giva it ■■ 
his opinion that tbe most dlstinguiiibed man in tb« 
medical profeaslon did not study the Bul.jeat in lbe 
true apirit of seieatiflo renaroh, and that ao eqtially 
luoonipreliensivB and uneharilable view was taken 

n be characterised the profLSjioi. as a 0001- 



lof '■ 
»id, I tb 



i timt 



uwlse to advance, ard far more so to put theorlca 
1 the teat, for this much oiny be learntd from the 

p|>ear in the abBtr^ot, it 'honld ba pnt in practioa 
'ith extreme caution. This holds good niuob mon 
I Diedicina, for beaiiles the properties of matter, we 
aiB to deal with the life of a fellow-being. Al- 
lougtl in mBtliemnttc* there is a calenlna that ein 
ruap (hu most intricite foraiuia, in ehemistry the 

omenii of chemical aSnitlea, and in phyaica the 
icory of grjvitHtion on which hangs tha whola 
sienoe of BStronoaiy : yet, fur reaaona that bava 
BBu given, it would be. al present, absurd to look 
ir any such general law in medicine to which 
henomena, either pliysiologioal or pathologioal, 
kn be referred. 

In doBOrlbing the pbysioal aapect of the cotintiy, 
must con&ne my remarks chiefly lo the ueigbtiour- 
QOd of ijydoey. on the south side of Port JaokMO. 
' " " bouth Wales presents pretty 



Lialdi 



These plains in lomi 
presBut iofiy anu Ini 
aeen from Botany B, 
the '■ Ileada,'' they 
260 feet. These cl 
the carboniferous as 



r from 
Wight at difierei 



; P1.-.0 






Cape Howe, wl 
places they p« 



for the enrliirr formation of li 
iffards tiie Buuth the rocks are 
olure, as seen at Gubo I 



notber 

Lake of a bnaaltlo cbaraotor. Be- 
Ly and Fcrt Jackson, a distanoo of 
ih« coast is bdld : except where It ii 
ndenlationa in the shape of small 
.here are Bevoral along tbe sbore. 

of a more or less oblong form, and 
markaulo fur t*'e sparaeuBsa of thmr 
n, especially where 
6 surfiice. These ro 



9 harbour of Port Jackson. This is well seen 
at Hose Bay, where the interalloes appear to be lea* 
perfectly filled up. Between these monoda thei« 
' 1 some pliuies swamps, from one of whioh tha 

iria Barraoka and part of the town of Uydngr 

_■ haa been ehnwu to be exeeedingly pura. Fraia 

the friable nature of tha soil, duBt ia very previalDnl. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



85 



This, duHnsf some periodic ^ales, blows in such dense 
columns that it is barely po!>8ible to distingraish an 
objpcc in close proximity. These storms are termed 
" brickfiolders," no doubt from the dust bein^ of a 
reddisjih brown colour, arising from the presence of 
red oxide of iron. In the town of Sydney and its 
immedi4te neighbourhood the sandstone rocks come 
more to the surface, in fact, that part of the old 
town called " Church Hill'* is built on an elevated 
ridge, called the " Rocks." In and around Sydney, 
where these rocks predominate, there is, especially 
in summer, not a vestige of vegetation, except in 
Bome of the declivities, and in the Governmeut Do- 
main, east of the town, where there are some species 
of the eucalyptus or gum tree. When these trees, 
especially the larger size, (denuded of the bark, 
with the peculiar conformation of the peteole, re- 
quiring a consider ible breeze to move the leaves.) 
are viewed'in connection with the dry and barren 
nature of the soil, they give that dull, dreary, and 
Badly monotonous appearance to the country, which 
never friils to strike the new arrival. The bamtcks 
and hospital, situated about two miles to the east 
and south of the town of Sydney, are built on a 
somewhat elevated plateau of stnnstone, surrounded 
by a high wall enclosing: about 30 acres of ground, 
and overlooked on the west l«y one of those drifted 
B'tDdbills' already described, running from north-west 
to south-east, without a particle of vegetation cover- 
ing it. The elevated situation of the barracks, al. 
though somewhat exposed, is exceedingly salubrious. 
In summer the thermometer generally indicates a 
lower temperature of 2 ® or 3 ' Fuh., when cona pared 
with similar observations taken in places less ex- 
posed to the sea breeze. 

The climate of New South Wales, from the nature 
of the country and other causes, is subject to rapid 
meteorological changes in all seasons of the year. 
The results of the best observations that have been 
made at Sydney will be inserted in another part ; 
unfortunately, however, they extend over only a 
period of two years. So far as they go we believe 
they are very correct, and tolerably complete ; but 
as they s^hal they give but a very inadequate idea 
of this climate. The results of observations taken 
at any two given periods of the day, are by no me»ns 
a certain test of the weather in this country, where 
very often in the intervals the winds, the barometric 
pressure, the temperature of the air, and the hu- 
midity of the atmosphere, are, in a word, reeling in 
endless confusion. 

The winds are so variable and capricious in their 
direction, that to establish any fixed law regarding 
them, even by long and careful ooscrvations, except 
taken at a great height, is almost beyond the pale 
of hope. In summer, as a general rule, a light 
breeze from the north east sets in after sunrise, and 
after sunset a land breeze springs up. The prevail- 
ing winds are northerly, and in winter they are south 
and westerly. In the summer months the winds 
from an easterly direction, when saturated with 
moisture, are very oppressive and uncomfortable, 
giving rise to what the inhabitants term a " steamy 
beat." They are sometimes accompanied with more 
or less rain, t-ut are rather unfrequent in their oc- 
currence. Those coming from the north-west, pass- 
ing over a dry and arid country, are not quite so 
oppressive as they are remarkable for their intense 
heat and dryness. They are termed " hot winds,** 
and the highest temperature ever indicated by the 
thermometer has been during their continuance. 
They occur generally three or four times during the 
summer months, and last from two to three days, 
when they are suddenly succeeded by a gale from 
the south, accompanied by a heavy fall of rain. On 
the accession of this gale the temperature of the air 
has been known te fall 30® or 40® Fah. in a very 
few minutes. This storm is called a "southerly 
buster,'* and differs from the " briokfielder," in 
being aooompanied by a fall of rain, and in never 



changing into those eddying currents often seen in 
the latter. 

The barometric pressure do3S not differ materially 
from that of Enghnd, except in its variability, and 
with some appa ently anomalous featur^^s in the ill 
understood relation between the prcdsure and the 
state of the weather. 

The entire range of the thermometer is from 30® 
to 102® Pah., but, like the barometric pressure, it 
is subject to great variation. To endeavour to as- 
certain the quantity of moisture in the atmosphere 
in any given day would very often be a fruitlena 
labour, on account of the numerous and rapid 
changes that are incessantly taking place. At one 
time the atmosphere may be so intensely dry, from 
the nnture of ttie Boil and the direction of the wind, 
th^it a trace of moisture can barely be detected with 
tho mos" delicate instruments, when suddenly the 
dir<>ction of the wind changes, and a sea breeze 
comes in loaded with moisture. 

In resrard to the fall of rain in any civen (short); 
period, there appears to be little or no uniformity. The 
months that are dry in one year may be wet in another, 
and, vice versch many parts of the country are subject 
to inundations ; and no doubt there is a fixed cycle in the 
seasons, but as to its nature we are at present entirely in 
the dark. As regards the quantity of rain that falls in 
short periods there is not even the semblance or regu- 
larity ; for we have seen as much rnia fall in a very flsw 
hours as had fallen for half the year. Taking the mean 
of a series of years, the average foil would be 17 inches. 
Thunder storms are not unfrequent in summer ; the peals 
are loud, and the lightning vivid ; but we are not aware 
of any researches having been made in the more recondite 
branches of meteorological science. That this in£uit 
science should have remained in a more elementary state 
in this country than elsewhere is iK>t to be wondered at, 
seeing that no Government meteorologist has, if ever, for 
any length of time been employed ; and the Tolunteer, 
even if he had time at his disposal, has naturally been de- 
terred at the outset flrom taking up the subject with zeal, 
not more from the want of proper instruments than from 
the bewildering nature of the climate. True, from time 
to time the results of many accurate observations made by 
scientific men have been recorded ; but the periods over 
which they extended being very short, and the observa- 
tions taken in diflRerent localities, it was found difficult in 
many cases to malie them conespond. 

Having detailed most of the essential meteorological 
phenomena characteristic of the region, I now proceed to 
consider the climate in relation both to health and disease. 

On reviewing the train of pathological phenomena 
manifested, year after year, among Her Majesty's troops, 
serving in New South Wales, It must be apparent to every 
one that the multiplicity of facts, in connection with dis- 
eased action, which have been faithfully recorded fbr a 
series of years, might, if properly dealt with, be converted 
into an instrum«it fbr determining, with not a little pre- 
cision, the principal causes that appear to originate, and 
the various agencies tliat most influence the abormal and 
eminently complex process of dis3ase. -• 

From the intimate connection that necessarily exists 
between physiology and pathology, it is clear, that how- 
ever successfully men may treat diseases as they severally 
occur, they will never be able to grapple with disease 
itself till they get more general ideas of these kindred 
branches of medical scienecr 

For many reasons, I shall not be surprised if some of 
the conclusions arrived at in the course of this enquiry 
arouse the spirit of controversy among some even of the 
initiated. But that what follows may. as much as possible, 
be apart fhim medical polemics in forming my opinions, 
I propose to make use only of such physiological and 
pathological facts as have come before me firom actual ob- 
servation, together with the miliUry records of disease. 
The assumption of principles and the advancement of ab- 
stract theories will therefore be avoided, at having no prac- 
tical bearing on the subject, viz , the influence of an Aus- 
tralian climate on the constitution of the Western Buro- 
pean. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AKT. 



Ii, In form tin mrnt u 



being reooided, Iq 
the pUhDloglciI fact! 



f, bol Ihe fTWt ptoblBin 
utloB : for iHlaud, Dief 
meat tfuLhi at ftenonl 



1 HjdmtitJn wdithy [ 






iDtelUggnCE llghllyMi 



TBTT &VOUt>b1« idim Df 

dvU itstiitlci will not bi 
■nd UiBH ire necsautll; 



r this 



tppofllte TiFv of the subjccl 
From vhit ' baa been eaid of the d 

of the aoll, Rnd the meterological pbeno 

ohancteiUtie of the region, it miftht oocur to many 
that the OoiDipotent bas plaoi'd mBn in a rothlesr 
oUme ; but, Blthongh in winter there are many dayi 
pleaBint enough, I have poBitlvely drawn no eiag. 
erated picture, in alludiDg (a its rapid and inaeBSanl 
ohaof^B ; and, therefore, ag I cxn ill oali this e 
geniai climate, D117 deiiBrjntioa mnst remain os it i> 
From the elevation of the land, the rail being mor< 
or leu deBtitude of vegetstion, in many cBBes— th( 
tkj oloudleBB, and Boarcelj n trace of moistun 
in the atmosphere, the raya of li^ht and heat being 
uoimpedod in their iraurie,— fall with Kreat inteneity 
on the earth ; the mare apparent retmlti of (heee 
would appear to be, that the iiieeniible psrepiration 
bMOmcEiaBuffioieDttolteep tbeikiiiniaiit,aadby Iti 



ulaniii,*! well as other aebaceaai folliiilep, 
are oaiiea into moresctiTeopHration, ai iabnqnently 
BtincPd by the unotuoua feel of Ihe skin. Bo doubt 
thii determination to the anrfuce, asBliiti materially 
in re«pir«tion, ai well aa in the elimimtton lif 
eicrementitlous ButiBtanoes from the blood ; these 
office*, being in Dtber cues, in a greater deirei-, 
contiened to aome one or other of the internal 
chmd'. Wtn this atite of things to cootinoe, 
it mieht naturally be expected, that the oorxlitnliau 
oriheEaTDpenn wonlrl speedily adapt itxelf to the 
olimalo ; but as hai been Been, New 8011th VValss ia 
Buhjeat to rapid elimatio ohangea, so that instend of 
the intense bfat and dryness of the atmoipbere 
which generally continues daring the day, eapesiall; 
in summer, there sets in afler auaseC a breeze (rom 

erjng the teniperatnre of the air Beieml degree). 

Bot 1 the atmosphere being deroid of " ChiratiDSSi,'' 
tnd the oleuginoDS lubstanoes secreted by iha 

bor[T, eipeoiilly the parts eipnsed. becomes, aa it 
-"-lly sealed. Uni-— "- — " 

igeation 



BtnnoBS a tondenoy to 
tioD of the in tern h1 urKni 
looked for; hut it is found 
diBerent degrees of mucoui 



even iDflmna- 
rentonabl; he 
all oatet, l£it 
anoea appears 



mQcous Burfaoe takes plnee generally, no matter 
what the difference of Bti netore may be, and eon- 
sequoDtly the internal vital orgsns are naturally Irft 
little if at all affected ; this will become more ap- 
parent as I proceed. 

That some of the moat important parts played by 
this olimste, properly so called, in relation both to 
health and diacoie, have hitherfo been overlooked, 
there ciaDOt ben doubt; for to such as hold the ideal 
■ ■ ■ regarding its salubrity, the 



atatlati 



.elitlel 



Bthan 



in try, 1 



enigma 



v/;u\ 



IB well ai 



„ . 'Baled by the 

fltntistioal summaries of the Registrar iieneril of 
Kow Sooth Wales, I can Boarcely ooDoeive how men 
hold fast the opinion entertained aa to its great 
salubrity ; wblle the same facts ought to oontinsa 

included in the category of peatil ntial climates. 

From the able report of the Kegiatrar General, 
on the " Sanitary condition of Sydney," read before 
the rhilosopbical Society of Sew Sooth Walaa. in 
June last, I take the followiag exlraet, which may 
be looked upon as the Leareat appronimation to the 

" 1 fear." he says. " it is impoiaible to esoape the 
conclusion that the great lacrlQce of life, whethef 
infantine or adult, which is exhibited in the tablee 
placed before yoa, is the result of a sinful degree 
of neglect and reckloBBuosB, which calls for the mart 
CBrneit ooneideration on the part of those to whose 
hands are entrusted the education, the moral train- 
ing, and the government of the people." 

" I commnDced thia paper by depreoatinK the do- 
ducticB of hasty influentne. from the facte recordMl 
in the course of a single year's registration ; tbeoon- 
elusion they force upon ue, is not faraursble eitber 

well to wait the result of further investigation, Mora 
we attribute arbitrarily to any one cause, an eril 
which may have its erigia in many, and may Im 



of Sydney, and of AnstralU 
generally, ana tnai it materially aaslsts directly or 
indirectly in producing the ereat Baoriflce of life 
complained of; but the truth would appear to be 
that the surplns mortality amoog the oitU popul> 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



tlon, »ri«ai not wholly fpom « moT»1 perTaralon oier 
which ve htve oootTol, but ia ^reaC part, either 
directly or indireotty from phyBioiogioBl eliHiiBes, 
induced, through the influeoce of an Au>triili&D 
oUmnte, in the comtituCion of the Weatern Earo- 

From various pbyaioloEicnl sa well »a pithologiosl 
conairtemtlonathatwillbegisen.it wonldappearlhit, 
throuRh the inauenco of this climite, the tone of 
the syateiD ia lowered ; and ocDBequeDtlj' Che 
•• visbiliw" of both aoldiar and civilian ia aci.sibly 
below f«T: and it would further appear Ihjit this 
circumBtnnee alone, In coDJunction with Cbe fitful 
nature of the olimate will acoouut for many of the 
aoparsDt anomaiieB, in ODuneation with vital ataCis- 
tica, eipecially the alarming mortality among i(i- 

in (titinir the reasons that have led me to theae 
conoluaiona, I begin wiib phyaioiogy, by tracing 
Che more apparent cbongea that the system un- 
dergoes, when auljjeoled for any length of time, 
to the influeiioe of tliia elimatD, 

Prom the nature of the ReEulationa of the Scr- 
>i» it. in kQOwn, that in eeery cose the 
the United Kingdom in perfect health; 



pirit.a 

e appenri oa 



ind ho generally disembarks here wilh buoyiincy ol 
ipirit.and a full ahare of health and streDglh. When 



pi. 



;, (arif 



tho place, 



, bi« frcB 



illsuppli ■ , 

of oapUlsriea ihut coma to the surface), and bis 
penerai plump and eljiatic appearance, (arisiuB from 
a moderate depoiillon of adipose tiiaue). in muuy 
oases contrast airongly with the altered appearance 

from the structural obaugea in the akin, the adopcse 
liasus underneath SeitiK at a diacount. EBpeeially 
about the buccinator muscle), the greyish colour of 
the face, aod Id summer the ahrivelled aod unotu- 
oui appearance of the akin, are all more or loss 
remarkable. The dawn of change in tlie new arriral 
ia iodioated at first by an almost inappreciable 
lanfuor and depression of apirita. whan he feels 
little inclined for any eiertion. This i^a followed by 
physioloRioal changea which 



le obaer' 



r, there 



a ftrodua 



ing of the face, 
baorption of the 



dency li 



mora freely of aloobolic atimulanta. ineidiousi? over- 
take him, thta goes on for tweUo or eighteen 
months, or more, when tbe late arrival onnnot be 
recogniaed in the ranka. What haa been snid of 
the solalec holds good with regard to the 
oiTilian, as seen in the different drafts of immi- 
grants that from time to time arriiB in the country. 
Some intoresting physiological changes manifest 
themselves nmong the man undergoing punishment 
in tbn military prison. This being under the 
snr'Billianee of an ofHoor in charge, under whose 
able auperintendence, with the hygeiuio moasuroa 
adopted in the prison itself, the inmacea have 
suffered eioecdingl; little from actual disease, aa 
will be seen on reference to tablet ia the siatistieal 
report, but tho remarkably few instances of men 

faming weight, and the high ayerage of weight lost 
urine the lorm of imprisonment is very aingulsr. 
This la the more reniarkabla aa tbe meu are 
aimilarly circumstanced in every way to prisoners 
undergoing punishment in England. The circum- 
Btance may depend for its eiistenco more or less 
upon a ooiiibination of causes, but the most essential, 
no doubt, Is the depressing etfeot of the climate. 
We have already aaid that adipoee tissue ia at a 
disoouDt among the soldiers in this country : but 
there are oases where from tho habit of indnlginj 

freely in tho use of alooholio stir-'--' 

missioD into the prison, prescat 



hat inflated 



and corpulent appearance, and the entire with- 
drawal of their nceustomed atimnhut may he su9. 

Buoh caaea are ejtremcly rare. The eitraordinary 
diminution of weight in the other caaea that rarely 
present a moderate deposit of f»tty tissue, must 
be accounted for, not from any defect in prison diet 
or diBolipine. *a they are striotiy in Bocordanee with 
ihi best regulations for military prisons in England, 
but from the absence of any oicitsnt or stimulant 
il i)r phyaioal that would raise the vital 
lomethint: like their origiosl tone ; a 
V arises whether it might not be adiisn- 
■K their ratiODs. aa the daily quantity 
imed in this country appears, in many 
" ' ■ ■ ■ England, 



Mwera to 
Snesiion I; 

of food cot 



but the surplus quantity Is carried off by eiore- 

It miaht be argued that the mode of lifo of tbe 
soldit:r hss more to do with inducing the changes 
we have spoken of, than any peoulinrity of the oli- 
mste ; but by going beyond the confines of tho 
garrison, einmplea are found curroborntlve of what 
has been slated. 

Tbe well marked though alight anaemic appearanoa 
of the female is never to be miataken ; In moat caaea, 
tba pale fioe of variou) simdes of colour ; the 
harabneseof tbe complexion, especial ly after the ei- 
pirstion of youth; the relaxed fibre, and in the wbite 
native born, the dcoadenoa of tho teeth, and iho 
frequent absence of any development in the mam- 
mary gland, until the period of impregnation of the 
ovum, when other parts of the system suffer, are all 
features characteristic of the Australian female ; 
affording incontestibie evidence that in this oonntry 
the various functions are performed with less vigour 
than in the clim.ilo of Western turops. 

Another remarkable feature, in n phyBioU>E>iinl 
poiot of view, is premature age : the aoltlier of 3B 
who has served any length of time In the colony, 
might readily be misUken for the English soldier 
of aS; the soldier of 34. in this country, for the 
soldier in Englaad of 40 ; this ii also a<«D in the 
oase of the civilians, who at tbe ago of 41), In this 
country, might, in many casee, be mistaken for the 
EngliahciviVianDf4Sor40,Bnd in more caaea than 
ono, the civilian of 50 appears more like tbe Engiiab 
alvilian of (10. This is equally remarkable in the 
female, eapecially tbe white native born, who arrives 
at puberty somewhat earlier hero than in England, 
from 16 to 18 she appeara tolerably full of health 
and vigour, with a fuir oomplcxiou : but she rarely 

off ; she qniekly looses flesh, tbe complexion, beoomes 
harsh, the arms flaccid, and aba aoon presents the 
anmmio appearance we have described. 

There are at present no means of arriviajT at ■ 
very correct ouuolusion as to longevity, although 
there are oooasionally seen a few isolated casea of 
old age. yet it would appear from a etatiatical table 
kindly furniiihed to me hy the Kegistrar General, 
that at about the ageof 60 tbe flame of life in this 
country is all hut extinguiafaed. Other oiranm- 
stnnees connected with the subject might be men- 
tiouod, but I shall oonolude the pbysiologioal 
oonsideratioaa, by remarking, that a plienomena 
connected with sleep, would appear to strengthen 
the opinion aa to tbe diminished energy of tbe vital 
powerB, Tbe various funotiotis of the body may bo 

pbysioal. pbysico-vital, and purely vital,— digestion 
partakes of the three — tbe mere act of deglutition is 
phyaioa], secretion and absorption,arBphyaioo-vital; 
and ontrttion ia purely vital. The first two we have 

their action by the various fbrmj of stimulanli 



MAGAZINE OF SomNCE AND AHT. 



pa [uMrtulac dcpodiioD hu been rsund In tnj one at Ihr 
intirnal argins iiispt Die lungs. K»ii) cubhiii hcrF 



Ding, eicfpl. prrliaps, x neak lericuli 



lie ilrengih«ng<i by Ihe fscli 
In paiiAequenrt of the pre- 
ni|ii<i meienrologlol chuiget 



iiippLlt4] b; Ji dliUi 



lonouT of upholding the di^^ Of &eiT fiitherlial 
nndi for man whoM " timn U not enmsfd jn «U 
hat ^ iho mirijier reeb hii nil ifi it tmabled seh, llie 
tiaiiuhtT Ii33 leHoned the Tits! voviv in rain, that be 
Day better weather B Morm.in which, as bss he™ teeb, 
nanvare wrtwiied vhnencDuateril: that Kevr Bou^ 
ffileais liy no means the "flowery land," where uck^' 
lOHs anil death are ssldoin known; tiiat ulthaugfa the 
erosion is fclow lE in steady, and althonirh the mu?6ns 
iur&e(s bear the brunt from Hr<tto Iwt, if nut eountar- 
itled liy all the mire favoorable combination of tir- 
IniiDstgKcK hv manr years sooner Ihui that dT Wiwteni 
Earopi?, the ADatmliu climate irill in the long ran 

AlthouKt there is little or nothinj in connection with 
the martnlity of the troopB to indirUe that tbe health 
□f the soldier Umaterisllyimpiurcdby acampkratiTel]!' 
short nsidcnre in the AnitraUan ch'mate, for in winur 
he ^nerally lays io a stock of hualth anfficient in grot 

nhen he arrives in the bracing I'liuate orEa^luid. B 



cAtarrh i tmt J 

Whether this 

■■eipiralioi.;'. 



dlcsied Iti sdDptton, 



tua, ai It Hill sacenpetl 



[tit. Duonj hsi torwank-il a large number of atatiB- 
tieal tables containing retoijiB froin the tiMra slationed 
in tlds DolDiir, ^d comparianns instituted n-ilh the re- 
*nni>oFtlio liealth dE the tioo]w in England. These 

occapTBO iua>:h of onr spate, tliat vni arc camjiallod to 
oiBit them. W» suhjoin tJia (TOiclnBionB at which he 

It will be seen, from this paper, that this country is 

of geological formation be tmo aa they are na< 
Kew Soath Wales has teed undisturbed Ibi-oagh ihe 
host nioinentnOB "epochs in the history of pnr glohc 
Tiz., tlie creation, the fall, and tho mlesiptiop of man 
that consequent (m the revolEJnn of some of the betie 
parts of man's natnre. tlnMU^h the moral diicurbanc 
intha "Gold Uiscovory,-' the Auniraliin mind hn 
taken en a morbid deTelojjment, as seimin ihc tlwoelit 



n itoTolvas lh« duty and t 



H 

ittheriaBKTW 



opte of B 






llshed; yet the J,, .... _ — ._,. __ 

their eyes su(Gi;ieutty opened to see the effect of aa 
Anstralian climate on the Enropcan constitution, by ll» 
deiolalJun that re|ieatedly fDllowed tlie transfer «f ■ 






Hill ii 



ages be indacod from the adaptation of the cacalitQliDii 
to tha^stute of the climate; but, (is far aa can jel be 
judged irom what is seen of Ihe first and second getWn- 
tions, this physiDlumcaal chanra n-iU be slow in. ita 
pri^rass. When it a considered, then, thiit for genarar- 
tions to come Aostralia is no doubt destined to be ^ 
home of countless nombers of those bom and reared in 
the more invigorating climes of Western Enropa; tod 
that in the BlaencB of eiery form of Epidemir, the mor- 
tality in Sydney is grealor than lo any of the lal^k 
tOHUs of England, with sU their povarty and miseryj 
and that, notwilliatinding all its adsaotagea, fever is as 
readilr set ii]i, and is of as great intensity in Bydney 
as in the overcnwded cities in the United KiugdMa | 
and when it is contemjilated H'hat deeolatiDD might tbl- 
low the introduction of snch qjidemics as vaiielft 
typhus, or BsiatJc cholara. there is snrely eonogb to 

riddingitself of thedclnsion that tliere is any mperi- 

oompared with that of Western Jlmupe, jiroceeds with 
its sanitary artangenierit, with the conviction that tW» 
is by no means a climate that will bear being triiOed 



It has been said thi 
and not qnarsntine Is 



thisr 



lie outer defeneec mil 
ig that wo^are so ill equipped in the citadel 
Baseless battle of disease ; for it hav bflsn 
the endeavour lo discover many of Iha 
irkin?s of disease, all the powera of die 
and Uie analysis of chflnistry sink oiima- 
led. We innat not then depend upon B '■■-'— ' -' 



iiicroseope, a 



jilace at all. it will o' 
sanitary arrangemi 



le by si 

Bat the™ fore. 



Lse,forifth 
V deg;pei!«t ; 



igthe G^ 

of inedieal science, is, ns yet, almost unbroken. It 
may lie that the honnnr of solving many of the reran- 
dite problems in physiology and pathology is Testrred 
for the Australian student ef medicine ; for, sllhon^ 
it has parted with some uf the feelinga. tbe An»- 
tralian mind has lost none of tbe intelligence al' the Bnre- 
peau. awl it is not ualikel}^. ChereFore, that |old triSi 
■n lis fatinstioni will fail, m lima, to satisfy it, and it 



MAOAZraE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



will tlu^o devote its eaeTgies ta more inl^UE^titqal par^ 
■nio. Tlie ■tiuluat aS iii«1idDi!. bv flndini his wa; 
tbroDglrtlie inlriracies of the tissiii»; nod nvt'^ling Iht 
(■ark doings or duesas amidit tbe complexUy of oui 
fVune, may ijain triumphs areat'^r thim tlijit of the 

raemumblo Bnrekai ur. that of tho analj-alD of wbj- 
tsni Enrapa. when nimultaneouslf Ibe; plunged on Che 
winn of inatheniiitii:al scienre. into (he illimitiibls 
Tiri^ and liud tbeir hand upon the dinCBrbinj^ plane' 
in its wild career dirough ipace. While, however, 
Laid out thMB encoaragemenCs, I muit oothide ill Ih 
difllcnltiea he will tiave to coalend with, which, fo 
rcanona tiinlcd at, tbe Australian mind may find harder 
In aurmoiiDt. I need iriircely allude to tbe bearing 
that tiie wriliogs of manr of (he contiiieDtal men of 

wiUi whirli tlie itud?Dt of medidtie is most immediately 
tooceraed ; for birelv will he be able to lav hia hand 
Dpon die wiilinga of any of the coDCinental Phpiolo- 
pits ihU will not lead bim astray. In ijieir regeiiera' 
tion of Philosophy they have sought to etimicata 
God, not only from among tho pheoomeiu of matter, 
hot alu from among tbe pbenomena of life { and by 
making the science of Ethia Phyuoli^cal and not 
IKvine, ihfly haw lefi for themselves na other cban the 
-withering amcluKioa, tbat Theology and Metaphistca 
are" things doomod to pass avay; loath, bowever, 
wanld we be to suffer onr " hereaftor." M be taken from 
us hr lliese. the perverted ioferonces of blleo man ; 
for we have the innate conviction of an Immortal Prin- 
dial within as— a conscionsntss of ■ future rcsponsi' 
bility for our tbougbls wd ac^ns, and we have men of 
the hiihost intoUimnee and scientific attainments all 
agreed, that in the whole range of the sciences, from 
biology tliere is absolutely nothing 



Bevealed Religion; mi tlio 1 
that Vitli bis present oivaniiat 
aGodi for anrelT HO one won 
the imjnoiis. tboogb benig 
bamed the stitoe of liia hoi 



ought th 

if luan has proved 

ro tbe memory of 






Ed can look with sa^faction and enrourapment to tlie 

tbe most distingniuied men in the medical prafcsaioa ; 
for, although our foreblliers combated tho symptoms of 
disease wltli ruder implemenis of warfare, we have 
still to draw npon them lur all onr luedical Ethics. 
The life of the "Good Boerliaave" is an ei amp la for 
tbo uhyskian of the prewnt time to fallow, and the 
aimple inscription, written an Uie tablet aMcted to tbe 
memory of tho Father of Modem Chirnrgy, onght to 
' ' ■'* lo the sorgooa of modem 



times, 



loOedin 



tlie advent of my departoro 
sarily terminate any farther (_.. 
assured that the health of tlie people 
)Fftge the attention of the Gevemment ui liub luuu( 
ns also that further investigatioM on this snbjjct ^ 
fall into abler hands than mine. If in future it she 
come te my knowledge that anj decided amolioraj 
has taken place, either in a sanitary or social poiol 
id It should appaaf that I tove in any <na.y 
h stress on the deteriorating effects of this 
[ithing will give me gnalet ploasnre than to 
revoke any opinion mat I may have wroni 
tholgh conscientioQslj, expressed, 

I have dwell on this snbject longer than 
' iloncion, bui I have done so ' - 
■BgBc to the peonlc may arise 



immediately toitncrted with health, I tm^t t have not 
departed from truth, as my only object has been to 

tecest and importance which the health of people ought 

I am not aware of having drawn inferoneea t>al will 
materially, if in any degree, militate against tba.re- 
coided ojimienE of the various medical omcen that from 
timeto time have been ia charge of tbo treogia in New 
Bouth Wales. I have found it, however, necesiar; to 
differ, in mme-measurei from the opinion entertained 
rt^arding phlbises by my "lealoas and talented" pre- 
decessor, ill. ManhatI, now Surgeon of tlie 65lh Foot, 

those tabulated under the ill defined name of diarrbrea. 
I hava adhered to the clftinHcation of Dr. Ueffeman, 

is generally admitled. Mv best thanks are dne to 
Major Jamn. the officer in charge of the miliUry 
prison, for his readiness in supplying me with every iiy- 
formatiou connertod with it. also to Mr. RoUaton, 
Registrar-General, for his kindness in allowins me IliB 
use of statiitira! tables, and aupplying me with otbar 



KA3XWAVS OF THE UNITED 
STATES. 
Br CiPTAis DOUSU.S Gii-tos. R. B. 
Fkoh a recent Englislt acientlfio journal 
we estraot the following valuable descrip- 
tion of the Railways in use in the United 
States. It is compiled by Captain Douglas 
Gulton, of tbe Royal Engineera, who was 
sent out eapecially by the BngliBh Govern- 
ment to report on this sulgeet. The infor- 
mation contained is especially important, 
in this colony, as we have now become 
convinced that tbe costly mode of oonetnic- 
tion adopted in England is quite out of tbe 
qaeation here. We are sure that many 
practical hints may be gleaned by the 
managers of colonial railroads from the 
perusal of the following paper. 
Cmutructioii of Road. 
Tes; character of American r^lw^, so different ia its 
prominent featurea from Ihsl of railways m England, 
13 the result of the want which they have been called 

q^°edXi?E Tiluld bTlaid cheaply and rapidly tb«ngh 
forests and nnonltivaled districts, where high speed was 
of far leas consequence than certainty of communica- 
tion. A railway was the instrument best adsptad to 
snpply this want, and it would aBbrd a better mwns of 
commanicatioa, at a less cost of maintenanco, than ao 
ordinary road. . 

As the first cost of a railway wa. a more important 
consideration than tbe after eipeose of working the Una 
when mads, sharp curves and steep gradienB were un- 
heaiWtiogly adopted, and tiic railways were cuMined. with 
a minimuin of^ accommodation. The Balnroore and 
Ohio Itolwar affords a striking iilnstratlon of a line 
opened with steep gradients, which have since been iro- 
pioved. In order to avoid for a time an BipenKve tun- 
nel wKich Has since been constructed, the lino was 
carried by a seriw of lio^iags, ascending over a hill by 
agradiontof HnI8atifiSl«p«tp«t. Each iig-ing 
terminated in a short level space, so Uial the trun was 

ig-«»g. 



4? 



MAGAZINE OF SCIEXCB AND AKT. 



There are curves on this railway of 360 feet radias, and 
curves of 400 feet radius are common ; the railway fol- 
lows thejsinuosities of the valleys in its p£ueage across 
the Alleghany Mountains : it is also carried through 
the streets at Baltimore down to the wharves, aud passes 
round right angles. In these streets the traction is by 
horse-power. 

The embankments and cuttings of a railway, at its 
opening are generally completed ; the bridges are ordi 
narily of timber, which, not being always well seasoned, 
is often a cause of considerable expense. The designs 
of many of the bridges for large spans, and also of the 
roofs of stations in which timber alone, or timber^ in 
connection with iron is used, exhibit great engineerifig 
skill, and are very instructive. The railway bridge of 
largest span is the suspension bridge over the Niagara 
river, connecting the United States with Canada. The 
span of the bridge is 800 feet ; and the level of the rails 
is 250 feet above the water. The particulars of this 
bridge have been already published in England, 
On many railways, iron and stone are being adopted to 
replace timber structures which have decayed. 

The ballasting is generally very deficient at first. On 
the prairie lines it is impossible to procure ballast ex- 
cept from very considerable distances. In constructing 
these lines a ditch is dug on each side of the road, and 
the soil banked up so as to cover the centre of the sleep- 
ers, but sloped off" on each side, leaving the ends of the 
sleepers exposed, in order to allow rain to drain off" rapidly 

The elasticity of the soil makes these roads far from 
disagreeable to travel over when dry ; but in wet wea- 
ther and frost the absence of ballast is a source of great 
inconvenience and danger. This may be remedied, to 
some extent, by placing a good drain under the centre, 
as well as at the sides of the roads ; but nothing can 
compensate for the absence of ballast, which, in a severe 
climate like that of America, should be of broken stone, 
not less than two feet in depth under the sleepera, with 
good drainage. It is sometimes customary to slope the 
top of l^e ballast on each side, so as to cause the snow 
melted on the surface to drain off. 

The gauge of American railways varies : the general 
gauge in the United States is 4 ft. 8^ in. ; the gauge of 
the Ohio railway is nominally 4 ft. 10 in., but it is in 
many cases in practice made 4 ft. 8^ in. The New 
York and Erie, and one or two lines in connection with 
it, have a 6-feet gauge. The gauge of Canadian rail- 
ways is 5 ft. 3 in. The break of gauge is of less con- 
sequence than iu England, because there is not so 
much interchange of working stock between the several 
railway companies. 

The sleepers oa^merican railways are usually of 
oak, cedar, or hemwck spruce, of about 6 inches by 8 
inches scantling, and from 7 feet to 9 feet long. 

In consequence of iron being taxed to the amount of 
30 per cent., the American railway companies have been 
obliged to economise iron to the utmost. The rails are 
made as light as possible, the usual form being the con- 
tractors* rail of from 50 to 65 lbs. weight. Many rail- 
way companies obtained rails from England, for which 
they paid by mortgage bonds. The rails thus obtained 
have not, it is stated, generally proved durable. WTith 
regard to rails obtain^ from American iroa works, the 
plan is fluently adopted of contracting that the rail 
shall last a specified time, the failure of any rail being 
made good, together with expenses incurred iu conse- 
quence. The rails are spiked to sleepers laid trans- 
versely, the joint being generally secured by means of 
a chair made of boiler-plate, with a lip cut out on each 
side and turned up ; the lip is barely three inches broad, 
and projects about l^ inch on each side of the joint. It 
is stated tiiat the lip spon works up, and wliea ham- 
mered down is apt toTbreak off; consequently the joints 
on a road of this description soon become very bad ; 
and several plans have been tried to improve them. 

Several forms of compound rails, for avoiding joints, 
have been tried, but I was informed that they have in- 
variably failed. The ordinary fished joint had been 
tried, but the necessity for economising iron, and of pre- 



sernng a sufficient breadth of base, has so limited the 
depth, and modified* the form of the rail, that it is iiot 
pnerally well adapted to this mode of fastening ; and 
It was stated not to have proved successful. A modifi- 
cation of the fished joint, in which a piece of iron aboat 
12 inches long is used on itie inside of the rail, and a 
piece of oak 5 feet long on the outside, has been tried 
on the Baltimore and Ohio and other railway8» and i^ 
peared to answer. 

The switches and points in use upon Bkiglish railways 
^ are almost unknown in America, shiftinjr rails or con- 
tractors' points being universally used in lieu; and con- 
sequently, if the points are set wrong, the vducles 
which pass through them must leave the rails. Fhe 
result of this is that the points are almost always k^t 
locked, and a signal is invariably attached to them. 

On the Newhaven Railway, in order to render it im- 
possible for the switches ever to be set except for the 
main line, they are worked from inside a box, the lever 
of the switches being connected with the door of the 
box, so as to shut it when they are held open for the 
siding ; thus the pointsman cannot get out of his box 
unless the points are set right for the main line. 

The signal arrangements at stations, and even at 
junctions, are generally very imperfect. Level croas- 
mgs are scarcely ever provided with gates or gate- 
keepers, except in special cases near towns ; but a large 
board is placed over the crossing with the words printed 
on it in large letters : " Railroad crossing. Look oui 
for^fie cars when the engine beU rings." On tibe 
Philadelphia and Reading Railway, a olue coloured 
light is snown at all level crossings at night. It is the 
invariable duty of the engine-driver to ring a large bell, 
placed on his engine, whenever he approaches a level 
crossing or passes along a street. 

Cattle-guards are constructed on each side of evNY 
level crossing, in order to prevent cattle and animau 
from straying on to the line. These are trenches about 
4 feet deep and 4 ft. 6 in. broad, cut across the railway, 
the rails being supported by narrow balks laid across 
the opening. Laths, a few inches apart, are laid across 
the opening to enable persons to pass over. 

The railways are generally well fenced, except at 
stations or where the railway is carried along roads or 
streets, in which case no separation is made Tlie main 
lino of the Baltimore and Ohio Railwaymans throndi 
the streets at Baltimore to the passenger station ; ma 
trains are drawn by locomotives, and a man on horse- 
back rides along in front of every train, blowing a 
trumpet, to warn people to keep off the track. 

A very general practice prevails of distributing tibe 
goods traffic by means of rails laid along the streets to 
wharves and private establishments, along which the 
railway cars are moved by horse power. At some sea- 
port towns in this country, as, for instance, Aberdeen, 
Dundee, and Birkenhead, rails are carried on to the 
wharves, bnt not to the same extent as in America* 
The practrob is, however, one which might be adopted 
in many places in this country vrith great advantage, 
and with saving of expense in unloading ai^ reloading. 
The construction of the cars in An^erica enables, them 
to be moved round very sharp curves. 

The stati'ons are generally unfenced, and passenger 
stations are considered public thoroughfares. The accom- 
modation is generally inadequate and vejy indifferent, 
there being a great want of waiting-rooms and other 
conveniences, as well as of means of obtaining inform- 
ation. At some stations, however, where the pa^seng^r 
traffic is large, the booking-office has a second openn^ 
into the ladies* waiting-room', so that ladies travelUi^ 
alone can obtain tickets without crowd or difificnlty. 
This arrangement is one which might be adopted with 
great advantage in this country. 

Construction of Rolling Stock,, 

The practice of constructing the railways in a hasty 
ant^ imperfect manner has led to the adoption of a form 
of rolling stock, capable of adapting itself to the ind- 
qualities of the roau; it is also constructed on t^.priii; 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



93" 



ciple of diminishing the amount of useless weight 
carri^ in a train. This principle is, that the body of 
a car or waggon is carried by two four-wheeled trucks, 
one at each end. Thie body is attached to these tracks 
by means of a pintle in the centre, the weight resting 
on small rollers at each side. The main framing of 
the truck is supported on springs resting on the axles, 
and the pintle and rollers are fixed to a cross-beam, 
which is attached by springs to the main framing ; so 
that between the body of the car and the axles are a 
double set of springs. India-rubber springs are in 
general use, but they often become hard ; consequently 
sometimes steel springs are used, with great advantage. 
Any side movement which mi^ht result from the slight 
play allowed to the cross-beam is counteracted by springs 
placed between its ends and the framing. An iron 
noop attached to the framing passes under the axle on 
each side so as to support the axle in case it should 
break. 

The bearings do not differ materially from those used 
in England. But the axle-box is formed so as to allow 
of oil Doing used as a lubricator, as it is well ada|)ted to 
withstand heat and cold. The oil is' contained in the 
lower part of the axle-box, cotton waste being pressed 
in to prevent it from shaking about, as well as to keep 
it in contact with the* axle ; the' front is screwed on, 
and, at the back, a leather fits close round the axle, and 
prevents ihe admission of -dust. It is stated, that under 
favourable circumstances, this kind of box will run 
sometimes for a month without re<]|^uiring to be touched, 
but there is great difficulty in obtaining good oil. 

The wheels used on American railways are of cast- 
iron, with chilled tyres. The wheels are from 30 to 36 
inches in diameter, made without spokes. These wheels, 
when made by the best makers, will run from 60,000 
to 80,000 miles before the tyres are worn, and they are 
said not to be liable to break ; they weigh rather more 
than 500 lb., and cost from £3 to £3 10s. each ; they are 
liot of course so true as turned wheels, but their first 
co«^ is less ; they wear well, and daring the time they 
last, they require no expenditure for turning up ; any 
erack can be more easily detected by soundmg with a 
hammer, and when a wheel breaks it does not always 
do the mischief that is done by a broken t^re. Chilled 
cast-iron tyres are used on some of the railways for the 
driving-wheels of engines ; they are made 3 to 3^ inches 
thick, and 6 inches broad, and cylindrical ; they are 
' bored out to a true cone to fit the centre, which is also 
of •cast-iron, turned to a similar cone, and secured in 
place by screws. These chilled castings are stated to 
. oe preferable to steel, or to wrought iron, on account of 
their being less liable to fracture in frost. The iron of 
which tiiey are made is of a very superior quality, and 
great practical skill is necessary in the operation. It 
IS stated that there are only three firms in the United 
States whose, wheels are fully to be relied upon. 
' No force is necessary in coupling the cars, as the ends 
of. ti^e draw-bar or bumpers, abut against each other ; 
tk shackle is introduced through the opening behind, and 
two pins are passed tiirough the eyes } about an inch 
play being alt that is allowed. An iron shackle is 
generally used ; but on some railways the shackle is 
ipade of oak 18 inches long, 2 inches thick, 6 inches 
broad, ^th holes for the pins 1^ inch •>{- 2 inch, at a 
centraJ distance apart of 12 inches. The block, as well 
as each hole, is hound with iron ; but the iron band 
round tiie block is divided on each si^ at the centre, so 
that if a car leave the raik the side wrench would break 
the sitackle transversely. 

In coupling passenger cars the man stands on the 
platform at &e end of the car ; but in freight cars, 
when there is no ]^latform, the following self-acting con- 
trivance for dropping in the pin, is sometimes adopted 
to prevent injuiy to tha man employed. When two cars 
are to be conpled, the pin in the bumper of one of the 
cars is sopported by means of a !)all, and the shackle is 
0zed by its pin in the bumper of the other car ; when 
ike can are moved one against the other, the shackle in 
one bumper poshes back we ball in the other,^ and al- 
lows tbe pin to drop into the hole. 



AH passenger cars, and almost all freight cars, are 
supplied with breaks, which are applied to all the 
wheels, worked from either end 8f the car. The blocks 
of the breaks are lined with plates of cast-iron ; and it 
is never intended that the wheels should be completely 
skidded. 

On the Philadelphia and Reading Railway there is 
an arrangement by which a sudden check in* the speed 
of the engine applies breaks to the wheels of all the 
cars. 

Passenger and emigrant cars, covered freight cars, or • 
low-sided and platform cars for timber and minerals, 
&c., are placed upon the trucks I have described. Upon 
some railways coal and ballast waggons are used, con- 
structed in the same maimer as those upon English 
railways. 

The bodies of the passenger cars are from 30 to 45, 
and even 60, feet in length. This length render it ne- 
cessary that the sides should be supported by a truss, 
either in the framing or by iron trussing-rods below. 
On lines of 4 ft. 8^ in. guage the cars are about 9 feet, 
and on the New York and Erie, 10 feet wide, and from 
6 ft. to 7 ft. 6 in. high. There are two classes of pas- 
senger cars, of which one is limited to the conveyance 
of emigrants. In the centre of each end of the cars is 
a door, conducting to a small platform, about 2ft 6 in. 
wide, from which steps descend on either side to the 
ground. -There is a railing to the platform, with an 
o])ei^ing to allow passengers to pass from the platform 
of one car to that of another, and thus through the 
whole train. On many railways this free passage is 
not allowed to passengers, but the foremost door of each 
car is locked, so that all passengers must enter at the 
rear door, and the conductor or servants of the train 
alone pass through with keys. 

(To be continued) 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE MARBLE AND LIMESTONE QUARRIES 
OP NEW SOUTH WALES. 

To the Editor of the Sydney Magazine of Science 

and Art. 

Sir, — In the -second number of your Magazine, for 
the 15th of July ultimo, yoa have mvited attention to 
the scarcity and expense of Lime in Sydney ; and the 
too general use of the produce of calcinated shells. 
As this is a subject which was, some years ago, one of 
immediate importance to myself, I will #equest you to 
allow space in your columns for a few remarks in refer- 
ence to your paper. 

^ You do not seem to be aware that, throughout the 
discovered parts of New South Wales, there have been 
found extensivcMua^rnes of marble and limestone ; equal 
in the quality of their yields to any that have yet been 
worked in other parts of the world. At this I am not 
surprised, seeing|[that, in Sydney, the use of stone-lime, 
for building purposes, has been, since the year 1842, of 
a very limited cWacter ; and even at that date its in- 
troduction lasted but a brief time. A few words will 
explain this abandonment of its use. 

Upwards of a quarter of a century ago, the existence 
of valuable marble and limestone quarries in the inland 
counties of Argyle, Bathurst, and Murray was well 
known, both to the local government and the settlers in 
those locales ; but whilst in building the houses of 
Goulburn and Bathurst, mortar and plaster, composed 
of the lime yields of these quarries, were exclusively 
used, their great distance from Sydney, and the prohi- 
bitorjr pric^ of land carriage, precluded the idea of 
bringing this valuable commodity down to the metro- 
polis. 

In 1834, however, my lamented friend, the late Colonel 
Sir Thomas L. Mitchell, announced the discovery of 
valuable marbles of various colours at Piper's Greek, a 
short distance from its confluence with the Maria River, 
about two days sail from Sydney. With the exception 



94 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



of calcinating sufficient quantities of these calcareous 
treasures for building operations in their immediate, 
vicinity, little oi nol^iug was done with regal d to the 
transmission of the Lime yields to Sydney, until the 
year 1842 ; when many large public and private build- 
ings being contemplated here, I was induced to enter 
into a contract of a comprehensive character for^ work- 
ing the quarries at Piper's Creek, and transmitting the 
stone, after the process of calcination, to Sydney. Its 
reception here, by all the leading architects and con* 
trartors, was such as, in a vefy short time, to cause the 
demand to far exceed the supply. Colonel Barney, who 
was then at the head of the Royal Engineer Dejiartmont, 
and who was directing tlie o{>erations of several import- 
ant public buildings, would allow the use of no other 
lime than the produce of marble or limestone. The 
mortar and plaster for the new Military Barracks, at 
Paddington, were entirely made from the stone-lime 
supplied by myself from Piper*s Creek ; the contractors, 
Messrs. Brodie and Craig, having deemed tliis new 
branch of enterprise to be inviting enough to induce 
them to build a schooner, the Comet, of the dimensions, 
tonnage, and draft of water requisite for the navigation 
of a bar-harbour. The Sydney Synagogue, the Austra- 
lian Library, and other public and }>nvate structures in 
various parts of the citv, built under the auspices of 
Mr. James Hume, Mr. John P. Hilly, and other archi- 
tects as well as contractors, were all supplied with this 
lime ; and yet, notwithstanding the urgent demand for 
it, and the high cash price which it obtained, I was 
compelled to abandon the. enterprise ; the reason for 
which is explained in a few words. 

At Piper's Creek, the marble and limestone were cal- 
cinated in the usual manner, but not slaked; the latter 
process being reserved for Sydney. To avoid the dan- 
ger of combustion during the river and coast-line trans- 
mission, the " roach lime," as it is popularly called, was 
packed in hogsheads and casks, and so forwarded, first 
oy drays from the quarries to the boat harbour at the 
creek, thence by punt down the Maria and Hastings 
rivers, and then by coasting, sailing, and steam vessels 
to Darling harbour. The cost of these hogsheads and 
casks (rendered very high by reason of the unexpected 
demand for them, the necessity for their constant coop- 
erage, the loss sustained by so many non-returps of 
them from the contractors, the carelessness of labourers, 
and the usual rates of freight being increased, on the 
ground that lime was a hazardous cargo, ^ were cogent 
reasons for my abandoning a design which, although 
seemingly shewing a high profit, in so far as the price 
obtained in Sydney went, as compared with the cost of 
labour at the^arries and kilns, left little or no margin 
when the drawbacks I have named were calculated, and 
hence the abandonment, on my part, of the undertaking. 

The quarries were, however, worked for some short 
time by other parties ; but the " cask difficulty" was 
not overcome, and lime-burning operations have long 
since ceased at Piper's Creek. ^ 

Latterly, however, extensive quarries* have been 
worked b^ Messrs. Donaldson, on the banks of the 
Manning river, about 16 hours sail from Sydney, and 



as, from the immediate proximity of the quarries to the 
shi]>ping wharf, the cost of dray and punt traffic is 
avoided ; and as ^e roach-lime is slaked on th^ spot, 
and transmitted to Darling harbour in bagi, tibe diffi* 
cultv as to the casks is overcome. 

Tfie present yield of the Manning river lime-kilns is 
about 2,000 bushels per week ; and upon the comple' 
tion of larger kilns, 6,000 bushels per week can be 
produced. 

I must, however, observe, that the Sydney contraeton 
would prefer te receive the roach-lime unslaked. So, 
whether some plan for transmitting the stone (after its 
calcination) in iron tanks may not he profitably adopted, 
is a question deserving careful consideration. 

In conclusion, I may state, that ten years ago, Mr. 
Spcnce, in the construction of the church at Carcoar, 
used lime obtained from qnarriee at Kiiig*s Plains, a 
distance of about twelve miles from the township, but 
147 miles from Svdney ; and so precluding the idea of 
land carriage, until ^e extension of railways will place 
the valuable produce of our marble and other quarries 
within the reach of the metropolis. 

Mr. Brodie is now using stone-lime for honaes 
which he is building at Camden, and obtained 
at an easy distance ; and I may here mention, 
that the chimney-pieces at Government House' (not by 
any means fair specimens) are all composed of marbles 
from our own quarries. Further, that Gypsum (called 
also Plaster of Paris, selenite, and alabaster), togetiier 
with the compound, improperly termed Roman Oement, 
is to be produced in New Soutn Wales, of as fine, if not 
su]>erior, quality to the products of the capital of France, 
or of the Eternal City. 

I am. Sir, 

Tour obedient servant, 

32, Hunter-street, RICHARD THOMPSON. 
August 12th, 1857. 



^A^AA>^%A^tf^ 



ANALYSIS OF AUSTBALIAN AND 
NEW ZEALAND COALS. ; 

We have been favoured by Mr. J. S. 
Norrie, the analytical chemist, with tlw 
following valuable table, which exhibits 
the per centage composition of seveial 
varieties of Australian and New Zealand 
coals. This analysis was made in tiie 
latter part of the year 1854. Now that 
the question of steam communication unth 
Australia has assumed such importance, 
the information therein contained will, we 
hope, be of service to the English com- 
panies, and that it will prove to them Uuit 
our coal fields are not of the inferior 
quality they have been led to suppose. 



Locality of name of Coal. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Carburetted 
hydrogen in 
cubic inches. 


Sulphur. 


Ash. 


Percentage 
of cq|ce lot 
byeMhooal 


Bnrwood N^ewcastle. No. 1 


1.343 

1.320 

1.345 

1.200 

1.372 

1.35 

1.31 

1.26 

1.26 


90.0 
98.0 
104.0 
79.0 
95.0 
63.0 
95.0 


2.428 
5.063 
2.993 
2.442 
2.580 
1.799 
2.373 


8.6 

6.8 

4.6 

6.6 

8.4 

9.32 

2.10 

5.10 

3.00 


68.7 


Bm-wn's Mometh. No. 2 • 


60.5 


Mornpth. No. 3 


60J 


[NowcftfitlOf PiO* 4 •«•••• .••>^««.. 

^oixrpjiAflA r!oa.1 ComDanv. No. 5 


66.6 
68.7 


Albert, WoUongong (cubical). No. 6... 
WiiTiiraTini Npmr Zealand. No. 7 


46.8 


'M'aTifani'ni • Do No. a 


100.0 . 6.995 


45.6 


Pakawana, Do. No. 9 


100.0 


. 0.924 1 


64.6 



This last varietv apjwars a very superior coal, rich, black, and shining, obsidian like, 
proportion of sulptur and ash, and rich in carbon. The average amount of sulphur and 
English Newcastle coals, a]))>ears in the Australian to be increased. 



containing the smallflit 
ash, compared withtlit 



MAGAZINE OF SCIEKCE AND ART. 



Registrar General's Office, 

Sydney, bth September, 1857. 

HEALTH OP SYDNEY. 

The number of Deaths registered at the Central Office during the morfth of August is 
97, of which 37 were under 5 years of age. 

The Deaths registered during the corresponding month in last year are 96. 

The number of Births registered during August, is 187, viz. : 82 males and 105 
femalts. 



SUMMARY OF DEATHS of both sexes Registered in Sydney, from 1st lo 3Ut 
August, 1857. 



it 

CAnSKS or DsiTii. ° 

1^ 


iimiu 


llllK 


i 

i 


1 

s 


1 

I 

3 


1 
1 


1 
i 

s 


1 
i 

8 


i 

i 


1 
i 


i 

1 
j 


• 


=3 


ZlMOnO D[SBA8B=. 

BndBmit, Kpidemic. & Ccm- 
iBgioos 4 .. 


10 1 

10 3 

s i 

3 
























R 


flpORAMO DiSBABKa. 

Of Uneerlam Seal.—Dnpij 
andotlierDbeaaeaofVart' 


1... 3 2 2 


-.- 


> 




1 
















Of NtrvB^ %.(em.r. Di»- 

aa«i Qf the £r^. &c. ... B 1 
















I 5 4 1 ... 


1 


■ 


1 


1 


' 


























Of DigalUe Orgam. DU- 
BWS of the Stomach, 






















Of Urinary Orgam.-m>- 
■Ues of &e Kfdneya, *c... - .. .. 

Of Oentratiiie Orgam 

tha Bones, JoinW. ^ ... . 


1 


, , 


■ 






... 


... 


■■■ 




... 




, 






















Old Age ... . 

External Causa. TioUncee, 

Vfup^ified... 


1 -2 


E... 1 


1 .. 




1 












• 




8 










. 


1 


, 






















- 




Total ftom all Causes 

in the three Months ^ 


5 3 1 37 


sIbIS 4 5 


6 3 


2 


2 


3 


1 








87 



CHRIS. R0U.B8T0N, RegiUrar Ocnenl 



METEOROLOGICAL REPORT. 

8msKV, Mo»TH OF AuauBT, 1857. 

Ftom obtervatiotu taken at 9 a.m. oHd 9 p-m, each day. 



3 


1 


Tk^ 


KHATl. 


tor A 


ru 


Mo,a 


Tine 




CLOI't.. 








1 














S 






Rcmarti 
















. 




i 


1 




3 


a 




I 
1 


it 


^ 


1 
1 


1 


11 


on 
Weather, «c. 





as'SSB 


48-2 


04-5 


3g.e 


as.a 


42-5 


.,)n 


~i 





Tu. 


W«t 


Clear and fius 


29 


30021 


46-5 




348 


27 8 


42-3 


-00 




5 


Cn.Cu.-Bt 


South 


Cloud, col lectin J 


3 


30S2() 


47-6 


68-6 


425 


181 


44-7 


■42 






C^u 


South 


Dark cloud. 




30'40B 


44-5 


62-8 


34'2 


2B-6 


433 




4 


a 


a-flt. 


W Calm 


Lnoar halo 


G 


30-400 


445 






32-6 


40-8 


■00 








WNW. Caltd 


Very fins 


G 


30'4B2 




815 


33-3 




43-9 


00 






Cn.-8l. 


S8B. 




7 


30'478 






463 




49-] 


■06 


7 


10 


Cn. 


Bonlh 


GloomTcloodtud 


8 


30'437 


51 -a 


bi-% 


45-1 


la-V 


49-4 


■03 


8 


10 


<;ii. 




drilling rain 


BB 


30'3H9 


B4'0 


63-1 


43-4 


19-7 


1.1-1 


.00 






C'n. 


Calm- NNK 




10 


3O'300 


52-1 




41-3 




50-6 


■03 






L-nCaStm 


NNK 


Curioui cloQdji 




30-415 


S2'8 


fio's 


42-3 


J8-5 


43-4 


■00 




4 


-Cu. 


Sonlh 


Fresh br«z« 


IS 




49-0 




42-6 


13-5 


45.6 


■09 






Ni. 


South 


Finerainhow 


13 


SO-253 


47-7 


61-0 


42-4 




40-7 


■05 






Ni. 


Sonlh 


Uiatrndn 

Murhdouds&md 




30-oie 


60-6 


68-5 


43-1 


134 


49-4 


■17 


8 






Narth 


15 


30-016 


49-S 


071 


390 


281 




-00 


7 


1 


Cn. Cu..St 


Clin, 


Fine oealhel 




30-099 


47-2 


63-8 


393 


243 


411 


■00 









Wat 


1 BeaulifuIlT dai 


17 


30-09a 


61-2 


650 


34-0 


31 fl 


4L-5 


■00 


6 







NW 


[ aodfin 




30-131 




07-7 




25-3 


46-2 


■11 


8 


6 


Ni. 


Van able 


rhunder eloud 


19 


30 270 


54-3 


59-5 


44-2 




47-9 


■00 




7 


Cn. 


8, SBB 


Dioodj- 


SO 


30-oao 


5B-fl 




479 


141 


63-8 


1-72 


8 




Ni. 


ESE. BNE 


Stortny 


21 


29-750 


58-0 


S88 


54-9 


3-9 


54-2 




10 


10 


Ni. 


SE. S 


QnleaSL heavy nht> 


22 


29-933 


61-3 






97 




-13 


8 


3 


Ni. Cu. Et 


South 


Flood, in the^O. 


23S 


29-903 


52-a 


81-3 


41-6 


197 


501 








Cn. 


VariaWe 


Bloomy 




30-008 


*9-5 


648 


40-3 


24-5 


4,53 




7 




Cu. 


SW. BE 


} Rue and clear 


20 


30-008 


54' 9 


ms 


36'3 


S9-5 


47-2 




r 







W. N 


28 


29.955 


53-7 


70-1 


38 9 


31-2 




■00 






Ci,-St. 


West 


Dark veil of cbnd 


27 


30-190 


46-5 


59-6 


34-3 


253 


41-8 




7 






West 


HeavT dew 


2« 


30-082 


53-1 


66-5 


39-a 


27-2 


47-2 






8 


ci-.k 




Dark'veilofddU 


29 


30-113 


50-6 




44-8 


20-2 




■00 








S. BE 


[Floa.«,td.y. 


SOS 


30-107 


55'2 


635 


36-4 


271 


49-3 


■00 


7 






a, E. 




30-222 


531 


62-4 


4S-3 


141 


51-7 




5 


9 


Cb. 


BE 


Confnaed cloudl 




30-167 


51-0 


62' 6 


41-3 


21-0 


46-6 


i-m 




47 




Meann and annu. 










30-4!l9 


rfl.o 


70-1 




3C-8 


551 




1.) 


10 


n 


beat 1 of single readings 




29093 


4(C7 




33-3 




3B-7 




" 


'_ 


Lu 


west J it9a,ni.or9p,ni. 



N,B,— Th^observationa are no( corrected tor dii 
range. The principal instrumenta have been 
pared st Greeuwicli, and the readings are all reduced 
accordingly, 

iV«Mun!.— The hammeter ii 11 feet above the sea-lev. 

The greateat range of pressure is '806 inch 1 

mean gaseoiia prouure of dry air is 29-850 inchu's. 

TemptratUTf qf Air.— The mean of all self-regiiter 

maxims and minima is 619 degrees. Tlie adopted 
man ttng/erature of the month from all observations is 
therefore (the mean of ) 510+61-9, or 5145 degress 
Fahrenheit, The adopted mean of the month for the last 
t»o years is 51.45 degrees. 

J/oufur;.— The dew-point is calculated from readii^s of 
Negretti'saiid Zambra's dry and wet bulh tbormome- 
ters. by the use of Olslsher's tibles. 2nd Edn. 

g p.m., 18 488 deglees. The mean elastic force of 
Taponr^ is 31 7 inches. The average proportional 
bnmidity of the air is denoted by 85, perfectly dry 
ur bong taken as 0, and saturated damp air as 100. 
Hoi-n.— More or less tain fell on 12 days during the 
month. The toUl depth being 4-56 inches. Daring 
the same mouth of 1865 and 1856, the total depths 
of rain were respectively 62 and '65 inch. 
The rain is collected at one tooC aboTo the gTanud , 
and meanTed U 9 p.m. 



Clotld.— The 
Theft 



Wl'nrfj,— The 
N W 
WNW 
West 



extent of cloud is expresaed by tin taiOt.tf 

B sky covered by it. 

of clonds are denoted as follows, tia urn- 

days on which each kind occurred during 

>nth being added in igarm- 

ilns 16 Ci-Cu. Cirro-cumulus. ... 

1 1 Ci.-St. Cirro-stratus S 

3 2 Ca -St. Cnmnlo-atiatns ... 4 

Ni Nimbus,...6. 
winds may be tb 



1 day 
i 



onid 



if 1855 and 1856, 



B8 B 
SB 



ENE 
NNK 
North 



th»a^ 

lith tho« of the •am* mcoth 
a the table, page 45. 

W. 8. JBT0S3. 

SydDey, N.3.W. 



JIAGAZLVE OF SCIBNOK AND ABT. 



97 



THE EXPLORATION OF THE 
INTERIOR. 

It is a strange sensation ta an European, 

and still more to an Englishman, to land 
on a continent, a large portion of which ia 
utterly unexplored. Descended from a 
race which has penetrated the eternal ice 
of the Arctic and Antarctic yones, and has 
not been baffled by the torrid deserts of 
Africa and of Asia, or the pestiferous forests 
of centra! America, our fellow countrymen 
are apt to wonder that any comer of this 
hi^e island, which is accessible by sea on 
all sides, should have hitherto refused to 
yield its secrets to the adventurous ex- 
plorer. We have not wanted courageous, 
persevering, and scientific men, who have 
devoted themselves to the task. The 
names of Leichardt, Sturt, Eyre, Mitchell, 
Cunningham, Kennedy, and Gregory, offer 
a sufficient guarantee that nothing that in- 
dividual effort could accomplish, even 
when aided by zealous and devoted assist- 
ants, has been left undone. Nevertheless, 
the same energy that despatched expedi- 
tion upon expediiion to solve the mystery 
of the north-west passage, will, we are con- 
vinced, not rest satisfied until the interior 
of this vast terrilory has been thoroughly 
investigated. 

If we were lo limit our view to this 
colony, the importance of such an enquiry 
would press with great force at the present 
time upon the inhabitants of New South 
Wales. We are threatened with the speedy 
removal of all that fine portion of our ter- 
ritory to the north of the 30th degree of 
latitude, which is lo he formed into a sepa- 
rate dependency. It is in this direction 
chiefly that the recent extension of our 
squattages has taken place. Miles of 
country to the North of Port Curtis are 
al^ady taken up, all of wjiich will go to 
swell the district of Moreton Bay. The 
"^strict to the other side of the Blue Moun- 
tain is all that remains to us. Like 
the American emigrants, our sheep far- 
mers and enterprising settlers will ere long 
be obliged to push out into the " far west." 
It is precisely of this portion of the conti- 
nent that we are ignorant, and the tjuestion 
arises, what means would be moat likely to 
be successful in the exploration of it ? 

We are not among those who believe that 
the interior is an arid stony desert. Al- 
though the great discovery which Mr 
Goyder fancied he had made in South 
No. 5. 



Australia, of a vast fresh water take, has 
recently been proved by Captain Freeling 
lo he only the surface water after a period 
of heavy rains, we strongly incline to the 
belief that a large internal lake will be 
discovered. On no other hypothesis can 
we account for the scanty river drainage of 
such a vast continent. It is certain that 
in his journey Mr. Goyder crossed many 
considerable creeks miming strongly north- 
ward. We have also just received intel- 
ligence from the same colony of the disco- 
very, by Mr. Stephen Hack, of a richly 
grassed district, with abundant water, to 
the east of the great Australian Bight. In 
his passage from Streaky Bay to Port Au- 
gusta, he crossed over this district, which 
will soon be covered with flocks and herds, 
for the squatters in South Australia are 
quite ready to occupy good land, however 
far advanced it may be in the unsettled 
districts. On the report of Mr. Goyder's 
discoveries, 4,300,000 acres were immedi- 
ately applied for, and would doubtless 
have been taken up, had not the fallacy of 
his fresh water lake been discovered. In 
the same colony, it has now been disco- 
vered that a sea mouth, practicable to 
steamers of light draft, exists at the enu- 
bouchure of the river Murray. This must 
have a powerful effect in opening up the 
country lining the banks of that noble 
stream. Within the last few weeks, the 
Mumimhidgee has been navigated by a 
small steamer, and efforts are making to 
clear the stream of the fallen timber, that 
renders this mode of navigation so tedious. 

To the northward, the mysterious Inte- 
rior proves capable of access by means of 
tiie river Fitzroy, which is stated during 
this year to have been navigable to a dis- 
tance of 300 miles from the coast. Here 
is an opportunity for Captain Caddell to 
add to his well-earned laurels, and to place 
his nam^ high on the roll of Australian 
discoverers. 

The scanty results that have been ob- 
tained by the various land expeditions, 
and the hardships and dangers hy which 
they have been accompanied, would almost 
induv us to rely for the future on river 
explorations. But this, of course, would 
leave vast tracts untouched. Efforts must 
be made to organise some plan of opera- 
tion that shall obviate the difficulties that 
have been experienced. The following 
has been suggested, and appears to us ex- 
tremely feasible. Let four or five small 



parties, fully equipped, and well provisi- 
oned, start from llie western boimdnrv of 
civilization, and proceed due west, at in- 
tervala of one week, each following in the 
Footsteps of the other. The first would 
go straight forward, would each night 
mark their resting place, and would hide 
there, in some previously concerted con- . 
cealment, a bottle containing a record of 
their course, and the state of the party, pro- 
visions, Sec, and sneh observations as to 
water, as would be useful to their succes- 
sors. The next party, although following 
the same direct route, should direct 
their particular attention to the country 
lying to the northward of it. They also 
should leave information to their 
sors, who in turn would explore the coimtry 
to the southward. These would be ready, 
in case of emergency, either to assist the 
foregoing parties, or to fall back, as they 
might he advised by the records, leaving 
depots of provisions for the pioneers should 
they wish to retreat. By this plan, the 
foremost men would always know that they 
were within seven days at least of help, 
and tlie rear would widen and expand the 
information which they had obtained. Of 
course this would he a very expensive 
method of exploring, but when hi 
is in danger, expense should he the last 
tiling considered. 

We have observed in the local journals, 
and in a prospectus printed in London, a 
proposal for exploring the interior by 
means of balloons, under tiie direction of 
Mr. Charles Green and a Mr. J. J. O. Tay- 
lor, e E. The idea is not a new one to 
us. Some years ago, we made the sug- 
gestion in one of the Sydney journals, and 
had the honour of explaining our plans in 
detail to Sir Thomas Mitchell, than whom 
no one was more competent to express an 
opinion on their feasibility. We are proud 
to say that this distinguished traveller and 
highly ingenious man considered them 
practicable, and informed us that, when in 
London some years before, he himself had 
consulted Mr. Green, the feronaut, on the 
subject. At some early day we shall re- 
cur to this method of exploration. , We 
may, however, seize the opportunity of 
the mention of the late Sir Thomas Mit- 
chell's name in connection with the explo- 
ration of this country, to urge the cJaims 
of his widow, who, w« heat, is very inade- 
quately provided for, to a pension. No- 
thing would tend more effectually to foster 



the spirit of enterprise, in the breasts of 
brave men, than the knowledge that, e 
if their lives were sacrificed, a grateful 
country would protect and comfort those 
dependent upon them. 



THE EXHIBITION OF THE 
AUSTRALIAN HORTICULTURAL 
AND AGRICULTIIEAL SOCIETY. 

Or* Thursday. October 1st, the Spring 
Exhibition of this Society was displayed 
in the Botanic Gardens. The weather w 
beautiful, the gardens were in per&et 
I order, there was an unusual attraction in 
I ilie presence of the fine band of the 77tti 
Regiment, that had just arrived from 
England and the Crimea, and in coi 
quence there was a very large and brilliant 
assemblage of visitors. We regret to have 
to express an opinion that it was in conse- 
'quence of these extraneous attractionB 
that the attendance was numerous, 
the exhibition was pecuniarily successful. 
Truth, however, compels us to say, that 
both in the number of specimens cj ' ' 
bited, and in their variety, these was great 
cause for disappointment. 

In our last number will he found an ad- 
vertisement, extending over three pages, 
enumerating the various subjects forwhicl 
prizes (liberal prizes, too) were offered. 
A glance at the list of the prizes award- 
ed, which we print in another page, will 
shew how little competition was excited. 
There was no specimen of cereal produce, 
and none of those valuable products of the 
farm, such as butter, cheese, bacon, ham, 
&c., for which the colony is so largely de- 
pendent on the mother country. 

In the department of agricultural im- 
plements, for which, with wise liberality, 
Mr. Mort has offered a prize of a valuable 
lilver cup, the only specimens shewn were 
manufactured by Messrs. Chapman, Brb- 
tbers, ,^118, George -street. They consisted 
^-horse plough for light soils, a 
scarifier and hoe, and a double-breasted 
plough. These implements shewed Ihat 
colonial workmanship might compare fe- 
vourably with that of England, but there 
was not sufficient novelty in the construc- 
tion to entitle them to- a prize. We very 
much regretted that this department had 
not attracted more attention. 

There was no specimen of sngai ex- 
tracted from the Sorghvm Sacckaratum. 
This would have been an interesting «xlii- 



i 



w 

r bit. 1 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AUT. 



Q'J 



v&re that it has been iiianu- 
faetured in the colony. We hope to see 
some specimenH on another occasion. 

But we will not enlarge on the iingrate- 
fiil topic of our short comings, we would 
rather endeavour to trace the causes of the 
evident apathy that eicists, and to suggest 
a stimulant. Just at tliis moment, when 
we are elated with the victory gained by 
our fellow colonists on the turi' of Victoria, 
the thought suggests itself, whether it would 
be possible or advantageous to invite two 
or three competent agriculturists or flori- 
culturists from the sister colony to assist 
as judges at our periodical exhibitions. 
Not that we would throw the slightest 
doubt on the decisions of u wn d 

judges, but we have som op ha he 
desire to astonish our n ghbour and o 
maintain the honour of N w Sou h Wa es, 
would urge all possible eshib s o x t 
themselves to elevate the own n 

the eyes of the stranger P ha h n 
we should see an exhibition worthy of New 
South Wales. 



PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF NEW 
SOUTH WALES. 

At the meeting of the Philosophical So- 
ciety of New South Wales, held Wednes- 
day, 16th September, the following paper 
was read by FftA^K Haeb, Eso. 



in detul I. prucen viiitb I thii 

in thii coaatry with tbe lavoaritdn 

the Wued Paper procssB. 

Tlia Barlieit ngtide wliich seemi .. .._ 
of the agency of ligLt on chyoiiials was 1 
mittn, who abaeryed that liorn silver blai^ki 

auwloliglit. ScliBBlo.in 1777. ootited 

the coloured raya of light prodnred a greater changa 
Ibaa otben on the lalta of silver. Wed^Hood, wbo 
dill lo mach to improve the English potteries, about the 
yau ISOa. tried to me lalti of lilver far copying solid 

not being able to rcinovo the UDchaaged BiLvcr lalt, the 
pictures required Co be kapC in the dark, and never 






limiUr eiperimenta, hut vtiCboat, I bcligve. mating , 
impmremuita. Tbe art at this period made no fun 
progreu for tveWa yean, in conseqai^nce of the d 
^Ct before mantioned. In the year 1814, M. Nit| 
of dhalooa, directed his attention to tbe productioi 
pictwrea by light i aft«r Ion veara labour, aoC accom 
Died by very great iouKu, it.Ni^prfimetM Daguc 

invewigatians, U. Ni^pce'i pictures nere taken 
glav, or silvered eopper-platoi ; tbe Bubetajieo used 
uphattum, and although a luSciant amonut of se 

reflected in t, camera, atill a proceaii reqairiog an ei 
aura of fram aii to eigiiC boiin Uli aiucU to be deair 



the quickest picture M N if pee succeeded in taking was 
in about three hours, M.Iftwaarre, at this paiiod. con- 
tiaued his inveadgations by ninuelf, and a few years 
gave to the world that beautitiil proctiss which has since 
been called by his name, tbe Dg^erreotype i the priv- 
inple dC wbict is; that a latent picture impresaed on a 

EfaCu having a aartace of iodide of ulver, can be deve- 
jped by the vapoor of meitury. 
Almost aimultajieons with this discovery, was that of 
the (Jalutyiie, idnco colled after the discoverer, the Tal- 
boCype, which was discavered in the year 1839 by Mr. 
H. Foi Talbot. This process was, from the flrst, a mora 
rapid one than tbe Da^errentype, and passessed the 
great advantage of being able to produce many copies 
from one ori|fina1. Sir John Heracbel mada nuhlir, 
prior to Mr.TalboCs annauncement. several curioui 
photographic experiments { paper was always the me- 
dium used to receive iha chrmicali. The piincipal of 
tbe prortssoa discovered at this timely Herschel, Hunt, 
and othan, are the Bicbromiite of Potaab, the Cyano- 
tvpe. the ChrysDtype, the Ferro-tartrato of silver, tba 
Proto-nitrate of mercury, and tbe Catalysotypa. Fur- 



laofH 



nngjuir 



of flowers produced very wonderful results i and ha 
proved that all of these juices are mora or less affected 

philosopher the suggealioa uf the HyposDl^hite of soda 
OS a means of removing the nnaflected iodide of silver, 
in any process where thia fnrOJS the sensitizing surface. 

). arriving gradually at int 
lity of surface, nil in lB51,atthe Royal InstitutioD, in 
Albemarle street, Londou, he publicly eihihitad an 
inetantaneons proceas. 

In the year 1 84S. M. Ni^pce de Saint Victor, nephew 
of is. Nilpoe. published tho albumen on glass prooess, 
which possesses the great advantage of being kept sensi- 
tive for days, even weeks, and for fidelity of detail ii, 
perhaps, unequalled - 

About 1849. M. Lo Gray produced n modification of 
the Talbutype on waiod paper i inlSSOMr. Archer in- 
troduced Uie greatest improvement which the art has 
received since the original discovery of Mr. Talbot— X 

that time mode rapid strides, and it is diCBcult to placa 

?'esent year is Photogalvanography, invented by Herr 
retsch, in which the picture is taken by Photography, 
and engraved by eleolr--'- 

account of the procen . 

gelatine, diluted till it farms a jdly. uid gl>uuuiuii(| 
bichromate of potash, nitrate of ailver, and iodida of 
potassiom. ITpon Chia, when dry, is pla^, face down- 
wards, a paper positive, through which the light being 
allowed to fall, loaves upon the gelatine a repreaentatioh 

of the print. It is then soaked — -*' ' -'--'- -■-- 

by tbe light a: 






1 upon by th 
tbe fluid, 1 



water, and w'. 
cumparativDly tinaf- 
;r of tho jellj swells, 
~Mu <i~«g ..uu.o the general surface gives a picture in 
relief, resembling nn ordinary engraving on wood. Of 
this intaglio a cast is now taken in gutta percha, to 
which the electro process in copper being applied, a 
plate or matiix is produced, bearing on it an exact Te- 
petition of the original positive picture. All that now 
_....• . ^. L_ j___ ■ — mpeat the electro process, and 



;i;hylhe' 



in the i 
ateriate, and si 



wU^ nature furnishes tho materials, and scienis the 
artift, tbe inferior workman being only needed to roll 
it through the pres»." 

rWn Mav number of the PhotogTBphU Jmimal cen- 
of tbe application of Photography 
easorv in the cure of lonatiia. It 



D Lunacy, as an ar 



is fbun 


by 


Mr. Brush 


eld, Supen 


ntendent of 


t1» 






atic Asylom 






are 














of the wards. 




ions Chat ia 





M 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



vrorat teuiaJe wud, a portnit hun^ 
tnonlha had nevsT been tunulied by lu 
1 think (his ^11 b« mniddered u a v 






print dosignerB to aid them ia producing nev pittenu 

lo GtBenvtich Observatory aU the magTietie instru- 
manta. including the veniral, horiinntal, and declinadoc 
magiieU, and the barumater and wet and dry balb 

dejree of accnracv not to be Burpaased, on paper ren- 
dered sensitive to artifldal light, vhich is afterwardB 
developed i and pondves. being taken from the«e, aro 
distributed to the ohaervaloriflB in different parts of the 

Another very interesting anplication ot the art is, as 
an assistant to the law, both criminally and civilly, 
i-riminallv, in tailing the portraits of thievos and other 
malfictors, which an eicnanged between the various 
jails, BO that a man whose identity there wonid other- 
^_. ...... L :j__li_ j;u.^n|tj- in eafablisbing, 

; civilly, in taking 

.,.^5.. u 

ilhoflhesousesoftbi 

ig thus rapidly brought in view hefora yon the 
I eventa in the history of Photography, T pro- 
show you the practical det^U or the waxed 
paper process, for which I claim the following advan- 
tages. An almost absolute freedom from failure, great 
portability, aod, abnve all, ihe property of keeping the 
eicit«d paper sEosidve for a lengthened period. The 
paper to be nsed should be selected of a fine smooth 
grun ; I preler Canwn's negstive paper to any other, 
aa producing better half toma. I should strongly re- 

and annoyance incidental to waxing and iodizing the 
jiBper. as It is now an article of commerce, and can be 
pfocored of a superior quality to that which ia home 
made (a specimen wa* here shewn) i it will keep good 
when indued tor Heveral years : it must never be 
loached with the fingers, because when developed there 
wonId be visible a very correct but eiceediagly annoy ■ 
ing photograph of every line, almost of every pore of 

The aensiticng bath is made of the following chy- 
micals, in these proportions: — distillei water, 6 oi., 
nitrite ofailver, 210 grains,glBrial acetic acid, 4 drams, 
alcohol, 6 drams. Animal charcoal innat always be 
kept in the bottle. This bath muslinvariably be filtered 
before Diin^; itwill keep any length-of time in the 
darll, (TLia, by which these negatives were prepared, 
had been mired eighteen months. ) For sensitiaog, flat 
dishes of Wedgwood ware, rather larger than the paper 
to ha used, are required — I always use three. Now, it 
is essential that these be wualied with the ereatest care i 
I use first hot, then cold, and lastly distilled water; 
the cloths must be linen, never washed with soap, and 
Kbonia one of them fall on the floor, reject it. t always 
Bniah off with a small piora of cotton wool ; never aU 
■ w tha fingers to touch the inside of the bath. j|^i 



pnnci 



iBledioi 



from I' 






It of a 



iviiced. 





reason of the 


non-Buccess 


















ind the paper, held 


stween whale 




is floated 






ig it down. 




at the middle, to ■ 






W»eau 


<t is floated, take i 


up, turn It 


er, and lay 



t down oa the other side ; Iheo. by gently affitating tha 
lath. and holding the paper down in the solucioa, tba 
ensiiiiing nroceads equally over the whole abeet. 
lajwr should be tomed every minute, until it aiait 



moved ; the paper can now ho placed in the double 
frame, or preserved in a fresh sheet of bibulous paper ; ' 
none of this paper should bo owd twice. The pawr 
prenared after this formula, will nmiiniM>enaitirm«, 
if tile weather is not loo warm, for three weeks ; it ii 
pripserved much better if air is excluded — [a run ma.), 
for this purpose was iiere exhibited a ' 
The time of exposure varie 

that (he view of the Royal 

3j inch leuse. and a one incti siop, u 

hour, between U ami IS o'clock, on 

These of the Univeraity, with a j ini. ,., 

hour— the exact time can only be arrived at by eipe- 
nenca ; of eon™ the amount of yellow lirf.t in S» 
atmosphere vanes the time of exposure. I have (inuid 
that 1 can work in this country in the winter mach 
qaicker, than at a corresponding period of the year ia 
England. I think the intense heat of tha sammec 



ed and explained). 

h, that 1 can hardly 
...fncTi^r, I may mentaon 
Jcbange was (akan witfc a 

.■lock! on the 24th of M«" 



It be favourable 






requii-e any explan 






ihe object ol the slide is to enable a person taeury 
out any number of sheets ofsenBttive paper, and chinn 
them conveniently in tho open light, llie alide is 
fitted up with two rollers, a Oi and the senriliye aheata, 
b h, are gummed ti^ether, making one long band, the 
ends of which are gumuiHl togollier to pieces of paper 
always hept on the rollers ; the lauBitlve sheeU He 
wonnd off the letl or reserve roller on the right or tx- 
posed roller, until all are e.posed. Tlie rotlen an 
supported on springs a a, to render their motion eqaal ,- 
they are turned by the milled heads m m, and clamped 
when each fresh sheet is brought into position by the 
nuls as a« ! c is a board which is preased rocwaid 
by springs C c,, so as to hold the slieet tobeexpeaed. 
and keep it smooth against the sheet of glass d i when 
the sheet has been exposed, the board is drawn back 
from tliB glass in order to release tlie elposed sheet, antl 
allow it to be rolled on the exposed roller ; tho board 
is kept back whilst this is done, by turning the ssnare 
rod ci half round, so that tho angles of the sqnare will 
not pass hack thniugh tlie square openiag nntii acuB 
turned opposite to it ; a e are doots hy opening wbid 
the operator can see through the yellow glaai y y, to 



The I 



.^ ,.._., .. . „^.. ..v B,..u^m uigeuiei 

iih any particular rare, the pressui'e board insnTs 
leir being kept flat and even whilst heinv eiposedi 
II that is necessary is, that the nemon joining them 
lould have clean hands and lay tlie shceta t^ coa- 
?eled on clean paper. It takes about an hour to 9x 
3 sheets on the rollers ; it takes less than a minute la 
lange each sheet. I have taken a great many viewl 
ith this apparatus and can strongly rerommend it. 

Supposing the sensitive paper to have been eiposeil, 
le next process is to dovelopa the latent picture. Oa 

-■- ^er from tha double frame, |>eitBps» 






MAGAZINE OJ? SCIENOK AND ARt. 



be neglected the bath will «> 
■oiatiiiii, place tliB aijrased pi 

picture begii 



ire begins to devalope gradnallj- ; after 
.WD or three baora,tlie gallic acid has Be 



jngorai 



power hy tbo addician of the fallowing mixture i—pour 
offalmoat all the gnllic acid iato a measure, and far 
ever/ anuEe add fiTa or ai drapB of the lenaitiiiDg 

and watch carefnll; 



it from tjiue to timQ for examination, until the hisb 

lights are quite black, when the developing muit De 

«l.an.-- -■ ■-■'-• ----- 

bjrpoaoTphit 



stopjved, and tbj 
from Che paper all 



" ' Tected iodide of lilvei 

ighu : a bath of S on. 

r soda to 20 ats. of distilled water is 

P , „ dish kejA for this especial ose. one of 

gatta pcrcha answers eveiy purpose i let the acgative 
remain in lUs uocil all the yellovi iodide of silver ia 
extracted, and the lights are white, becanse the least 
trace of yelluw will malerially retard the nriatini. 
Iftbenejaliresbaald not he aufflciently dei 



nail q. 






which muit be changed at least 
■hould be allowed to soak at lea> 
cifectoall: 



a to cifectoally remova every trace of the hyi«- 
inlphite of aoda, which would otlierwise gradually 
dentroy it. After it is snHirieQlly washed, it can lie 
"-' ■' '■ 'ightl^ 






in of the 



It the 






Sodirt 



_ ._.... if occMions succeeded in taking 
a pirtnres in two days, having had to chooee the 
well, and to prove the wnsibilicy of tbe paper, 
seen portruts takea with waied paiwt m 30 
, in diffused light, with a compound lense ; 
» vean back aome beautiful {iholograplis of the 
wouda and sheila, takon by this 
id at the London PhotoifraphLC 



especial attentioc 



ir Phot. 



and3ca}io pbutoEraphy, which enables na to lake 
om iMnes we have enjoyed, not a drawing, a 
mere pencil sketch, bat the st^eae iDelf. rarrecb, even to 
a fanlt. and with a fidelity of det^l perfectly un- 
approachable hy hand. 

Tacomplete this paper, I have now only to add a few 
details on my method tf priutiiu:, whicli, though they 
may not presont anything new, still aa I have invariably 



1 the Society, I always use 



bottle, because the organic 
eradually darkens and thicken! 
Srforo using and carefully float 
face, takir.g care that tbe back 



loiaateA. then it is r^sed by the foi , 
dry^ usnally attachasmall piece of 
to drain off tbe superHuous i 
tbia miutive paper may be 

direct aftion of the lun's i. 
pap«r hecomot alnest black, 



□attor of the paper 
the Bolotion. Filter 
Lhe paper on the lur. 
is not Couched by the 






and opened al 
ailv, the eincl 



le back Co seo what progress hi 



intly printed it is placed in a bath of bypmnlphite of 
la of Soil hypo, to 16 distilled water, to this i' -' 



eutra! chloride of i;ald diss 



the paper must be qail« 
lijjhte. so that even if tl 



vcced I the picture quickly 
„., ,™ , and passoa through various 

a meziotint engraving; thrao shades are, however, 
aflectod by the amount of albumen on the paper. The 
ihotograph ahoulr' ■■- " ' *- - ■' * - 



photog; 



; and longer, if the d 



large vessel of water, which must frequently ha 
dianged, if any ceDtrivance can be adopted to wash tha 
proof in runningwaterit is far preferable, whan sutBci- 
ently washed, the picture can be removed, dried, and 

Waied paper negatives do not print an fast as thnsv 
on collodion, stilt by this process I have prinlod eight 

that many methods nf printing are preferred to this, but 
I never found any I have done to fado when proper at- 
tention has been paid to the washing ( sooie of tha 

four years, and exposed to very nnfavourable circum'- 

reckoned, lying abont anframed in a room where gas 
iaUnrnt. In conclosion, I heg to state, that if any mem- 
ber of Che Bociety nqnires farther information on th« 
- ibiect, 1 shall at all times be glad to communicata 
hat 1 know. 
[All the apparatus and materials menCionod in this 



The following paper was read on Wkd- 
NESciY, AuousT IStli, 1856. 



Tbe pi 



antioa is being 



iron tor them and other eitcnsive public works are 
rapidly increasing, and considering that for Uii» im- 
portant metai, one which not only aiceeda any other in 
usefulnos. but all the other put togetlier, wa ara dn- 
oendinEF noon Europe with the necessary delay of a long 
ipply— is a favoorable opportun- ' 



.bject for the exerci 



callii 



wfcth 

and I think there is no 
! our pbjsical and inlel- 
ig the Ada beKowed by 
o the daily uses of tbu 



reacOiterofalt 

It New South Wales is not wanting in the reqni- 
iw materials for the production of a fine clais of 
malleable iron baa already been shown by the beaotiful 
neus which wore forwarded to the late Paris Bi- 
on, and which elicited vary high enconinms from 
ientific gentlemen forming the jury upon that de- 
tent. But if more weighty arguments were rvi- 
3, 1 would call your attsnUoti to tha massive bar* 
„ ^.jught iron, the produce also of the colony, whidi 
arenjefore vuu this evening. 

AlthougJi I muiCconiine myself in this paper to a 
ecription of but one mannfaclory of iron as yet in tha 
lony. namely, (be PiD. Eoy works at Mittagong, at 






enor, railways advanoe, 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



coal wilt be tboTid capable of praAtable developmeDt, 
and we maj look forward to the tiniB wlien eomnetitora 
will apiing up io districta hitherto scarcely Kiiavn. 
Already 1 obeerre that a very impoTtant diiunTery has 
heenniiide by Mr. Hethora, tho lurvpyor to (he Ao>- 
' ' ' Ln A^caltaral Compajiy, ■ » - ■ '-^ - 



'e field of Ir 






Is will ft 



joud. Port Staphi 

tthe lint of a Berien of jiapen 

which may be read before ' " 



I aow proceed to describe the progress made by the 
Kt! IW Iron and Coal Companv in IhU eolonv to- 
warda the workinf the rich beda of iron ore niion 'their 



The ^O, itov iron mine ii lituated at Mittagong, in 
Qie COORty of Camden, seventy-Hve miles from Sydney, 
on the Qonlhura or Great Southern ■" "' ""■ "" *"""" 
tion of 2053 feet above the gea, fiei 
at Wollongong, twenty -one mil™. 

The mine, aa viuble to the eye, 
abont Biiteen acres, and lies in a compact maaa. on a 
isnllo inclination at the bead of a valley Bnrronnded 
by a ancceflsion of undulating lands, flanked by lofty 
^ precipitDDs langn. 

The principal adTaat9f« whith Mittagon; possesHn 

a supply of coal of good (jnalitv, and the bii^h road aa 
veil at the intended line of railtav to Goulburo nass- 
lav through the propertv, and which when completed 
will place it Hi thin ajoarncy of two honra from the 
me4npotia. 

The ore is of pemliar richness and belonm to that 
claaa known an hydrated perojiide of iron, which ia so 
protiiaely distributed over the United States. Accord- 
ing to the assay made by Mr. Hodgson, it coataina 57 
per cent, of metal and one per cent, of manganeae, the 
preaeace of which 1 ahonld eUle will lend to cloie the 
grain ofthe metal and improve iUqBality for both its 

masa extending to a comiderable depth, can be cheaply 
raised, and ia practically eihanstless. Tlie apecimena 
before yon th;s evening have been taken iadiscrimi- 
nately from the aurface of the mine. 

Little is as yat known of the conditions which pro- 
doce the distinctive qualities otirnnmannfaclnredfrom 

investigatioa on this subject. Bnt from all which I 
have seen and examined of the produce of tills mine, it 
appears to nie highly suitable for the manufacture of 
rail and bar iron in general, being lough and fibrous 
when cold, and of that class generally known as " red 

It may be as well here to mention that mailable 
ilDn ia divided into two distinct classes, Red-short and 
told-ehorti the former being generally jirDduced from 
rich ores, and the latter from the poorer, or leaner ores. 
The pig iron made ffom the rich otoa (nnder the cold 



ilitv for 



irticle. Where tiurbn* I 
LV indicate an articleiir 
and boiler plate, ihon^ 

(or the redortioD of lbs 



lesi 






lonah and fibrous when cold, 
dificnlt to he worked hv the ac 
:heati this want of ductility hai 



"red sbi , „ . 

fluidity, and is thence well adapted for amall castings i 
botw^enit is mannfactured into malleable ironM^l- 
though in the hands of the smith it is ductile and eaSly 
worked, even at a dark red heat, it becomes when cold 
weak and unfitted to support sudden shock*, or con- 
tinued strains, and ia hence called " cold short." Good 
iron should appear fresh, somewhat redex in its fibres, 
and silky. A dead colour indicates a weak iron, even 
tliongh it is perfectly white. Dark but very laatrons 
iron IS always superior to that which has a bright color 
and Ibebl* luatre. Cou« flbrei indicate a strong, bat. 



The method hi 
orc4 of the Pit£ Rav mines, has been, Arat, to enuh it 
into small inects, and \i-ith Si per cent, of cllarcoal U is 
placed in n rcTecberatory furnace similar to that era- 
ployed in EuEland for puddling, and the iron before 
you this evening ia the produce of this mode of rnoaa- 
fiLctarB. Tliis plan has bcea adopted (although pro- 
ducing but small quantiUH) owing to the alight cott of 
construction compared to the comparative gr«ie onClay 
reqnlred in the erectiDn of a blast furnace iritfa ita 
necessary apparatua for blowing, ftc. i and ahonld th» 
trials be satiafactory with the piperimental ^raaca 
conittocted (froro a plan I have given) at the Railway 
Station, it mil be fonnd that ei^ht such funucas of 
larger dimensions will be soffiineBt to produce I3w 
qaaotitv of iron nerwaary for the present requiremonts 
of the companv. But whether this ia the beat mode ef 
proceeding 



1 question yet tc 



m he obt^ned within a few yards 



The fuel employed when mannfarturing iron npma 
largo scale is coke. It is obvious, then, that without a 
good supply of foaail fuel the beat iron mine muM be 
valuelesi. The spot wbero the coal is at present beiig 
worked is at a distance of one and a-half miles fmta 
the iron, to which a good road has been 
bntshnnld the result of th " 
expected, coal will then he 

ofthe worka. The i^ualitr of the coal has been thai 
described by the Government eiamioor of coal fields, 
Hr. William Keene, whose opinion from his long ei- 

BirieUGo is entitled to more weight than mine can he. 
estates that— "There is ample evidence of the ex- 
istence of a very regular deposit of true coal ; that it 
to tay, it is not lignite — it is not a deposit of the tei* 
tiary epoch, or more recent than the aandsloDe, it he- 
longs, BA does alt that 1 have seen here, In the secondary 
true coal formatiaD. is overlaid by reiular beds of se- 
condary sandatone, lying in conformable atiata D|iaB it 

true coal schist, which coven a sei^id bod of coal nS 
considerable tlncknesa. The whole of the saDdatDDS 





gentle in 




D to the sontb." 












niai. 


bai^ibra 








he other be 






















if coal forma the 


bedof iba 








ii nation of 1 




B,IJT«!ged 






It equ 








"'■. 











■.".*">■. 



■ caking 
pnrpost 



vertible into good 



itberto been on the hill aide, bat 
ing been distorted by the gsneral 
irhance of the atrata and the obstmctions made by 
protruding dvkes. it has been proved that tbe nltt- 
i success of' these mines (as piiedicted by Mr. 
ne) mnat depend upon ita bein? foond where it is 
being son^t for. namely, in the plains, and oftte 
It attendina the i^eratioi "' " "' ' '" 



ving Bonk 01 



satiltg 



ts received on the tionng npeni 
iug on, stated that ia one plaet 

_.ed and flflv feet they entered 1 

e whidi proved ta be 'three and a-half IM 
thick, upon passing through which they came upoDl 

depth, the tool bnnging 



itnod in the 1 



ringing It up in amall lomna. Tlul 

tsed than the water which had lathetle 

" el of fourteen feat fi«m 

iddecly fell to Gfty-flnr 



MAOAZINK OF SOWNfiB AKD ABT. 






in tli« aonilsUmi rai-iuatioa 



mt not ocfreqnenlly tietween and ibova tint 
appe»n la ba free of lima, whidi ia an ad- 
iDftking it into bricks, Thia I need DDt la? 



peing tl 



. . 1 l"t 
this descijuuon of brick ja required for Che c 
of tfae furnaces, which olharwiu «a1lld I 
biDoj^t. at groat eipenu. from Boglmdi 
reqoir»ments fur this class of brick is becom 
that it is aaaBitiDD if apcoBtabla manufacti 
arried dq indopendent of the i 



1 before 



although the clav hu O' 



>r paasad throujA a. pug-mill, will narar- 
uparisoQ lothr English Newcastlt! brick. 



Inthocewreofthoironbodth'ei _ , , 

aimilar Co thoaa foand'at Cheltenham, Bath, and oChm 
places in Englaod irheie they a ' • ' ■ ' 



af others in the co 
^amajbeofs. 



ony, and the 



e reckoned of ti 
iwledge c 



though . .. 

cnrious, " baChnw much mora so (ot^orvs Miller in 
Bpaaking of the transmigration of the Proteus iron) its 
passage and subscqueaC accamnlatioiu, as in bog iron 

"" I'sleei aiH of^ie woodman would 



fint ei 
shoDld ] 

achilj-l 



^ttre 



*dpaH 



solid B 






! if, after 



, lary tock 
iffnsed as a red pign 
cuogloinerata — than as a browQ ondi 
.ring — then as yellowish ochta in a 
one — then as a componeat part iu 
s of a thick forest of arboraceous ph 
again, as an iron carbonate, slowly accui 



iating at the boltnni oFa m 
ore, underlaying a seam of 



i of the c 

ids and nodul™ of br 



gratioiu trliich hate paesed, wd the changes which are 
yet to come!" 

The quajititj of water employed in inm works ii 
very considerable for cooling coke, and the rollers, Ac, 
BO that it wss with great aadsfaction that I fonnd the 
■tfearn ranniog through the company's property was 
arulable for at least lea months in the year, but by 

which am be retained a sufficient supply to mset tlie 
wanta of the driest season. 

Provision has been made to carry on the mechanical 
operations employed in preparing iron; already a 
twelve-horse power engine and boiler has been erected, 
which, by means of gearing is made te work the lilts, 
aqueoter, and ala/ge bammerof five Ions weight, A 



table) 



na would have been pr 
rhich have lately arnvi 
England, and which consist of a set of' rougbji: 
and a aet for railway bats. 



from Bn^a 

The class of rail the 
is that known as the " doublo-faced." or H rail, the 
depth being five inches and parallel tLroughout — it is 
two and a-balf inches in widtii at top and bottom, and 
the thicknegs of the middle vertical rib scvsn-Cenihs of 
an inch ; it weighs leventy-Bve pounds to tha yard. It 
will be necessary to orect re-heating fnmaces in eoD- 
nection with these rolls : they will require about tea 
nen to work tliem — viz., the teller, drawer, and two to 
lift and present the pieuos to the grooves, and two upon 
the opposite aide to receivo thom. besides one or two 
labonren U stack, &c„ &c. 

Other hands will be raqnired to straighten, and a 
lawing machine to cut ihem into •qnal leviths. 



asc 



irmad by orde'r of the I 
t Wool. 






aparaClve strength of iron 
Kngland andfhasepraducpdin varioua 
aELsoi Eue world- At the trial made it was found that 
be American iron would beara pressure of from tbirty- 
ve thousand to forty-five thousand pounds, while the 
eat iron they had been able to obtain from other places 
'ould not bear more than a pressure of twenty-saven 
lousand five hundred pounds, and averaged only 
ffenty-two thousand ponnds, 

A rompanv called Chs "Arcadian Iron Company," 
1 Nova Bcotia, has offered to contract with Che Govem- 
lent to supply iron that will stand the pressure of 
liny-siithoosand nouada- 

1 mention this to show that there is a tnafkel open 



re behoves the Qoven 






< of the . 



, ™ar^7y 
that by 



untry SI 



it mach desired object "tlia 
." And I believe tha man 
ly bai through the rollen in 
? infinitely mora towards «d- 
lan all the speeches of poU- 



openiog up of the country 
who draws the first railwi 
this colony will have dooi 
canning railways hare, tl 
ticians put together. 

I would observe, in conclusion, that from tlie magni- 
tude and hi^ily important reanlti sought to be achisTBd 
by tha FitE Roy Iron Company, the undertaking mmt 
hgs regarded w"'" ' ' ' ^ ' '' --'-■, '- 



nail scale, o 



I, and the 



uable eiporl and p 



^rcise of energy and 
ibt, if property con- 
re dried up this nill 



Since writing tha above, the following description of 
lie iron mine discovered at Port Stophens has appeared 
u tbo Sydnes Morning NercUd, which may appropri- 
tely be introduced into this paper. It states that — 

" The stratum runs in a direction norlh-wwt and 
Duch-eaat, aud crops ont iu several plao 



doyed o 



days laid 



-It is 



uated a 



. of Strood. 01 



. „-. -- -.- id Williai 

within four miles of the spot ore immense beds of fine 
limestone. About ten inil™ norA-eaat of tha iron de- 
posit, a rich stratum of coal crops ont of the ground, 
which is supposed to be the thickest seam of coal 
hitherto discovered in the world, and this coal bed it 
has been proved runs in a direction northerly for (!6) 
twenty -five miles, cropping out again near O-louccster, 

"The valne of these mineral deptsits so eontignons 
to water carriage, communicating with the harbour of 
Port Stephens, needs no comment. 

" The harbour is second only to Port Jackson, and 
vessels of a thousand tons con enter safely, and run np 
ten miles, where there is water and nwm enough for 
the entire British navy." 

"" ' " - '- -*-- ihief collection of iron ores in 
1, presented by Mr. B. Stutdi- 
rt of the relative degrees o f richness 
is as yet in " '- -'"- — • - 



ilian Mus 



,ogres,t 



it Cooi 



; iron, eihibiliog polarity in 
ire ime loadstone, from Mr. 

■''Chnmatooflroi 
Blark Oiide, froi 



loely'a pad- 



' iron, fnm tlie Mai- 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



inlrra. Miciceoul ipMnlKr iroo, nnmty of Wei lington. 

Plnim. LWi[)aj:t brown hiruiaiito. from t'liurch aad 
SchinJ Bulates, ani trum Ili« coal meuure landttone, 
of thi'Bmnn Biver. licnifarin oiiile of iron in con- 
CTMianuy miwa in Hodstane. near Marnmibidirnva. 
linKmitfl. from Coombing. Nodalm or pehhIe't'nrrDnl 
rod oiiJeofiron. Tonnd on ihe mrface orthsgnnnd in 
leir Macqaorie River. 

or titiuiiD iron, from Ihe roonty of 

I, with eniEiy (corrundum) from gold 



S. ''Bog in 



6. Ilm 



IgeoeS^MTB 



., £I11G,042 

. 333,718 

S3.n7 



Ditto for waigliinj.,. 



Trb discuaaion that has recently arisen a: 
to the purity of the water supplied to Syd- 
ney, Beeras to render this an appropriate 
time to re-print the important paper on thi 
subject which was read hy Professor Smith, 
of the Univeraitv, on Wednesday, August 
13, 1856. 



I must [1 
qnantity of 



metallic U 



le dep« of lead. I mean Itad at lint n 
1-lOOth of a, grain per gallon, or one part of Ik 
TAOa.DOD parti of water ; and I have luiojiled th'a q 
tity DE on« degree, chiefly beranae it is ihe Biiif 
proportion of lead that ean he readily estimated ii 



ihotitiM on tills snhject, and 
f eiperimenb! aivMlf for iti 






1 >pring», 



of opimoiB bot of uperimnits. 

scarcely a Hngle &^ ^I'ell estabi 
tnittsd. One ii rarious to fcoog 
crepinrrei. Mt owd imprenio 

hate been too murb coqAmd i/t aranciai boihuoih, 
which never properly rejirwentthB product* rf natun; 
and that Dtnervatiom on natoral milenare neliherniF 
Reientiy namerotu nor accnrsto. Another obTioui 
sourto of disagreement ia, that commertial lead iiiDMiB 
quite pnte, and iu relation to water ii affectod liy lb* 
naldre and propor^oo of the loipnritiel. 

The Ibliowing- polntt may be noted iia healing opoa 

it» aolBtion. ft is pretty _feoenilly admittod (and toy 

the rhief aseol-i io the enrnwion of lead by water ia 
free carbonfc acid, Thie gas may be derived' frniD gar- 
logical sources, or it may be abaorbad from ti« uaar- 
pliure. Snonlied wmehnw from the earth, it rautly 

u.4a mm 11% vr Huu surface vateti. The abaorptioBaf 

most fadltty in the case of the pnreat wsten, and Midi 
waters, when rbnnedwilh the gas. arc commonly fbnnl 
to act enerietieailj' tipoo lead. Agitation, however, is 
Dnravourable tn the retention of carbonic acid, and 
hence river watera ate lolerohlj free from it, A dii- 

ir. By the action of 
1 converted Ant into 
t tlie rarbiHuito ia ll- 
I sub^de as a wlut« 
a bv agitation. Ths 
ere^re, be effecM hj 

link [bat the cblaridcs 
lad.-chloride oftal- 
r einmple (a salt freqnently eiisting in water) 
id had distinctly auch an efltct. Intwopir- 
leriments, clear rain water acquired Gved^net 
n 24 honrs. while the same water with chloride 
at the rate of four gniai a 

filtered before the lead was 

estimated. Similar trials with common salt (cbtoridg 

m), went to show that it rather fainderol ilw 

of the lead ; but I would b/ do meani aetept 

perimeats on artificial solnDons ai ileduv* od 

I of ihi* papar. Is 

(dee would JBItiiy 
<ly, that wicfa tk« 

I cannot tell, with- 



1 and carbonic acid, lead ii 






ai dissolved in il 
"i nn 10 
eraTleing 



ok it needlcsa, for the pnrposi 
s that have come under my n 



n proportion to iti 
racts. One of the 



on lead. A s)iecimeit 
t Windsw. cootaininf 

matter. I found Jua 
rater of the Lachlsa 



ts" of his pre- " '[^"'ri '*i^ 



r chLorLifH. igsJn, then 



MAUA7JXE OF SCIENCK AM» ART. 



Bwuap, wilh tbaat ui graiu of impuritv per gallon, 
Jiuolued five tines tJie quBnlitjr sf ledd under nniilar 

i-untainiDg 19 gniia of disKlved matter per gslloa, 
took up lii tims the qnuidty of lead; and, not to 
maltjpiv eiamplen, the water from a deep welt at the 
UiuTenity. cantaining per ^llon 34^ eraios of dia- 
ook up neiriy 20 timM tKe quantity of 

: to ihow that a 
n pro]«rtiaii to its purity, they 



leid first indicB 






to its impurity — though this opinK 
advonted. 

The ooadifioi 
hu been thou^t to affect 






is dan^rous In praprtioD to its 

natar ii daii|erous in jiroportiOD to its haidnesa. My 
Bwa obierTations go to prove that a knowledge of (he 
hardaoaa or mfbnsa of a n~4ter mableH ue to predicate 
nothing respecting its aftian upon Uad- 

Orgsnic matter has also been considered influential in 

distinct opinion on this bead, for though some of m; el- 



iratec upon Ihem. Ckimniercial lead, aa I have alresdv 
aUted, ia never qnile pate, and it is reojionable to enp- 
poae that the hind and quatititv of the impuritieiwoDid 
senriblj aSect the facility of it. corrosion by water. 
AecotdiBgly, I Ibund in the caniie of my obseryationa 
that no deKnite and constant relation eonld be traced 
between the length of a pine and the qnantity of lead 
dissolved by water flowing through it. In further bIu- 
cidadon of this point, I had rods cast of coDimercially 
pure lead, of Ibe same lead with G per cent, of nine, and 
of the same with 6 per cent, of tin. I made several 
experiments with these rods, and always with nnitbrm 
reaulta. The pure lead got tamiihed, but thewaterwas 
very little contaminated. The alloy of lead and tin 
remaiued qnite bright ; the water also remained clear, 
but a considerable quantity of lead wan nevertheless 
diuolved in it. The alloy of lead and zinc acquired a 



. and the 



19 qnite 



The white 






load was 

doubt oiide _ 

it minately. In one of theso trials, the rodn were im- 
niened in Sydney water, sach in one pint, and lell for 
4S hoorg. Tile water in which the pure load had rested 

toM with the alloy of lead and tin was also quite clear 
and free from sediment, but contained 20 dwrees of 
lud. The remaining specimen of water, with the alloy 
of lead and zinc was qnile milky, and there waa a 
plentifiil white deposit, but no trace of lead in the wa- 
ter. These facia are very interestinn, and. t holieve. an 
til la explain those 






9 discrepuiiies beCwee 
haveprovioualvalludei 
nrions &ct» is doubtles 



tart with tin, and less acted upon in contact with line. 
than it would be by iuolf. 

3. Wa proiwed now to coniider the Bit*nt to which 
lekd mav eiist in water, without being injurioua to the 
health of those Uiat habitually use the water. It is al 
anceDhTiona. that this qnection is not anniwpcihlB of n 
definite anawer- Age, conxtitntion, quantity and con- 
ation ef tb< Wlt« imbib«d, and other circumstances. 



«ill H modify the results, that in no two cases mi 
.hey he eiactly alike. Yet, it is of importance 
mow how small a quantity of lead h^ in any one i 
lividnal, given rise to badeflecta, for then we ought, 
smmon prndoDCe, to account such a proportion af Iw 
iniate. and avoid the use of the water CDnlsining i 
4dw, the smallest recorded quantity of lead Uiat h 
lotably injured hcaltii, ii one-ninth of a grain p 
-aUon. or one part of lead in 030.000 parts of wate 
La the case where this was established ' 



lerapaili of B 



a letle 



a fonnd to affect tt 



it by Mr. W. 
to the Timet of Hth 
if Bn^land a river, the 

I its banks withoat in- 
health i symptoms of 
flesh and ap^te, and 



not so affected. 1 was requested to analyse the river 

[that ia equal to 1 gnun of metallic lead in about 9 
gallons of water, or II degrees of lead], whidi aroae 
from a mine worked at the distance of 3 or 4 miles from 
Che villaire, on the other aide of a raniro of limutona 
hills." 

It is true that Dr. Christison of Edinburgh quotes 
appravingly a atalenient by Dr. Thomson to the effect 

l-eOO.OOOths, or a millian'th part nf the water, it u 



n Dr. ThoBuoo characterises the opii 

the abovfl qnoCed case, however 
1 l-600.(H»tb of lead renilted ii 
nsiderable community. . 



1 not very probable. 



I lead ii 






be sufferers, in qua 
lOD degrees. In some caaei loe 
: exceeded 15 degrees, but Iho 
obscure. On the otiier hand, I 

he habit of usinf water cootaining 5 degrees of lead 
nthout ajiy obviously injurions ranlts. I tiiiuk we 
nay conclnde that a water containing tO degrees of 
cad (I of lead in 700,000 parts of water) is unsafe, and 
hould be avoided. We might, indeed, be justifled in 
□ndemning the habitual use of water with even 5 
Bgreea of lead. 
3. To what extent is the iraterDfavdney liable to 



>D hy conuct with lead! "fo c 



than 50, on water delivered Uirongh lead sei 
The pipes have varied in length from I: 



probably n 






12 01 



ivn in different caaditions~soi 
g. other, when the pipes have be 
qnantity of lead in the water 1 



the first in the i 
frequent use, 
been fooud to vary rrom noining. 
np to 100 degrees ; but no definite r 
tobliahed between the longlh of the p 
(he quantity of lead dissolved. Aa 
'' SDunt of lead faaa been found to 



lond Stdney. numpod u 
:)i cases the risk of couta 
• lower end of the snction 



containing more than 100 dE„ 

From all these eiuarimiqitB, and from ci 



b 



MAGAZINE OF SCIKNCE AND AST. 



ill hinlth nrevsilH in Sydney, (tot, 
inipreniBtsd wirh l«d. 'WhvnthiKi 
inio Uie tnftUat in minnte quudl 



nliKuretbstUieyuv naner reruireil In tfauir U 


Tlia lead u thni 


.llo>™a t" « 




until the coiutilBl 




«ly .nd Bi 








4. We b.Te on- 


to comider 




of vMir'by l«ul 


^^t thU^H 
tllU., Uld tIjBl 


ted or ren 


!«=:,;;>,!; 


a)l -we hav 


ia to diipeDH wiih 


lead in form 


"^pff.,::? 



natcTula. If iron pipin; of idibIi diameter be lued, 
lie water will probiblvgetinipreijnaled with iron rust, 
und in a mPyeon tbe' pipea will becoiDB choked with 
m ocUery incrualatien i for the aauit qualitiea that 
triable It VB,ieT to corrode lead, seem also to give it the 
iruperty of corroding iron— tbe latttr metal Imn^ at 
lie ume time more eanly acted upon. Glazed iron 
lipinc (of which there i« a spcciineo on tbo tible) 
mnld probablt lie perfectly lafe, but it would be ei- 
itOHive* and might be more troublenome to Sit n;j. Tin 
lid he too eipctuuve \ and it would ba dan- 



pifong 

tion of l^ad. Glau piping 



Pipea of earthenware are loo 
the joortion» when there ia any 
water. At lead i> decidedly 



ter of lead iuprepaiian, aava, "nn ofieL-tual remedy 
haa bean lately inlradnced W a patent invention for 
covering lead pipen^ l>Qth ejEtemally and interaally, 

i of this protected lead pjping, 



bouie lately for i 
and thay kindly 

the load w 



reived. It turned ou 



alloyed, not coated with du; and it was 
more dangerooi with water, iliaii aimple lead pipe. I 
found that water kept in this lead pipe forMhonta 
acquired no tera than 76 degrees of lead. The reason 
of thii may be undentood from {jrevioui oheervatioaB. 
The tirm alluded to had another kind of jiipe remitted 



taeta and smell from 'the guttanercha, I found that 
waieci after resting four days in this pipe, hod dissolved 
three-fourths of a grain of orgaoio mattui per gallon in 
addition to wliat it had previoualy contained ; but if the 
[lipo vrbB in constant use it would probably cease to con- 

If lead piping cannot be entirely dtipensod with, it 
■hould be made as short aa i-ouibls. I believe that 40 
or SO feet of lead pipe will rarely do any harm, pro- 
vided that water that has rested in it for several houix 
la not used lor drinlsing or cooking. 1 may mention 
that my laboratory is >uj>plied by a pipe only SB feet 
long, yet llie water atqnires 3 degrees or i dojfrees of 
lead by tnetBly flowing through it If the water be al- 
lowed to rest in (he pipe Ue impregnation rapidly 
increases, and the flr^t drawn in tbe morning contains 
uiuallr between 60 degrees and "0 degrees of lead. 
This pipe, however, is one of the worst I have met with. 
A much greater length might be asoA with impunih^ if 
the lead could bo got pure, but a small proportion of^tin 
(which is not uolikely la be present), would make it 
dangerous. These ceinarks aijilv of course only to 
Sydney water j in all otlior casts special trials must lie 
made. Lead auctioa pipee for deep wells, and lead 
cisterns, should he avoidnl as mudi as possible, and I 
need hardly say that lead cislorns for Sydney water 



longcootinued contact with lead without being rendunid 
poi«onaas. Slate ciatems may be suhstitut^d fbf Iwd, 
but. with a rnnstODt supply of water. ciUeina miy bt 
dispenied with altog(^Ji«T. 

In cases where lead pipes or cistenis are |treflai|df Ii 
use. and where it woald Ih inconveoient, or toe ufBli- 
aiie. to replace tham with other malerial. it is in mj 
power to prescribe a very simple remedy. ItfeiO- 
nately happens ihat mere flltration throuih Hn4 Wl 
lemove lead entirety from Sydney waur. Thia auHiA 
ofwnarating lead was flnt propoaed by Professor Claik 
of Aberdeen, and il was ancreHfnlW applied by him Is 
several cases of poisoned water in England : bnt 1 had 
an imprenioa that in all tliose cases Uia lead «u not 
diswtved in the water, hut was merelv diffused in tht 
form of insoluble carboDsta. Now I hod tlied ^ ei- 
pertmsDC of passing tome Sidnev water, coutaimng 60 
or 70 degrees of lund, throng'h a double filter of pqiei. 
and I lud found that only a very little lend, (aanie 10 
degrees) was mmoved ; tlie inference being that Iha 
most of the metal was dissolved, not diffuad, u Iht 
water < and I was theiefore not prepared to aiiiect thm 
filtration through sand would be so snccusfbl as it 
turned out to be. To conetmct an extempoTaaeDiu 
sand filter I took a glass jar 41 inchis diameter, tai 
open at both ends. Having closed ong and with amera 
of muslin, I tilled the jar with sand to (hedeptbaf 
ID inches, and af^r washing the sand w-ell with pan 
water, 1 ponred upon it some water contaimt^ 73d*- 
graes of lead— the lead was cDmpleteIr removed, nut 
the slightest trace remaining. 1 ihso kepi the Uur 
going, until 10 gallons of^ injisoned water had ran 
through, but still not a particle of lead pained withtta 
water. By keeping the surface of tha water ftbont li 
inch higher than the sand. I found this small filtar dt- 
livered at the rate of 14 pints per hour. Buch B 
apparatus, on a larger scale, could be ^t ap widuat 
difficulty in any house, aud would free the valar M 
only from lead, bat Ihim otbei accidental cDntimi- 

It is impossible (0 trace out, within the limin oTs 
paper such a^ thia. all the ramifications of the bigiity 
complex snbject under discussion. I trust, howevsr. 

in very few wonk ; many natural waters have tbe pomr 
of corroding and diuolving lead -, th» piasesa ^ 

not rightly usderstoBd. and we cannot avert its proeaa 
without actual trial ; if lead exiata }o water to 
the extent of 1 in 700,000 parts, the water becoma of 
safe for dum^c use t in larger ]icoportiaua the lead i( 
correspondingly more idjniious] the watsr of Sydney 
is prone to take np a danj^'rous qoantity of l«ad wban 
i.A ;. — .„. ..,;.i, :. . — . ,[ |g^ should, th«M- 



A lengthened and very interesting convenutioo on 
the subject of the above paper ensued, allowing the im- 
portance the meeting attached to the rathor startling 
revelations of the learned Frofesaor, and the deep ia- 
pression they had made. 



TEANSACTIONS OP THE AUSTRA- 
LIAN HORTICULTURAL AND 
AURICULTURAL SOCIETY. 

NINTH MONTHLY MEETING. 

Held in the Royal Hotel, ou Tuwdaj 
eyening, October 6tli, 1857. Mr. William 
McDonell in tlie chair. 

Members of Council present — Messrs. 
Win. McDonell, D. Mclnnes, P. L, C. 



Sheplierd, 0. Ottley, and W. Deane, 
Hon. Sec. 

The minutes of the Isst meeting were 
read «nd confirmed. 

Paper read from Mr. R. Meston, of New 
England, on the deterJOTatioB and neces- 
sary lenovalion of colonial pastures. 

Mr. Joseph Dyer thought, from 3 remark 
made in one of Mr. T. W. Shepherd's 
papers read before this society, tliat the 
supply of atock was decreasing in the 
colony. 

Mr, O. Ottley observed that this was 
caused by the stockholders preventing the 
breeding of cattle ; on one or two stations 
he knew, this had been done by ^lying 
the heifers, the proprietors being"etter 
paid by fattening them for market, than by 
incurring the expencea attendant on breed- 
Mr. P. L, C. Shepherd argued, from the 
fact mentioned by Mr, Meston, that boil- 
ing down had ceased, that it paid better 
now to continue breeding. 

Mr. O. Ottley thought that, at no dis- 
tant day, the proprietors of stock would 
form themselves into two classes, the 
grower and fattener. 

Mr J. Dyer mentioned that the price of 
meat was rising throughout the world, and 
that we OQght to turn our attention to the 
improvement of our pastures. 

The Secretary laid upon the table Lei- 
big's Organic Chemistry, and Lindley's 
Elements of Botany, which had been pre- 
sented to the Society by Mr. F. Wilson. 
The Chairman instructed the Secretary to 
write to Mr. Wilson, giving him the thanks 
of the Society for his donation. 

Mr. Dyer asked if any member present 
could give him any information respecting 
the growth of the Spanish cbesnut in this 
colony ; in answer to which, Mr. P. L, C, 
Shepherd said that it did not succeed well 

No ballot being demanded, Mr. Edw, 
Irby became a member. 

The following gentlemen were proposed 
as members—Mr. Ralph T. Gore. Yandiila, 
Drayton, Darling Downs ; Mr. John G. 
Lennon, Colonial Treasury ; Mr. George 
E. Evans, Shepherdton ; Mr. George Tom- 
VinB, Geoi^e-ritreet ; Mr D. Cooper, jun,; 
Mr. A. C. Prevost, 190. Pitt-street; Mr, 
Jamea Harris, Botanv- street, Chippendale ; 
Dr. Aaron ; Mr. B. H Roberts, Rosedale, 
Liverpool; Mr. Macintosh, Lane Cove; 
Mr. Geo. Morris, Botany ; Mr. T. W. At- 



kinson, Circular Qnay ; Mr. Edwd. Hill ; 
Mr. W. Woolls, Parramalta; Dr. Bern- 
castle, Wynvard- square ; Mr. G. Thorn- 
ton, Cumberland-street; Mr. T. Smidmore, 
WooUoomooloo : Mr. Lambert, George- 
street ; Mr. O. F. Kellv, Legislative 
Council; Mr. W. Bradridge', 35, Stanley- 
street ; Mr. F. L, S. Merewether ; Mr, L, 
T. Hughes; Mr. T. Day, Pyrmont; Mr. 
Con sett Stephen. 

The following notice of paper was given 
for next month — 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd— Native Plants, 
and the Pastoral, Agricultural, and Horti- 
cultural Resources of Australia,, No. 7. 

The monthly meeting will be held on 
Tuesday, Nov. 3. 



[hell pHlod* of Inftacy. msluritif mil de 


ay. Some are 


unusli, Dlhin blerm 


lali, and ■ 




^lanucoadHl 






Britain, the Tire 


gnu «ld™ laiU 1 


oger t]»i> 




■,— the uDngit, 


HtSD. Th> bnt Du 


ch tod clo 


erldleot, 


t m three jeari. 


and the white clorer 


iT'folium 




oleu In fliTour- 




It beconi 


■ petma 






The.e mu 




-raovaled But 




leuenU>u> 


l..U,orr 


Dewing pattura 






irr. In 


t. .irgln atate. 




nlly 10 IOD| 


,thit It 


wai blindly ei- 




and Tlgo 






(nch Kitlcc iqueeu 




couia 


et. and looked 


ibup for more, with 


ut expeod 




If penny worth. 


(poulMjtheo«tl.y 


eould be i 


oided.ae 


a ehatlty letnm 


for bcnenu teuderKl 












.',e p«>t. 






a, a icaiel 


y of put 


m i( no whero 


fell. But whm dr. 


p«iod. ot 


droughu 




nredly in Uieii pertodie Umo. U 




mm, the Innu- 


nlUoui weed), which ■( pran 




K> much of oar 




ith Iheic 


lm,y ,^ win .peedily 


.hll.cl u>d WMIC .W 








or (he a.(l<e gruto. it will 


be dime 




dacided opinion on 






Many of their 






o«to«d 


or bearded, or 


«1m lery light. SOI 






uiclatCtaheliei. 








warded by flr<( 


■Tail able oppormoity 






Ury. 






■ wlllo r 


arglo fbr eap.- 


rlmeot 1> open to the 






t. The naIKe 


grauei Riecil a (kir 1 




h all Ind 


gene, are evit- 


ablv eDIII1ed,li>jii>t 


». right, a 






gnuei wbloh have e 




am vorlo 


> diatrlelh and 


ladly regretted, an 






or meadow oat 


graiti (tid tha horde. 






DW barley gian. 


Th.»«>.a.».i«» 




BtiCalo. but it 


,«elyn«-10.h,lh 




Mr, Deu 


h.r ofDerllng 




d In obta, 




li of the abo'e 








other eolnnlita 


wnilmiUle»prut1 




n.plene> 




Oo the .ubJed of Europdao g 




-.Umorewnfi- 


dent fioin eoiulden 


Mo eiperi 


nee. wh 


n. >. a RrllUh 


hmer. he Undtad Ui 




». both 


Ibr utility and 


btBtSt Id hlmaair wul Delihbuu 


'■ 





MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



■Mm pwUfliu, or Tlinirthy (tni 
r. Is Klidlcablj ulaplnl (or 



K imsn, Thtj gre» 



T'*u""p 



far hay of the finnt qailll], 
uUure bj cttn lB|«orli( 
iLighlLy cDuchy. luch ■ 



n the ticlnlly. (Through Iiiaiii i 



mbend wbaliiu o'ci Uk hUli 









gtMtly reiemblM i; 



tapidiy. afford. 



I Ihc *ue 





-MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE .iND ART. io9 ] 


talrwiplMWd, bul t,n,n<«.w.r»if lh."«llbrh™ 


andmutloni meat raqilred beyond their own r«ourCM. 
Howacewelokaepup the .nppi, .' tt, ibcreaaing the 




gruiaeedB, which are to be ipreid atfltilngtlmn oier Ibe 


e^r. iroptcl Autlmli. i, would rto- fne\,. A. ■ .hru 


area of every run. '■ If the man dewrves well of hta , 


»>BiiU.rfqu|,MiiD=uliure,..ilonlo-hlcboMd. no ad 


eounltj, whs makH two ear. of com or two bladet of grui 




to li.tr t I, flukn and hydropiy, ths 1.1 J li p,eu«l tin 




flocko«i.«.- puiitulM altentloB. Wh-it p «.![vn (lu. 
h«lth of rf,«p on ,h= a.oi« .oil .nd w^i^ cllm.u, o 


»"imctr Lu .pring up wnere none 


N«nh Br,uin ( wh,, ,ho «„l„g,„, heMh .nd SO.U.' 


an^ whicrhU^™"^"?!™ ol^^rf! 'Thiy"« 


^"iierpiimi:',"'''"' """ "" '" "-'"''"-'- 


ftom Ifie hulh oa>n«! Iillli of th< Nonh, CulllB >lu 
■l»y, u well .1 ,h»p, ice fir from belBg frot of lubnni- 


ROBERT MESTON. 


TREATISE UN THE BBST MEANS OP ERA- 1 


DIUATING THE NOXIOUS BURS AND 




THISTLES GlidWING IN THE COLONr 


ihi. nrtony . frie„d ohulned for n>. [co pound, of ImK-n, 






■nd riilgM o( rhE Piciing Itoiin. .o^ i ra'iKr' It.'.^ 




on th» .ieva.«l tublt luid of New Englud and DO tbg 
<)l.ld.bg ,.ng., of the ClutnM diilrlcl. 


that not only th. p«>p|e of New Son'ih' Wale. .h°otin« ! 


Wllb diffideon u .nr opinion «pr««d diflbrlnjr from 


papulation of Iha whole of the AuiIralLan colonle. ataould 


Ihn H.T. Mr. Wu(k„, of L.l-.ri™>l riTh.. .iltrf lh« 




thf indigafen K i»l«j„n„,. The indi|areri of Mr. 
W«lkiT muil be widely dinfereal from the .pKlinen for. 


!;^,^u iina^d an" °£kiwe{" t" 'Z^^^^ 






tlini-igo, forcnliliiMd th«p boih eat it greedily u « 
Ditcer, lud teen oelt»r from Iha ■«. fleilde. flndigg u 




gro-iug on hi. own run, Hr. M. bw it .Ibd on the Do-ni 






petly carried out. 


taT?™V/ho«'n^w"hom'he''hu''"nnS^lrt"''MH°,h" 


It now [.n.>ini for me to aay how lh> bur» can be mo.t 


Holher varlely growl ibnul forlj inn» di.Unl. having 


cheaply and eflbctuaiiy got rid of. and with a view to (h[. 








each clan teparately The tool, which would be required. 


■n«! be right .nd nrtlher wrong - * Ri,»t Htiif.clory coo 






onhebur.are known to grow, .hould be applied, aro 


Mr. SlnelBlr found .iiteen dim>rei>t •nrlellei nf gru.et 


.cythei, Dutch and other hoe., and long handled hedging 


on. Kiu.re foot. .tWobura Abbe. In An.tr.li. ft 1.7 


bill.. 


ICKNl ln.Unce of putut. land to Bud .Ix of any kind on an 


1.1. The Balhuril Bur Xanthium Splno.ura. Thl. 


equal area. Hence, large luperflclil elt™i. are ncceuary 


ptsnl grow. ino.t Imurlantly ou the banht of litan uil 


ID feed well ■ gl.<D number of iheep o. cttrlei and 




benci, when .I.tlon. are overrtoeked, thegrane. are ne.er 


uud from Ihe lime Ihli plant make. Ita apptarance above 


■llowed to foim lliefr leedi, end u> in many parti, during 


ground, whieh will mo.1 praUabry ba duJog Ihe monlhi 1 






■ r. " wsn(-or eiperlenee" uy. theta iceil. will nolKrow 


bur be growing in great abuodanee over a Icel eountrr M 


) h.ve IHed ihem, u,t he, in vain. Aye, hut ho. ! 


the icythe .hould be uted. care being uken to cut the plant ■ 


Where! Eniwrionre onee kn.^w ■ young brother who 


belowthe.eedle.l,ora.eiOMto the ground a. poiilbtg. » 




In rough place., among rocki or on the baokt of riven. 


T'~^' """T ° ""°"°"''"°'"P^*S''''"f'N- 


thehedgingbiil wlllbeftiund mo.l cltoclual. Itwiiinot 


■l>ll 1 of eoutK Ihe Hedi died. And nolhlog brtlet eonld 


IK nece..try la go to any further trouble after having euE 


up Ihe plant., unle.ilhey have been allowed to grown 








no ute cutting Iham down without alio collcgling them in 


mainly depend, on good «ed. «,wn In a .ulub" «,ir« a 


heap, and burning them on agooJ toild, hard piece of 


proper lime, and at ■ gi.en depth. Sound praeltcal n- 


ground. iriHimed on lame, uneten gtoond, number, of 




thccedi would eMapethefl»mnaodflourl.h Ihe bllow- 


■nuch paintlaking obttrvailon. Th:,t amblgoon. fellow 


ng ve.r. Llltle, if any, of Ihl. but will germinate after 


™(<wl.lexperl«,oemu.l>on.eH,oe.be iu.tiueted by u„. 


he month of December. 


1..n,lngpwtloo.ofl,L. pravt«i.prejudlee.. Uaoy Euro 


»nd. The neil weed under mj clai.tBcation ii generally 


pean practlque. will no! work well In lb. young uulh and 


known by the name of Trefoil, or on tha Hunler a. yellow 


■Bl, however taMllenl north of iho auaior. Let Aut 








blimdH of their own colony. 


of the wool grower, and (in my opinion! hj fcr the moit 


IB eLOOInaiuo for the pre«nt oeruion . The gr"t que.- 
















einlllalntnciu, li 1. doubHHil If BriEiih >oiU will long 


which .hould be cut. If poulhlc, below (he Burfuce of Iha 




round, which can be dfi^elcd in moit ea.'., ■> thit par- | 


•elnimc ohnnLiry. m Frane. ag.lcLUtor.1. un Ihe de. 


icular weed luxuililet on Ihe richett and be.1 t>Drtl«B. of 




ur InUnd plain. In the cais of thli plant I would alio 








whaia thii weed 1. known to grow diould be caiefully 






al» of food to beail. Already Ihe Ihree inter eolODiei 


cad more Ihan fo Inche. fcom Ihe turface. Hori^^^^ 


depend on New toulh Wilei for ibuir eitra r.iiou. of beef .hoiDd eeniiBenM luinadlalaly afier Iha plagli ihew t^^^^^l 







MAGAZINK OF SCIENCE AND AltT. 






IB bat of our (lulurs iBDd, but il frmjucntlj gton 
otatrd pilctin, vnrying In exlent. Thtj nulunce wi 

lo groir to 4 belgbt of eighl m 






nou, for the pt 



■Ft Of Ine bddy. pad in Addlllon ii a vtrang hard floirn 
On.hewhDlB,IldolrupoiiiheDurehhD( u being the 


™wB and 
enabled fbm 

CVS 

qnantity. or 
tfly greater 
ihs present 
Htftnartil 


uM It may bewnFlied wilhenn by Ihe moit incxpeii- 
eed pen™.. Id fact, 1 -ould lupplj evety maD. woman, 

andln Bii|ht b> made of tooie lullablc HMd, wlUeh 
onid pot require lo bi- much iatgct or more Belghiy than 



plllhmenl wlil 1» gTMliy rtlarded. If not €nli,ely 
iltd. Up, Ihaq.rellDW-coionfilil Up, I ta,, and 
ng. Lmd a toady lund and willing bcait. Lei 
>ho are highly hvouied aulit their Ich fortunat. 

Iff. they -ill tain lurh ilrmgth ai -111 defy joni 
and in tht end will iwallow you up Id ruin. 

LINDESAV SHEPHERD. 



'A8T0RAL. 



RESOUBCKB' OF AUSTRJ 
No II — Bv T. W. I 
had the bonnr of ad 



jng yon, I 



ideas regarding the hUdriI fcstutea 
greater part of New Hglland, the rea»ns for it* «a«M 
unnrodanivenes*, and the probabiliti there eim, hj 
using jiropenneonfl, of rendering it friiitlul. It u nr 
intention, on the pmenC DcCKuoo. lo dwell a littls (bl- 
ther upon tlie results to be hoped for (ahonld you so hr 
indulge as (q psnnil), before entering upon det«il. 

In the former paper. I stated that it wu by do nwau 
nnusual ta And iroontr^ watered hy tiren whose «li' 
mated oriiinit capahiUtiea wM at the rate of 1 00 aem 
of land for each oi) and that probahly nineteen- 
twendeUu of Central AnalTalia waa unlit for Bnjr 
pnrwMe, owing to tho abaenre of water. For the Ukt 
ofiliowins how Tast the capabilities of Australia for 
grawnj purpoMS might become, if onr eiperiinenU 
should prove succeaafol. we will enter into a few calm- 
lations. Let n» BBppose that iba one-twentieth or 
watered part of the rountry before mentioned ij, under 
present circumstancfB, capable of sopportiog 10,006,000 
of aheep. which ia, perhaps, abaut tliD truth, diat Iha 
~" "" '"^^b^ introduced to these psatorea )u»e 
•> can)- 20 ahrep where ther would fci- 
irry one, this gives. 200.000.000 1 bnt 

" - itiethiofaie wholeapate 

being accomplished we 

-ep alti, 

)r than the whole i 



•tnkuiK light, we will now nroceri 
iney Yalue pet annum of tie wool 
which thcie millions of sheep wonld be capable of pro- 
ducing. The averagH ouaotity of wool produced I trill 
lake at two jKionds per head, and it wil He admitted 1^ 
every person acquainted with Australian aheep keep- 
ing (it cannot be called sheep farming, as at present 
conducted) that this estimate ia a lery moderate one, 
._j — ihilllng and sixpeneo per pound as the avei^ 



Well. then. 10,000,000 
ns the present capabilities, XI.SOO.OOO 
and 3,8)0,000,000 fleeces, the produce of 



added vegetation, at the same 
£570.000,000 sterlingannnal V 



that enormous debt, which there is indeed too much 
reason lo fear will bo the case when the ttouWcd stole 
of affairs eiistjng m Europe i. eonsiderod. I am qnitt 
aware that soma people will consider these catcula- 
tiona as viEionaiy, and they would be instified if I cal- 
culated upon such reanlts as likely toV brought aSmt 

children ■' ' Perhaps, indeed, they mar never be (tally 
arconiphshod i but there sntely can be nothing ao totj 
wonderful in rendering five acres of fertile »ll ofM, 
offumishmgenou'jh food for the support of a iWla 
bullock, or lUequivalentj ornoUiing particularlv al- 
trautdmary m procuring water for a floric of aheep, 
where it can be procured in abundance by digging a 
few yard, below the surface of the (eeding-groSS!* I 

l'S™1 "pE^V™" "^^ "iu '"^ "l'*' '" ""»^ "t"*- 
Urigalow, Malley, and other scrubs are met witk ia 
Central Anstralia, and that die presence of these lan- 
lers the land covered bv them unfit tor any n>iinE 
purpose whatever, unless at such an outlay aaSwrall 
preclude all hope of a profitable return. But witboul 
ittempting to show to what eitont the ecnibi Dover tba 



MAGAZINE OF 801KN0E AND AUT. 



Ill 



Tivsil froiD pSTSOul 
d<^rived from other 
coDiidBred aa a nlir 

Sice of these mill: 
Iidranback. A) 
WHS in this OTtt" 
supplr ill tiiei 



uid rroiD iiiFormation 
ompanttivdy intonaiileralile 
duppofiiiig that hcilf the area 



, , .. luffldenl »ou 

Lwllen masurutarieg in ihi 
night dwell B| 






the truth. The i 
be am ployed " 
ship buiidots 






n HD BppKi: 



IS Ataga of majlDfacture ; the 
. . BiployBd in cartjing the raw 

globe; and the maBy otlier tiadea and occDpaiiong whlfh 
wonld also be direi'ily or indirectly affected bj it, are 
alKoit oast calculation. I niU. the^»I'an^ meralj stale 
tliat the number of men who voald be reqtdred for the 
immediate sad direct produclion of the tleece, from the 
number of sheep pteviouily maotioDed, aueh as ahej»- 
herds, hntkeepera, overseers, rati™ caniera, Ac, would 
•maunt on th« lowest estimauto about four milliooa. 
not to Hf anything of the curien, wool sorteia. brokers, 
merchants, &r., irho would have a "liDgar in [he piu," 
before the cUi> left oar shores. 

I have gone into all these ealculatisns, -with the view 
ofdrawing tl« attsntion oflhe meuibera of this Society, 
and tbtongh theuj that of our woal)(iowen to the sob- 
jtct, in order That thov may see that there la no reason 
for the cry which has 'been railed, that the colony has 

greatest staple ; that there is no mom fer new comers, 
and thai their individual sheep walks are so fully Dceu- 
piod that thsre is no allsniativeTor them but to resort 
to the tallow pot. All theftfl desponding compUJntfl we 
fTHjaeotly hear, lod tliat they we generally credited 



le doubt. Indeed, ' 



ji be deaired than i 






lave realized taring 



r» had not believed 



and skins which they produced, had the 01 
liaved that their runs were becoming o»e 
is a fact that cannot be diipaied, that very 



;o feed them, Thia was truly "kill- 

ig the goosu for the golden •gg." as I hope to be able 
1 show, belbro I have wonnd up djs series of papen 
hidi I have oadertakei to lay before you upon the 



tlMi 



Dald bf 



■hich I 



s proposing to redu' 

by a little fortnight ihey might have found n 
t*n timea the ijuamity at ones, and within a fev 
rida of their tery doon, by simply ainkinj 
wells, for in these instances, although the 









■toek and their keepen had 
which bounded them ; consequently the land sttoated 
at a few miles' dUtanoo from this Datarsily fonnd 
water, althoogh producing equal, if not anpenor graas 
and herbage to that on the banka ot the river, yet 
«Bi not available during anraraer or in ihs abMDce of 

Prom what has before been stated respecting the flat 

Australia, it will be seen that there ia little doubt that 
an abundant supply of water must exist at no great 
dcp^ Irom the surfaee. Indeed than ia some reason 
*■ think that nndergnund rivan Dual h( *a» af the 



means by wliicb the immense quantity of irater which 
sometimes falls upon these bDuodlesa |>Uins eventually 
finds its way to the sea. In Captain Sturt's joamey 
HBrrumbidgce and Hurray, he telle us that 
' --prjoed to find the body of 



water flowino through th 
crease in volume and fore 
had suddenly joined then 
case, he accounts for the 



rahlyfc 









uima 01- springs n 
nvers, where this 



uppow- 



obaervable. 

cannot tell whether the practice cf sinking wells 
he supplying wator for flacks aud herds, has Ever 
any part 



of the world. Not do I lliink ll 

where tlie same features are tn bi 

ayatems of plains with which the contiosat af America 

abounds, are for the most part well watend by gigantic 

The plains also of Kuwia. and other coontries. U^B 
the advanl^a of being well watered by lakes aud 
riven, fed sther by copious periodical rains, or from 
the Btill more copious and inboepitalile falls of snow. 
It woald be Tain, therefore, to seek for precedents whero 
none can eiisCi for even if well-sinking had been 
largely resorted to ia these countries, it would form no 
precedent for us, so diffetaut is our conotry in al most 
' .t Australia, like iheie. 



every reapct It 
boa bousdlesa plaii 

slightly elevated abo 
ui« often found to be 

deed do they in any 1 



Her ploii 

reat elevation. Nor do they 
ir formation, aa scarcely in- 

ive been, and aro used, foi- 
itclo, there can be no doubt, 
ne 1^ the uatriarehs of lloly 

>f "Iran's 1 

id "three flocks' 






Writ, we flod fi^Beat aliui 
this purpose. In the case c 
told that Jacob there foui 

Wing by iti for out of that well they watered the 
nocks." Bat it appears that more than three flocks 
mnat have resorted to thia well for a similar purpose, 
although it conld not have been of very eiteasive di- 
meniions. The passage continues, " Ajid thither were 
all the Aodis gathered ; and they tt>Ued the stone fnxn 
tlie well's moulli, and watered the sheep, and put dis 

_. — ._.i. .L_ __ii._ -^mi, m („, p[ttca" 

lo landed tlie flocka. 



lone agaii 
Lgain, Jao 



thecatth 






d be ^here, 



e that 



^nd'they said, we 
until all Che flocks be gttbered togHher." In 
yyna and Arabia at the present day it ia not unuaual 
to meet with wellg made and naed for the same pur- 
pose aa this well of Laban. But as for Australia, it 
seems the idea of digging a well except for honaehold 
reqoiremants. has hardly heen thought within the 

very deep ones indeed have been dug in sgarcb of gold. 

sunk from 100 to 250 feet, powerful stedn machinery 
has been required to keep them free from water. 

Having aKemjited to show what probability there is 
of procuring water by digging wells, it now remains lo 
offer some practical suggestions on the best mode of 
proceeding, having due regard to the meaos and appli- 



joth for cheap sinking and for pumping the largest 

iuantity of water to the anrface in the ^ortest time, 
lie expense ol these, however efficient they might be, 
ind however clioap thoy might prove in the end, would, 
nthlbamajorityof our woolgrowara, at once settle the 



w 



MAGAZINE Off SCIENCE AN*D ART. 



J, aiartied oot %j the deMtiplioii of 

ibmir most oiUBJIy met witb in iha bnah, if wc hope 
indace pMple to try the experunaut. Improve men If 
the DiHchiDeiy. &<-., wddH immcdiiLteW follow thi 
iiogC certain lucrHi of the more rude commODra 



Suppow, Ihm, [hMl •• hive ■ ilitlon of Iwenlj 
in length, bounded oo one tide bj h many nllei ol 

T part of ll ; thai Itatie ii fifty »l[ei breedth ol 



wlU Admit, and at etgtit or nine mlleadLitanee from thenii 
ve ihall havB room Tor 30,000 aheep at then Kpovd four 
new itatlona. ff^r thpf vlll be able la feed mt many miles 
both inniTdi and Dutwiidi ai llinae at the fltit atallont 
veieonl) able to feed outoirdi only. At the lame dli- 



■caption. It li utual on aueh eiteu 
Kau we hire all along been (puking 





lit, 


at th 


digglngi 


■ third 


■ 111 ba>e tn be 


employtd 1. 




























be ible tn ai 








wt 






If irlllila ( 




he ■ 




hai no 


been reiohed 






hai 






otac 
















in>pedlni o 


entio 


at, the po 




Died at 








■ndotHhandBw, ma large ud one imiTl AnHrien 
one 10 to IS pound Iron hammer, one aetofqiurrji 
wedfH, two wooden malla. [whleh could be mide on Ipol 
or It the head ilatlon.) * letflfwood ipIltHr'a wedEn. i 

nnj rough biub earponler, from pine tn other npllnti 

(or the foinmlon of ititlnni aie to be met withi. With i 
few trifling eiceplloni, (11 Iheie tonli, &e.. lie e^vally 



•thiIeTer amount of work might huve been peitkiinieit, 
which ilibllliei can be moit euily guarded iigilii^ ; b) 
•doptiB! the ibape apoken of al ieut *• far aa regardi the 

the parliculat locaiiilea which we are now mntlderinf. 
A< the work progreHea, the ildei of the ihifl abould bi 
carefully boarded up by ilabt of pine or other timber 



diipiaced by any preHura they n 



ouUe and aipenia. The 



itfece, and the quaniity required for ■ mndenlely 
led BdcIi, a Caiifotiilan pump ti deeidedlr th* bM>. 
1 eoniiiti merely of foui boarda nailed together. Anraiof 
a oblong ihaped tube, of the required length, uKI of ■ 



1 <ll euity within it i theu boitdi being r^tened by the 
Jge to » atrip of i^invu, whKh with the boarda » died 
um oier ■ wooden toiler turned by t eoromoo iron ot 
ooden handle. lueh ai i> uied for a grindaUine, and 
lapted to be uied by either one n two men, down th« 

!h Jorger body of water can be thrown up. by ■ |h 
la dacrlptlon. than by any eominDn auclim pi 

of In * petpendieular poiiiion, but murt be plK«d 

I maehlnary, (or the moil part made on the ip«, by 
I, bullveki, at eieo by an MUpution gf the wla4- 

en the wstet ii beyond the reech of alther the Cnll- 




The first Spring Exhiliiidon was held in 
tTic Botanic Gardens on Tliurfiday and 
Friday, Ist and 2nd October. The fol- 
lowing is a. list of the articles exhibited, 
exhibitors, and the prizes awarded. 

JudEBB, lit, SdiI, sndSrdOUHes;— Rbt. E. Tamer, 
Meinri. Carron, M'Ke«H, Jessop, and Wiljon, 
IstCliM, Speoul.— Planti rBiiiarkablo lor thalr 

oomineralalproduoUjCalleiitLOa noCtoeiceed twenty 

Hagar Cbq8, Liqaorioe. 8ar«»p«rilla, Itidis Rub- 
ber, Croton, Tea, CoSae, Pfppn, New Zanland 
Flax, Clonaraon, Cunipbor, Cabbngs Tree, Date. 
Ooooinnt. IpecaDuanha, Aloe, ArrowroDt, lobnoca. 
— Ur. J. Baptiat. let priio, S.M. 
_ Poruviao Bark, Aa«tr«lian TaberncBim 



; Olive 






Oles, Tar Li . ... 
Pepper, Peperomia' ap, ; T»Uow Tree, Slillinfii 
BsbLfara; Sajjar Caoe, Saeetiarum Offlainaram ; 
Otnger, Zingiber Offloiaalia; Sago, Cycoa Revolu- 
tum; Cinamoa, Cinaiuodinm Itantatiaum : Arrow- 
root, Marantu ArundiiNuna ; Croton. Tiglium ■ 
Alw, (BarbiuJoea) Alaa Barbadeaais ; Graai Cloth 
(Chiui) BoIimerU Nivaa; New Zealand Flai, Phor- 
miuiD Tbobi; Belladona, Aropa BelJadona ; Liqno- 
rioB, Gliojrrhiia Olabra ; Caper, (Auslrnlian) Cop. 
parii Mitohellii ; Cork Troo, Queroua Olabra ; Tea 
Thea Babca.— Meaara. Skepbord aod Co. 2Dd prize 
B.M. "^ • 



KowriB, Dsmmara BidwiDii ; Cook' 
tasaa Cookii ; Tall, ditto ditto eicolui ; Cupi'oaaus 
ToruloM : ditto, Dhdaaua r ditto, Goveniana; 
Pinui, FsnderoBa ; ditto, Tounifoli-i ; ditto, Eieelu ; 
Juniperus Bermudiana : Arancuria Bidwijlil, Bunva 
Bunya ; Tronela Giaur* ; Cryptomeri ' 
No. 5, 



Leiohhsriitia Maoleayana. ; Cadrus Doodara : Aliiei 
Jeaiensia! Cunnir.chamia Laiiceolatt! Piwlonia 
ImpeliBlia ; Grsvilloa, gp dot. Port Ourtias ; Pho- 
tioia Barrata ; Ilex (Jurnuta ; Queran* Qlabfa \ 
f!tenoearpus Cunningbamil ; Cineraria ip., New 
Zealand; CepbaJotaxna Kortunil. — Maaara. Sbcpberd 
and Co. Ist prias, G.M. 

Cullfloiion of 20 planti, (naoiog unfamiahed.)— 
Mr. J. Bapiiit, 3nd prize, S.S.M. 

Ed Clus, PoT-okokn Flints.— Miiccllaneoua eol- 
Ipntion oflO plantain Hower, no two plantB la bo of 
the aame varielj' or aaoaala.— Swain son la Orefana. 
Suphorbia Splendena, PorphyroDDma Unceolata, 
Solandra Grandittora, Aialca Splendena. ISrunsfelaia 
eiimaa. Uebeclinnm ConoallDlDm, Lopboepermam 
OraodiBoruLn, Begonia Ingraml, Rbynotiospermuni 
ja'minDidea.— Ueniri. Sbepbcrd aod Co. lat priiH, 
S.G.M. 

Begonia Manhioata, ditto Fnohaioide*, Fninoinea 
[Taiflors. Ituaaillia Juncea, Solandra Lravlei, 
Alalia IndioB alba, Corooilla elaaoa, Conoaliouia 
CalsEBtlna. VertJODrdia Brownti, Pittoaporum Ja- 
ponica.— Ur. J. Baptist. 2nd priie, O.M. 

Bolandra Qnnditiora, Kuphorbia aplundeai, Ke- 
motanthus ditto, Pr^nclaoaa Exlniea. ditto Latifolia, 
ditto Coldarn, WsiKela Itoaea, Zbjrl«Mnthas BtioCa, 
Indiffofera Decora, Ruellia ITarniaaa.— U. Uattbewa, 
gardener to R, Tootb, Eiq. 

Misoelhneoui aoUeotion ot4 planta in flower, do 
3 plants to be of tbe aame larietj or snnuala. — 
Caphaa Plstyoentro, Aialoa f hmDiola, Swainaooia 
Puiohella, Franoiaoea UnlSon. — Meaars. Bhepberd 
and Co. 1st prize, S.a M. 

Bpetimen plnnt in flower, sbowiax superior oulti- 
vation : Auiaa SpleDdsoB.— Mr. J. Baptist, lat 
priie, S.B.M. 

Clainatis Sieboldtii.— Messrs. Sbepherd and Co, 
3ad priie, S.M. 

Kaw or rare plant in flnwer Or otherwise -. Kalmia 
Latifolia.— Mr. J. Baptial. lat prize, S.M. 

Plants eibibited in tbe neatest order, — Mesiri. 
Shepherd aad Co. S.M. 

Hybrid Seedling Camellia.— Uelara. Shepherd 

HerbaueOHS plants, S varieties : Russolia Uulti. 
flora, Uwmnuthus sp., Ueupreja Soandena, StrepCo- 
otrpus Reiii, Cineraria, Primula Chlnaasia. — Uesars 
Stiepherd and Co. lat priie, B.M. 

1 Ljoopodoa (no namea furnisiied). — Mr, H. 
Matthews, gardener to ii. Tooth, Eaq. lat priie, 
B.M. 

e Indiitenoua FerDs.— Ditto. 1st prise, B.M. 



oilPr 



It pHin, S.M. 



CaotUi Blalaaonin.— Mr. J. ( 

(linerarias.— ilr. U. Mnll'iewi, gardener to R, 
ToDtb, Esq. lat priie, S.M. 

S AiBleas (no Duinea furnisbed). Mr. M. Ouilfof le, 
reeonimendsd fora O.M. lat prue, S.S M. 

4 Auleas.--Ur. □. Matthews, gardener to R. 
Tootb, Eaq. 2ad price. S.M. 

e Aiiless,— Mr. J. Baptist. 

4 Petnniaa.—Ditta 

lloia (SouToner do la Malmaison).— Mr. 3. Oaj. 

8 Poljanthna and Primros.s.— Mr. J. Baptist. 

Csotue flagilliformla.— Mr. J, Gay. 



4 Cactua.— Mr. 



Isptial. 



gardener to a. Tootb, 



Stocks.— Mr. H. Mathe' 
Esq. lat priie, B.M, 

Collection of Iridioaiona Plants.- Mr. B. 
thewe. gardener, to It. Tooth, Enq. lat priie, 

13 Rosea.- Ditto. 

IS FIORBriDg Shrubs,— Mr. J. Baptist. 1st 
B.M. 

Bouquet, — Mr. E. Mitthewi, gardener I 
Tooth. Eiq. Ist prilo. B.M, 

Bouquet.— Mill E, 134pti]t, Ut p 

Platjoeriuni Alieomis,— .Mr J. Gi 




114 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



IndlM Pink.— J. DaptUt. 

IS Tsrieties KotM, liDfrle tnmet. — Ditto. 

12 OAmelliM.— II. Matthewi, gftrdeoor to H. 
Tooth, Eiq. 

ToeonU Mont»nA.— M. Ouilfo/le. 

Colleotionof Iridiaoea.— Mr. J. Bftptift. 
Judges :— MeMra. 11. Driver, M'ln'iea, snd Bilvettor. 

4th Clais. FBviTi.^LitboD Lemoni.^SJr. J. Ga/. 
1ft prize, B.M. 

21 Orangef.— Ditto. 

24 ditto, on branchefl.— Ditto. 

0TU CLABfi, Vbobtablbk.— 2 baoohet Carrotf.^J. 
Baptiat lit prize, 2M. 

Diah of Woodford'f reaa.— Ditto. 

Diab of Manolietter Biue PoUtoes.— Ditto, lat 
prize, SM. 

London Flaff Ijeeka.— Ditto. )tt prize, B.M. 

6 Htickf Celerjr.^Ditto. lat prizD, 2M. 

3 beada Curled ^tot Cabbage.— Ditto. 2nd prize, 
IM. 

Bweot Potatoea.— Ditto, lat prize, B.M. 

Btone Tamip.'Ditto. lat prize, 2M. 

Wbite Broooli.— Ditto, lat priz^, IM. 

Cauliflowora.— Ditto, lut prize 3VI. 

Aaparagua.^Ditto. l«t prize, B.M. 

Biahop'a Dwarf Pea.— Ditto, lat prize, 2M. 

Collection Culinary llerba.— Ditto, lat prize^ 
B.M; 

Collection Medicinal Ilorb*.— Ditto, lat prize, 
B.M. 

Collection of Baladi.— Ditto. 

Tornipa.— Hia Ezoellencj tiie Gov(>mor*Oenoral. 
Gardener, A. Kloator. lat prize, H.M. 

Cabbagea (Eaatham).— Ditto, lat prize, 2M. 

Jted Cabbage.— Ditto. iNt prize, 2M. 

White Htono Turnip.— Ditto. 

BiUer Hkin Potatoea.— Ditto. 

JSroad Beana.-~Ditto. 

Cauliflower.— 'Ditto. 

Peaa.— Ditto. 

Paranipa.— Ditto. 

Brocoli.— Ditto. 

2ffaticka Aaparagufl, lied Beat, Top Artichoke, 
Aah liCBTed Kidnejr Potatoea, Scarlet Apple ditto. 
Earl/ York Cabbage. Early f^utoh Turnip, Yellow 
Htone ditto, Carrota, llorao Uadiah, Prick ley 
Bpioach, H/meter Pea, Hollow Crowned Paratiip, 
Batteraea Cabbage.— J. Ttapti«t. 
Jndgea:— Dr. Woolle/, Captain Ward, M. Bentia, 
Menarf. M'Donell and (). Ottlc^/. 

6tII CLAaa, AOBICULTUKAL and COMMF.nCIAL.— 3 

bottlea red Irrawang Wino. — Mr. J. £. Blake, lat 
prize, G.M. 

3 bottlea white ditto.— Ditto. 

Picklea made with colonial Tioegar.— Mra L/all. 
lat prize, H.M. 

3 bottlea PreaerTcd Fruitf.— Ditto, lat prize, 

n.M. 

Bilk.— Edward Rnapp. lat priz<», B..V. 

Btraight edflr«a of Tulip Wof>d.— Ditto. 

Paate and Liquid Blacking (ezcludod on account 
of the name of manufacturer appearing).— Measrs. 
A. Caporn and Co. lat prize, 11. M. 

Olive Oil (not devoid of the flavour of the olive). 
— MeMra. Bhepherd and (yO. l«t prize, H M. 

(Jolicction Mixed Fancy Wine Bi-cuita.— Mr. 
Thomna Crippa. lat priz<% B.M. 

Bride (Jake.— Ditto. H.M. 

Wax Flowen. — Mra. Andrewa. lit prize, B.8.M. 

3 bottlea Madeira, 1819.— W. Jj^waon, Esq K%- 
bibited by A. liobertn. Eiq. 

3 bottlea Claret, 18i9.— Ditto. 
Ditto Hock, 18.91.— Ditto. 

6 ' ampiea Wine, 3 bottle* each.— Mr. J. K. Blako. 

4 Bamplea.— Hon. C. Cowpor. 

Cotton Thread, from cotton grown in Now Bonth 
Walea.— J. K. Ebawortb. Awarded to the grower, 
lat prize, H.M. 

2 CompotitioA Ceotrt PtooM,— Mr. J. F. Crippa. 



Bpice Nuta — Tbomat Crippi. 

Cracknellf. -Ditto. 

Collection Wine Biaealtf^Mr. J. F. Crippa. 

1 Bride Cake.— Ditto. 

1 ditto amall.— Ditto. 

Wax Floweri.— Miaa M'Inoaa. 

Leather Braoketa.— Mra. Aodrwirf. 

Ditto Kramea.— Ditto. 

Sun DUI.— Mr. A. Bolam. 

Gothic Kuin.— Mra. A. U. FreemsD. 

1 ^<carifler.— Mr. John Arkina. 

1 Breaat Plough.— Meaara. CbapniAa BfM. 

1 Single Ilorie ditto.— Ditto. 

1 Bcarifler.— Ditto. 

Proteata having been handed to tbA Seoretarf, 
and a meeting of the Kxhibition CosimittM called, 
it waa unanfmoualj reaolved. '' TbBt the prize 
awarded to Mr. M. Gullfojle for AzaltsB be diaal- 
lowed, hut ttiat a apeoiai prize of the aanM Talae be 
awarded on account of the beaatj of th« •shibita." 

The Committee ruled that the prize Rwnrded to 
Mr. H. Mattbewa, fbr Iridacioua PUatf, sbo«ld 
atand, it being a apecial prize. 

A prize waa alao awarded to Miii £. BBpUat for 
a Bouquet. 



RATLWAYB OF TIIE UNITED STATBB. 

By CAPTAiif DouoLA* Galtov, R. E. 

(Continued from Uut month.) 

Tlift interior of the car forma a large room, with a 
paiiaago, of from 1 ft. 9 in. to 2 feet wide, down tba 
c(;ntrtf, ufMn each aide of which crona toata are arraaced. 
ThoM iKiatff are intend^ for two paatengeni eachTwaf 
an5 from 3 ft. 3 in. to 3 ft. 6 in. long, aKout I ft. 6 in. 
wld<!, and 1 foot apart. The back ia arnmaed to be 
tiim<H], NO that the^aaaenger mav ait with hia faca in 
eithor dinM.-tion. The noata and oacka are oomfortabif 
cuffhioned, and there ia a wimlow, and Tentilator abevc, 
to oach. A capadona netting ia carried along eadi 
Hide, from one tmd to the other, for the reception of nm- 
bnjllaa, bagK, and cloak*. In winter toe can are 
warmed b^ moann of an iron atove in the centre; and 
thoy are lii()it<jd at nifdit bj lampa placed at the aidei. 

In a c<;rtain proiKjrtion of the paaaongera can, a per- 
tion, aliout 7 foot long, 3 ft. 6 in. wide, ia partitioiied 
off, in which ia a umall room for the oonveniettee of 
ladifM nureing, and a waterclofiet. In the aummer iced- 
waU'r IN \}\iwM in wati^r-cooloni in the can. 
^ On Nf>nio railways, where tlie Journey oecupiea a ooo- 
aiderable time, aa for inatance, the Illiaoia Centtml 
betw«9on Cairo and Dubuque, Nome of the can an fitted 
with rxfmpartmenta about the aize of onr fint-daNa 
carriage romimrtmenta, in which the seata an amaged 
for tlio back« to turn up, and m to form two tien of 
bortlia, or Nofaa, for tho acrommodation of paawinaii 
who may wiah to lio down. For thaae as eztn price ia 
chargf»(]. 

I'hfs duat cauNod by the friable nature <^ the aoil ia 
thf! grtfat incfinvenience of aummer traTclling in the 
[JniU;«l Htat«a. Beveral plana have been tried te avoid 
it. On Nomo railwavN wiudowa have been eonatonicted 
«Mi that the aid<« auould alant outwajtia and tiinnr 
it off. 

On tho .Mir higan f^tral Rulway a acreeii 4^ tamd 
eanvaji in fixfMl, n«) aN to roach from the lower fhmmiag 
of tho I'iim to within about two inchea of the raila eat- 
Nido tho whooJN. 1'ho acreen temiinataa in a ftitoM* 
work, which i« arrangM to abut agaioat a ijmilar 
fraiiiowork on tho noxt car, ao ^at from one end of tlie 
tniiri to the othor a tiinni;! ia formed vadar tlie can, ia 
which tlio duat ia crmfinorl, and can only eacape al tlie 
fud of the train. Thia plan preventa duat ia the can, 
but it IN aaid to cauae heated axlea. 

On the New York and Erie Railway, the fellowiaf 
plan NecureN fraedom from duat and good — ^< -' 



MAGAZINB OF SCIENCE AND ART, 



lis 



A funnel, plaeed at the top of the car, faces the direc- 
tion in which the train is proceeding, and the movement 
of the train cause* the air to pass down this funnel into 
a chamber, where it is purified. A cistern of water is 
ftxed under the car, ana a pump worked by the rotation 
of the axles of the car forces the water into the cham- 
ber throuffh Jets arranged to fill the chamber with 
spray. Toe air, in passing through this spray, is freed 
|ffrom dust. In cold weather, a stove is placed, so as to 
warm the water. The air then passes through fines 
under the fioor into toe interior of the car. The win- 
dows must be kept closed. As this arrangement is in 
practical use on several cars on the New York and Erie 
Railway, it would be well worthy of a trial upon 
Enfflisb railways, especially in large saloon carriages. 

A baffgage car, or a compartment of a passenger car 
reservea for baggage, is invariably placea next to the 
engine. The baggage cars are furnished with doors at 
th« sides, to faautate the loading and unloading of 
haggage. Baggage cars are generally 80 feet long. 
Next to the baggage cars in the trains are placed the 
cars with the compartment for mails, or for toe Express 
Companies, who undertake the parcels traffic. 

Freight and cattle cars are usually covered. Their 
ordinary length is 28 or 30 feet, and they are more 
strongly built than passenger cars. 

Almost every car is provided with a break, which 
can be 'iq>plied to all toe wheels of the car. It is 
worked from either end, so that one man can work the 
breaks of two cars. In freight trains the guards usually 
|»ass along over the tops of the cars, the small number 
of bridges and tunnels rendering this course safer than 
than it would be in England. 

In every train a simple and perfectly effectual com- 
munication between the guara and engine-driver is 
provided by means of a cord. In passenger trains a 
cord, with swiveUhooks at each end, is provided to each 
car. It passes through rings in the ceiling, and it is 
the duty of liie conductor to see that the communica- 
tion between adjacent cars is complete before a train 
starts. In freight trains the cord is passed over the 
tops of the cars. This cord is attached to a bell on the 
engine* 

I'he construction of a train on American railways 
favours this mode t>f communication more than on 
English railways. The carriages are longer, and there- 
fore there are fewer of them, and consequently fewer 
connections to be made { and these connections are be- 
tween rigid draw-bars, without expansion or contraction 
of bu£fer springs ; and as a person can walk from one 
end of a train to another, these connections are made 
verv easily, and any omission is immediately detected. 

From the above account it will be seen that the roll- 
ing stock on American railways differs considerably 
from that in use in England. 

In designing their rolling stock, the Americans ap- 
pear to have taken their ideas more from a ship than 
from an ordinary carriage, and to have adopted the 
form best calculated to accommodate large masses with 
a mininum of outlay for first cost, as well as the one 
which involves a mininum of attendance upon the pas- 
sengers in getting in and out of trains. Whilst the 
cars have b^n designed with a view to avoid ever^ ap- 
pearance of privilege or exclnaiveness, or of supenority 
of one traveller over another, tiiey have been constructed 
to as to secure to every traveller substantial comfort 
and even privacy. 

There is only one class, bnt as the cars are designed 
with more regard to comfort than English railway car- 
riages, this class is very much superior to second and 
third-class carriages, and only inferior to the best first- 
class English carriages. It is much to be regretted 
that almost all English railway companies have so en- 
tirely disregarded the comfort of second and third-class 
passengers, althoug[h, as a general mle, second-class and 
sometimes even third-class passengers pay a higher fare 
than is required for the much superior accommodation 
•f Ameiican railways. 

No deubt the Anerieaii railway ears cannot contain 



so many passengers as would be contained in a carriage 
of equal length divided into compartments, but the use 
of a door at each end, in lieu of several at each side, 
effects a saving in first cost, as well as in subsequent 
trouble to the company's servants, and allows the cars 
to be made wider than they could be with side doors, 
steps, Ac, It is also very convenient for the passengers 
to be able to move about, especially on a long Journey. 
The absence of compartments facilitates ventilation, 
warming, and lighting at night. There is an advantage 
derived from the use of trucks, which deserves consi- 
deration, viz. : that carriages can be moved easily round 
curves, and that consequently there is some diminution 
in the resistance of curves ; and the use of double 
springs renders the motion of the cars very easy on a 
good road. Indeed, these cars travel without accident 
over bad roads at velocities, when our carriages would 
probably leave the line. The small diameter of the 
wheels possibly increases the friction to some extent. 

Vehicles of this description would be very convenient 
in this country on all omnibus lines, and for a second 
and third-class traffic ; but it is likely that many Eng- 
lish first-class passengers would prefer the privacy of a 
compartment. The use of this description of vehicle 
would, however, probably render necessary a reconsi- 
deration of the mode of bnffinff and coupling carriages 
together, if not the adoption of the bumper at the cen- 
tre. This mode of coupling entails very much less risk 
upon the companies' servants than the mode in use in 
this country, and it prevents the possibility of danger 
arising from the coupling not being properly screwed 
up ; and the use of a rigid draw-bar torough the train 
would afford an easy means of enabling the engine 
driver to apply breaks simultaneousl;^ to all the wheels 
of the train. The mode of connecting American cars 
affords rather more protection than ours against that 
class of accident in wnich one carriage is foroBd through 
the adjacent one, as in such cases the platforms at each 
end, amounting to five feet of space, must be crushed 
before tiie body of tiie car is injured. 

The main advantage of the American cars is that 
they convey a larger number of passengers, in propor- 
tion to the dead weight, than can be conveyed in the 
carriages generally used on Bnfflish railways. 

On die Baltimore and Ohio Railway, on account of 
the sharp curves, the cars are shorter than on many 
other lines, viz , ^ feet in length ; these cars will con- 
tain 60 persons, and it was stated that they weigh about 
seven tons. As a general rule on English narrow gange 
railways, the some number of second-class passengers 
would scarcely be accommodated under a weight of 10 
tons^ 

The passenger car of the New York and Erie Rail- 
way Company is 60 feet long, and would contain about 
80i>eople. 

The freight cars on the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, 
28 feet long, with a capacity for a load of nine tons, 
weigh six tons* On narrow eauge Enrlish railways, as 
a general rule, the weight of the goods waggon is not 
much less than the weigot of load. 



EXTRACTS. 

Thb New Telkobaph Wibei to Ikdia.— Mr. 
Thomas Allan, O.E., has overcome oertain formi- 
dablo diffloulties iu the way of extensive telegraphio 
enterprises. Thus, it is obvious that where a frail 
line of communiostioD has to be carried over the 
abrupt inequalities of the surface of our globe, 
oreepinfl: over the suromiu of mountsios, sod lyio/; 
along the deep shelves in the bed of the ooeao, too 
much oare eannot be devoted to its composition and 
texture. The wire prepared by Mr. Allan potsessea 
advantagei superior to those of sny other oonductor 
at present in use, snd in the main requisites of coo- 
duotibility, strength, lightness, and obeapnesi, its 
superiority is incootestible. The snbiBarioe virea 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



BuUtod with ft new floiibla 

mkteriil, Hofficiently BDrong to afford a full protec- 
tion froia all tbe contipeenoiea to whioh saob a con- 
ductor ia ordlnarilf tiablo. Tba differeoou betveen 
tbs two are at flnt usbt rather atartling. Weii^ta- 
iag in someoaaeisBlittle SI ooe-lenth or tho coin- 
moD wire, we obtain n ooiiductiDft power tbree or 
even fife-lold Ereatcr, nbilc tba relatiTS proportion 
of tjie atreagtb of the wire to iti weight, ia increased 
10 • oonaiderable d^rse. Add to tfaeaa faota tbe 



which it can be laid down. — I'ear Book of 



k 



Fekberyition or Paeaa Mgits.— Mr. Oeowe 
Hamilton, F.C.L,, hu read to tlie Liverpool 
Chemiatt' AaaooiatioH a piper on the " PrcserTstioii 
of Freab Mett." After DotiolDg the different pro- 
oeuet hitherto emplofed for the preaervation of 
mant, he detSiilod alODs serieaof experiments which 
he lud performed in \S5i, and which bad led hioi to 
the diaooTerj of (he preaeri»livo properlica of bin- 
oiide of nitrogen, whioli preaerres meat frcm putre- 
faction without ohaDging its colour or oonalsteDce; 
DOrdid it afternurda putref? when expoeed to the 
air, Bince the Brat aDuODDCenieut of tbeae oxperi- 
meala, at the meotiog of tbe Britieb Asaociatioo, 
held there in ism, the bonoor ofseimihir digooverf 
hud heoQ claimed for a French suivin, but TAbbf' 
MaigDO. who wn* present in the chemical (eotion 
when Mr. Ilamiitou's paper w«b read, aaje, in a 
letter to that ^enllemitB, " 1 abnll be happr to ms 
known your prioritj." The leoture waa illuitral 



placed peribetlj Bat, but ire diapoaed in waves, aa 
acen in the aectional drawing ; and below tbe eoniei 
ourTB of each andnlation ii placed a porona earthen- 
ware pipe, whieh condncd the filtered water into 
the mains for diatributioD. We have not eptce for 
the details, but qaote Mr. Wilt'a brief guoimary of 
the moat important results of tbia invescigation : — 
It baa been shown.— I at. That eaad, charoonl, and 
probabi; other parous media, poaieas the lery pe- 
culiar proportj of romoviDg, not merely suapended 
imparities, but even disiolfed salti from solutioa in 

the power of abatracting organic matter fron solu- 
tion ; but that even aaad llk.e«iae i* capable of 
eSeatingtbo aame result, tboughtoafarlesaeiteDt; 
3rd. That theae powers, poaaessed by botb these 

the degree of impurity of the solution ; 4th. That 

I bearings uiion byglenio science, agricultural prin- 
cifilea. and geological phenomena. The Tarious 
.insljres |[if en show great tariationa In the oompo- 

which eipariinni:ts were made, vli., at Chelsea and 
Kingston, as veil aa at (lie different leasona of the 
year. Mr Kobcrt Hunt, F.R.S., Keeper of the 
Mining Kccorda, baa addreaaed to Mr. Witt the fol- 
lowing eumplea, within his own knowledse, c 
flrmator.v of Mr. Witt's ' .. ■ - 



L number of 



ofm 

.0 the proo 



lb looked 



bed from ordinary t 



prepared at 

cooked, n 

Book qf Facts". 1857.' 

PlLTKiTION OP Waikb — Mt. H, M. Witt, P.C.S., 
AaaistaBt Cbemist to the GoTcrnmcat School of 
Applied Soiences, baa communicated to the Pkih- 
tophitai .tfa^asifle, Ho. Tfl. a paper "ona peculiar 
Power posseued by Porous Media (Sand and Obar- 
coHt) of removing Matter from Solutioa in Water,'' 
Tbe paper cooslsts of certain eiperimcnts which 
were undertaken with tbe view of aacerlaioin^ by 
chemical analysis tbe more preolee nitnre of the 
effects produced upon ordinary river-wuter, suoh aa 
that of the Thnmea, by its passage through filters 
compoaed of thete media reapeciively, and of oom- 
paring their powers; but it is believed that the ro- 
aQlLB obtained possess an Interest extending con- 
siderably beyond the qusstion to assist in the 
solution of which tliey were made. The Byatom of 
purifloaljon adopted by tbe Chelsea Water-works 
Company at their works at Chelsea, consisted 
hitherto (for the aapply baa by tbiB time oommenced 
from Kingston) in pumping the watiT up oat of tbe 

for six hours : it was (ben allowed to run on to ihe 
filter beds. Tbase are large beds of sand and gr,kn>l, 
exposing a filtering surface of about throo-fourtbE 
of ID acre, or 33,870 square feet ; and the Bltratioa 
isking place at the rate of one foot per hour, yields 
about 3<H,tS; gallons of filtered water par hour. 
The filters are composed of tbe follawieg strata in a 
descending order :— 



0.1. Finesand 

a. Coamoraand 

3. Bbslls 

E, Coarae gravel 

ThM* several layers of filtering ui 



itt's views. " At Perrau-portb, 

liles north of Truro, the neaps 
of waste (deadi) from the old mines contaiii oen- 
siderable quantities of copper pyrites, which is, in 
the process ol decomposition, converted intB sul- 
phate of copper. Tbia salt la waahed out by (tie 
rains, and the solution Bows through the sands 
(bUmmS'iiul) widely spread over tbit diatriet. The 
sulphate of copper is separated by the snod, and lbs 
sand containing tbe copper is collected from time l« 
lime and sold to the copper-smelters. Ai;ain, at 
llotallack Mlae, the water which niters through the 
rooks from the Atlantic Ooean in the levels which 
are worked out under the bed of the sea is found 
to have lost muoh of Its erlgiual saltncss." — I'tar 
£uo* 0/ Facts. 1857. 



KOTICE TO CORRB9P0NDBNT3. 



:lfut iDdlin Oiitart 



mclple. The rtiull 



I. B., Bithunl.— Wt should bs gU< la 

ilo on silk cullivaUon, 

tl. T Voui hishlj interciting psprr 



ir Krvlew. Mdnlh. Health Oi 



Regittrar GeneraVt Office, 117 

Sydney, 7th October, 1857. 
HEALTH OF SYDNEY. 
The number of Deaths re^stered at the Central Office during the month of September 
is 88, viz., 47 males and 41 females, of which 31 ■were under 5 years of age. 
The Deaths registered during the corresponding month in last year are 97. 
The number of Births registered during September, is 197, viz. : 95 males and 102 
females, being an excess of 42 over the monthly average of 1856, and 109 over the 
Deaths of the month. 
SUMMARY OF DEATHS of both sexes Registered ia Sydney, from \si lo 30(A 
September, 1857. 



CAUSES OF DsiTH. 


1. 

1 


1 

1 


1 
1 


9 

1 
1 


1 
1 


h 


1 
1 


1 

1 


1 
1 


1 

1 


1 

a 


3 

1 


1 
1 


3 

1 
1 

9 


1 

1 
'4 


1 
1 


1 

1 


IS 

1 

1 


i 

i 

8 


i 

i 


1 

i 

s 


1 
i 


1 

i 


1 

1 

s 


1 
i 


' 


5E 

r 


ZiMOTtc Disease?. 


5 
8 

1 


2 
2 


■ 


3 

S 


... 


1 

1 
1 




5 


■= 


1 
... 


■ 


2 


3 


a 
I 

2 


I 


■ 






•• 


... 








■■ 




aPOBABlC DlSB*9ES. 

Of Unerrtain &a(,— Dropsy 
uidDtberKseitsesafyu; 




Of JVermu* ^itemx. Di»- 


















Of Eespiraiory ^ilan— 
















Of CiTodiUory Syitan.— 
Diseases ofibe Heart and 




















Of Digestive Orgam. Di» 
eases of the StomBicb 




3 














■■ 






... 








Of Urmary Organs.— TAi- 
eases of the Killiiey., St. 

Of Generative Organi 

Of Locojnoiive Organt. — 

^e Bona, Jointii, tr 

DiseiwB of thoBlin 

OldAg^ 

Privation, Sl intempHrance 
Unspecified- 




I 


... 




... 




i 


■;. 


1 


1 




- 






s 


































2 




































-; 










Total fi«m all Causes ,. 


22 






1 




31 




3 




e 




1 




5 5 


3 


3 




« 


4 








2 


ss 



j&raAi.— In'the table fcr lart nurath, bf « macbanical 
Iheii proper eolnnm. 

In die line of canseB attribntod to the Nenoiu ^jFitem, Ibere ar« tbrss daatfas 



CHRIS. ROLLBSTOK, Registrar Geoenl, 
in the pristiiig, tmi figniea were diiplued fnm 



yean of ue, and three alH> in die ealamn 2S to 30 fean of age. These 6fana ihoold bava been traniferred 
the line below, viz., " the Batiiintory Sjittm." The IsUIb, hovever, are quite correct. The; should, hooeri 
kave ben itatad bi b* «• total* for one month, not three montha. 



SO to 25 

hooeTBT, 



METEROLOGIC. 

Svc-iiT. Montr 
From observations taken at 



AL REPORT. 

SBPrEllBBB, 1857- 

a.m. and Q p.m, each day. 



i 


1 


Tkh 


ps«a™ 


B= oy A,R 


Mai 






t-LDUl. 


WiSDS, 




1^ 






















a . 












. 








1 


s " 


51 

11 


1 

a 

E 


1 


|f 


i 
1 


« 


1 

i 


1 


1-1 

ll 


Weather, etc. 


~ 


30-297 


53-0 


01,6 


49-3 


12-3 


50-2 


~6i~ 


3 


Cu.-St. 


SB. 


Showerv. 




30134 


57-4 


66-0 




250 


53-4 


■00 




a-sc. 


NNE, 


Very fine. 


3 


29S14 


69-0 


73-3 


47-T 


a5'6 


46-7 


-06 


6 


N!. 


NW. 


Wumnind. Htanoy. 




29'B33 


53-2 


61-6 


46-1 


15-6 


35-9 




I 


Cu. 


SBW. 


1 




30'U21 


54-1 


63-5 


42-0 


31-5 


42-6 


■00 


5 


Cn. 


saw. 


VTery dry windi. 


63 


30-035 


50-3 


62 6 








00 




Cu, Ci. 




j 




29.986 






39-3 


23-3 


42-6 


-16 


6 


t'Q.-St, 


8W. BE. 


ShowBtt. 




30-03r 




68-5 


420 


16-5 


38-0 


-00 




Cu. 


a. SE. 


1 Cold. Heavy dewi. 




29-925 


50-1 


64-6 


34-5 


30-t 


43-2 


.00 






SW. K, 


tFinediv.. 




20909 


54-4 


67-3 


40-7 


26-6 


47-9 






Ca. 


North 


Caitn and pleasaot. 
Haiy clood. 




20B61 


54-5 


642 


40-7 


23-5 


49-5 




6 


Ci.-8t. 


Calui 




29-917 


60-3 


61-2 


41 -4 « 


19-8 


43-3 


-13 




C'o.-St. 


Somh 


Showen. Dew. 


13S 


39-769 


530 


06-8 


39-4^ 


274 


43-9 


-00 





Cn. 


SW. 


Fine deal tUyi. 
Large fhoL and 




29-870 


49-7 




35-3 




37-8 


-00 


a 


Cn. 


Soutli 




30-102 


47-7 


5S-1 




IS'6 




■18 




Cn. 


SSE. 




30-128 


48-3 


60-1 


39-3 


20-8 


46-7 


■32 




Cn.-St. 


BE. 






30-044 


55-6 


039 


36-7 


27-2 




'08 


9 


Ct-.St. 


NNB. 


Cloody, 




29-985 






44.3 


25-5 


56H) 


■00 


2 


Co. 


NB, 


Fine (Eclijae). 




2S-85B 


64-T 


75-2 


49-3 


259 


51-1 


-00 




Ci.-St. 


NW. 


Hot ^nd. 


20S 


29-033 


50-1 


750 


530 




44-1 


-00 





Ca. 


W9W. 


1 Delightful weather. 
1 Freeh, dry hraeiwfc 
Sheet lightening on 


21 


29-908 




76 5 


39-3 


37-2 




■00 


a 




W8W. 


22 


30-059 


54-8 


71.0 


3T-5 


33-5 


35-2 


■oo 






waw. 


S3 


30128 


68-0 


OB-5 


36! 


32-4 


435 


.00 






BW. SE. 


21M. ^^ 




30-316 


52-B 






12-6 




•00 


4 


Cu. 


BE. 


Pine days, | 


25 






70-4 


3S-4 


32-0 


51-7 


■oo 




Cq. 


NE. 


SS 


30-342 


58-a 


69-5 


433 


26-2 


65-0 


-00 


7 




S- E- 


Mists and deire. 


ars 


30-252 


59-8 




46-5 


25-3 


57-5 


-00 


5 


St. 


NNE. 






30-076 




75-8 




27-7 


590 


■00 




Bt. ci,-st. 


Yariable 


Sultry day. 


29 


29-880 


65-0 


81-4 


67-4 


24-0 


540 




10 


Cu. Cu.St. 


w. a. 


■'Southerly " sqoalf. 


,ie 


29-996 


52-4 


62-8 


40-3 


16-5 


40-1 


-oo 


' 


Cn 


South 


Viae. 




30033 


55-3 


67-3 


;42-9 


240 


liJT 


1-.54 


3-1 


L 


It 1 it 


glo readings 
i,m. orOp.m, 




30 367 


70-E 


81-4 




46-9 


fiO-B 


■61 


10^ 










29-73B 


400 




34-5 




34-4 




" 




Means and 


sums. 




30 033 1 56-0 


1^ 


i?r 


1^ 


47'B 


lii 


41 


A-!e 


ages of Sqi>tGii 


ber, 1855, 1856. 



N.B. — The ohaarvations are fwi cor 
TBJigfl The principaJ inBtrnmentA hav 
at Qreenwich, and the readings an 
lordingly. 
PrejTOi-e.— The barometer is II feet al 



> 631 i 






The forms of clouds are denoted ai follow!, the nnm- 
ber of days on which each kind ocearied daring 
tiie montli being added in flguna, 

Cu. Cnmulaa 16 Ci -Cu. CirnMomnliu. ... • 



The 



ia29-715iDch,». 

'all self-registered | 
'0 deirees. The adopted 
onth from all observatio-- 
i'ahrenheit. 



mean gaaeoua preKsure of dry 

Taapfralure of .:4ir,— The meai 
muima and minima ia 55't 
itMon {emptraUire of the 
IB. therefore, 55-2 degree 

afotature,— The dew-point i ... 

Negretti'e and Zambra's dry and net bnlb the 
ten, by the ois of Glaisher'a tables. 2nd Edn. 
The mean temperature of evaporatioii at a.m. i 
g p.m., is 60-8 degrees. The mean elastic force 
lapoui is O'SIB inches. The average proportio 
humidity of the ait w denoted by 73. perfectly dry 

iiflin.-More or less riin fell on 7 days di 
month. The total depth being 1.54 inct 
collected at one foot above the ground, and 



Calm 1 „ Variable 1 -„ 

By comparing the averages of this month widi tboM 
of the tame month of the last two years, as ginsi in tba 
lowest Line of the table, it will ba seen that dii* maoA 
has been a litte colder and a little driar tluui ukuI t 
the amonnts of rain and cloudiness are consideisbl] Iv^ 
but the mean height of the haramatot exactly the ■— t 

yr. s. JBTONs. 

Domble Bay, Bear Sydnsy, KMM. 




■nr 



JlAftAWKE OF SrTENCE AXB AET. 



119 



EDDCATION IN SCIENCK. 

e not at all tlcsiroiis to enter into die 
controversy, that appears lo have assumtd a 
chronic fona in this community, on the snh- 
joct nf edxicalion . The sjiirit and intention 
of this periodical is rather to record facts, 
and to throw out suggestions calculated to 
advance the material interests of t!ic colony, 
than to discuss its institutions. It is no] 
possible, however, I'or us to ignore tht 
great «d\'anti^ the colony would derivt 
wwe the youth in our educational esta- 
^blishnienta to receive a sound elementary 
scientific education. This is an assertion 
which, we are sure, uone will gainsay, and 
we feel quite justified in urging its i:onsi- 
deration hy all the means in our power. 

It is gratifying to ohserve that the ini- 
portance-of a knowledge of tlie physical 
sciences, and, of scientific training, is now 
increasingly recognised in the venerable 

- seals of learning in the mother country. 
Oxford and Cambridge are moving with 
the times, and the British Government, hy 
tile agency of the Committee of Privy 
CftiUicil in the department of Scieace and 
An, ia placing within the teaeli of all 
British schools, the means of sound prac- 
tical instruction. 

If education is to become gemeral, it must 
first be shewn to be desirable and valtiable. 
Now, it is not to be wondered at, that 
an ignorant father should have a very 
dim perception of the advantage he would 
gain by hia son being able to make Latin 
hexameters. He would reidize much 
ihore readily the desirability of the youth 
knowing so much of land surveying as to 
be able to take an accurate measurement 
of the patrimonial acres, — or possessing 
ajifficient botanical knowledge to discern 
poisonous herbage in his pastures, — or be- 
ing acquainted with agricultural chemistry 
■enough to apply n proper manure to hia 
fields. Indeed, the circumstances sur- 
roimditig life in the Colonics, render such 

■ acquisi^ons of far higher importance than 
they ever ran he in old and settled coun- 
tries. A man, with some scientific know- 
ledge, ia the bush, is a benefactor to his 
neighbours for miles round. Several in- 
stances of this occur lo our recollection. 
We arc convinced, if these practical sub- 
jects were maiie leading features of our 
University and public school education, 
a very large increase of pupUs would take 
place, and immense benefits would be con- 
ferred on tJie communitv, 

Nov. lSfi7. ■ No. 6. 



We here take th« opportunity to pay our 
bumble tribute of admiration to the en- 
lightened statesmanship and lofty philan- 
thropy fliat actuated the founders of the 
Sydney T'niversity. In our opinion, that 
Institation is not premature. No period 
can be too early in the history of a state to 
lay broail and deep the foundalions of 
learning. We doubt not that it is the in- 
tention of the Senate to enlarge its course 
of studies. We know and value the 
labours of the present accomplished pro- 
fessors, and are iu a position to bear per- 
sonal testimony to the self-sacrificing zeal 
of the excellent Principal, but wc would 
wish to see associated with these gentle- 
men, Lecturers on .Botany, Agriculture, 
Geology, and Mineralogy, and on the Me- 
chanical Sciences, including the Steam 
Engine, and all possible combmations of 
constructive mechanism. 

We have derived much pleasure from 
an examination of the course of study 
pursued iu the educational establishments 
in America. There the physical sciences 
take a much higher rank than in oijr own 

'versities and schools, and we think we 

I discern the effect of this early training 
the great ingenuity displayed in their 
mechanical inventions, and in their com- 
TOercid entaprise. 

We do not wish to be understood as 
denying the value of a classical education. 
" Latin and Greek," says Sydney Smith, 

are useful, as they inure children to in- 
tellectual dilflculdes, and make the life of 

young student what it ought to be, a lifu 
of considerable labour. — if they do nothing 
else, they at least secure a solid and vigor- 
ous application at a period of life which 
materially influences all other periods." 
"' are quite sensible of the impor- 
tance of obt^niug the mastery of tha 
grammatical construction of a language, 
ire willing to admit that this infonna- 
tion is more perfectly obtained by A© 
study of the dead languages, than that of 
the living tongues. We are also aware of 
the purity of style that is imparted by the 
study .nf classic models ; but, nevertheless, 
ire disposed to regrei the immense 
mt of time and energy that is ex- 
pended on classical studies. The intellec- 
tual vigour wlijch ia sought to be obtained 
by this means, would, we believe, be better 
obtained by a course of mathematics. The 
application of mathematical principles to 
such branches of practical science as. admit 



ISO 



MAGAZINE Of SCIENCE ASB ART 



9Pe 



of proof would follow, aud render facile the 
acquisition of those arts that administer to 
our daily necessities. 

We do not expeut to make youths at 
onee expert natural philosophers ; hut we 
would endeavour to implant in their minds 
(acts they would never foiget, and supply 
them with information that would impart 
to- each leaf of the foreSt an intelligent 
voice — that would find "aermons in atones, 
books in the running brooks, and good in 
everjithing." 



TRANSACTIONS OF THK AUSTRALIAN 
HORTICCLTURAL AND AGRICUL- 
TURAL SOCIETY. 
Tenth monthly meeting, Not. 3, 1867. 

Mr. Wm. McDoneil in the ciiair. 

Members of Council present ; Messrs. 
P. L. C. Shepherd, P. Creswick, M. Guil- 
foyle.W. McDoneil, O. Ottley. J.Graham, 
G. A. Bell. Thos. Dav, T. W. Shepherd, 
J. S. Wall. R. Driver, W. Carron, Dr. 
Houston, W. Deane, Hon. Sec., and a very 
numerous attendance of members and tbeir 
friends. 

The following plants and cut specimens 
of flowers were on the tabic, which the 
members of Council commenced judging 
under rule 14 of the exhibition rules •: — , 

Cclleotion of roses, 80 varieUM— aihibitod by Mr, H.' 
Mmtthens, gardnpr W E, Tootli, Esq., ftt which s silver 
medBl was a-warded. 



RhododeaQron poTLticamall 

Fnchsitt eiquiaito, Jnsada Bplendens Cambretium 
pnrpiirenin — cihibited bj Mr. Baptist. 
A nen Hova, t<ihibited bj-Mcasrs. Shepherd and Oo., 

A collecCinn of [osia and camaCiDiis were also exhi- 
bited by the Meists. Shepherd. 

Minutes of last meeting read and con- 

The following letter was read from Mr. 
James King, Irrawang :— 

LDDdon, 20th Dec.. 1?5€ 
git,j~Lut Spring I itsited Italv, and «iu some time 
iti FloTBnci!. where I procured a specimea of the seed 
■riiich iiroduces the grsss or stian', from which tlie 
Hople titere make huts, caps, an<I borinets, and well 
fcnowa tci be shipped as If ghom. 

In crder that these light dnrable article! of dress maj 
bsmideinfonrcolony, ii'tiotforBala,at least lor domestic 
use all over the conntrj, I send yon a package of the 
need, which vniir Sociaty will pleue to aceejit, and no 
doBht. lake the best Djems of getting it diatnbi 



regulate thati ii 



fereocs \a Inif j^irand -, apd>ff it b« where then hae 
been a woud, it w«ld be prcf^R^le, 

The seed is aowii in the groind firorn ^ 15th of Nn- 
emher 14] the pnd nf December, that is if the utaa^MQ 
a iwiU nun ill \''-™ji(mber. if warm in Ducenibflr,' iT' 

w worked, but not very istf, W« 
IS space where one bushel DfnhAlia 
_. ..,, ,._._[hreebnshelBofihostrawseed. 

WIiso the straw is balf ripe, it is pulled np nA tied 
in smalj bundles &nd W^ ta dry in the sun. and vben 
it is well dried it is slaked up. In July or Auernt th* 
bnndles are to be opened like fans oad erpose^ In the 
dew of tlie night, until it hecotnes perfectly white, 
takiiig ears thai ic hoi no rain, which would sptril it. 
When this is dene it Is statked up again oca (^sd 



1 have the ban 



I of llesars. W. 



'ip^T 




)bedient SeTTani. ' 
tary Secretary, JAMES KIHB. ' 

laideot at Iitawani. Hunter's Ri ver, X. P, 
W.. fur 30 reais. 
Sample of tlie wheat referred to lind apon the tabt* 
Mr, F. Creswick read ■ paper on the 
Leghorn grass. 

The following letter was read from Mr. 
lomas Ascott ;— 

Brisbane W!itBr. Oct 20th, IBH,' 
3ir,— I herewith beg leaTOtosend asperimen of sin- 



bich fro. 



engage; 



whaTe btieu treated. 



Independflntly of its^ appareol applicability for 
inufacture of earthenware, 1 saspect it mar prow 
ire clay, in which case it would at oDceWum* 
ue, I annex a descriptit 
the sevaral nit-* ' — 

Year very humble servant, 

THOMAS ASCOTT, 
The Secretary of the 
Horticultural Society, Sydney. 
EiplanatinD of the several samples of glay tsfiimd 

No. 1 "in it, ^o'raf state, 

2— Ditto burnt for 2 hours in an open boDH fir*. 
3— Worked and dried. ^ 

4 — Ditto bomt as above. , • , 

6— Washed clay. 

The above samples were l^d upon the table. 

Mr. Robert Meaton, of New England, 
read a paper on the effects of Acrid and 
Poisonous Plants upon GranuniTETOM 
Animals. 

Mr. Meston laid two packages of grmu 
seed upon the table, observing, that he be- 
lieved they would he found to produce 
excellent pasturage, and would suggest 
that the Messrs. Shepherd should be ap- 
pointed seedsmen to the Society, and that 
any seeds forwarded should be banded over 
to them for experiment and report ; this 
was a practice followed by many kindred 
locietiea in Great Britain. 



ly kindred I 



Mr. T. W. Shepherd Baid, tliat many of 
our grasses are growing 
places, acrid or poisonous plants may be 
taking their place, and that it was a well 
known fact, that the weight of sheep had 
decreased of late years ; formerly the i 
Cass of first-Elaas sheep would weigh 
lbs., now only 50 lbs. ; this Mr. Shepherd 
attributed to the deterioration of our pi 
turea. The public, he was sure, would 
glad to know, that papers, such as that 
just read by iWr. Meston, were discussed 
^at the meetings of. this soeiety. 

Mr. O. Otlley observed, that it would 
be desirable to have grass seeds experi- 
mented upon tlu'oughout the colony, and 
the results communicated — on account of 
the various climates that existed 
part of the world. 

The following communication, forwarded 
by the President from Mr. Markliam, of 
Armidale, on a diggiag machine, was read 

Armidile, Oct., SBth, 185T. 
To A-LYSttD Deni»ok, Esq. 
I tnut you will eifuw ihs libi 






GavHTnor-aeiiera], the 
Tiption of which I 



Yduc very humble iervant, 

LEWIS MAHKHAM. 

Mr. J. R. Miles desired to know if any 
of the members present could give any in- 
formation with respect to the blight, which 
is found to be attacking cabbages and tur- 
nips in the vicinity of Sydney ? 

Mr. Meston asked if t]ie disease pro- 
ceeded from the root? 

Mr. Miles said, the under sides of the 
leaves are first attacked, and that some 
person had proposed a solution of bitter 
aloes as an antidote, which he thought 
would he a. rather expensive corrective. 

Mr. Matthews remarked, that the insect 
was of a green color, and that he had seen 
it on the upper sides of the leaf. 

Mr. Richards thought, that a strong de- 
coction of tobacco would be found to stop 
tile spread of the disease. 

Mr. T, W. Shepherd considered that the 
disease was caused by the weatlier. 

Mr. Graham found that it was spreading 
throughout the colony, and that it was 
prevalent at Victoria. 

Mr. Creswick informed the meeting, that 
the disease was known among the garden- 
ers as the " Dolphin," and was of opinion. 




that an application of tobacco water would 
be found an efficacious remedy. 
SononuH Saccharatuh. 

Mr. Miles observed, that the Sorghum 
BaccharatHm was undergoing a great change, 
and that he thought much credit waa du« 
to Mr. F. Creswick, for bringing it so pro- 
minently before the public. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd said, that he per- 
ceived, through the reports in the papers, 
that in the district of Bathurst, the people 
are laying down a large quantity of sae- 
charatum, from which they talk of making 
sugar, and suggested that the society should 
publish some instructions for making sugar 
from this valuable grass. 

Mr, Miles proposed — That local socie- 
ties should be requested to communicate 
all the facts they could obtain with re- 
ference to this plant. 

Mr. Meston said he intended to lay it 
down as a permanent pasture. 

Mr. Creswick observed that it was first 
thought to be an annual, but fact had 
proved it to be a perennial, and that it 
can bo propagated from cuttings. 

Mr. Shepherd stated that Mr. R. Hill 
had cut the sorghum three times, and then 
taken a large quantity of seed from it. 

Taro. 

One of the members inquired if the 
edible Taro was in the colony. 

In reply, Mr. Shepherd observed that 
the Taro used by the Pitcaim Islanders 
had been in the colony for a long time, 
Cleartno. 

Mr. Shepherd had noticed that the treei 
had been cut down at the sides of our 
itryroads for the purpose of drying them 
after rains, &c,, and thought it wouid be 
better to take them up by the roots instead 
of cutting them down, which would re- 
quire doing very often, and prove very 
expensive in the long run. 

The gentlemen proposed at the last 

seting were confirmed as members, no 
ballot being demanded. 

ThB following gentlemen were proposed 

members ; — W. Ross, Esq., Merbuam; 
E. Morey, Esq., Euston, Lower Darling ; 
Stephen Cole. Esq., ditto. 

The following notices of papers was 
given for next month ; — 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd— Native Plants, 
and the Pastoral, Agricultural, and Horti- 
cultural Resources of Australia. 

Agriculture, and the neeessity for » 
better »yitem of eullivation, by Mr. Lewis 



122 



mAGazlve ov science and art. 



Markiam, Armidale, forwar'led by thi 
President. 

Description of a Rfapmg Machine in- 
vented by Mr. Lewis Markham, of Armi- 
dale, accompanied with .a working model, 
forwarded by the President. 

Tlie next monthly meeting will be held 
on Tuesday, 1st December. 



I THE DESTRUCTION OP COLONIAL 

Bv R. HK3T0[t, Esi)„ OF RocKT R>r»n, 
Weedi ue 'ba thletei or Ihc ull." AUgiiii. 

Ceiduui :— CuppB ulbuliqiui." ViTg- 
e veeia 1 Any jilanB growing in auperabm 



weeds. Theoal^oii tlTe Lnwer Hontarand the laiubof-o 
plant ; the last of which nas introduced aeor Scone lor 
the pnrpowofobtuaioK the colonring matter known bj 
that niLine, 1int afterwards neglected, are eiam)>1a, that 
oBsfal plann may become noxious weeds. So here- 
booDdA and niarigelds, with immerona othen, now 
CDDibsi the BDxl where wheM and aiai^o once were Or 
might be proilni.'ed. 

undcrstaiid Bach jilanta aa have never been cuMvated, 
nra uoaitively injuriooa to land, oaaloaa tor aip, nay 

of tbe first a.BfBl denanciation on the gronnd. 

As a Britjah farmer in by-gone years, it wai lield to 
ba a special duly, aliko causing myaelf and neigbbonrs, 
to wage a constant warfare against docks, ragweed, 
thiatlts of snndry kinds, crowfoot, conchgrass, wharlotk. 
nrrel, spany et multis aliis. Here in Australia only 
B few M those as yet begin to appeu' j but, instead, 
some vary formidaul? foes to the pastoral and ^^cnl- 
tural interests haVQ been introdoeed, which threaten to 
defy the efforts of man to iirevept their dissemination, 
AnioQgrt these, the woods known by the names of 
Ba.tbuist burrs and milk thistles at present claim more 



r have sprung int 



BJ the preaenee of man 



bf his sheep or 

Bane Nature is a great reformer, lint 
quenlly wonld seem ratliet indifferent boi 
brings aboac her reformatioDS, Ths old lady tt 
her alrong partiality to eJii/ts. o ' -' ' 



diiadvuitageons to man, ma 
particaUr. Henco an indel 
■9^ bo soeceedod by indeiinit 



whether beneficial 



Q feel 






n be displaced by tho d 



esjor 



Kohl gives a veiT graphic description ol 
burien, Infeetiug the Rossian ateppo^ w} 



ofllie weed-q. 

.0 'the wall of China. 
HiijfjBS are mnst common, of what species ha does not 
t^ OB, Tlie agriculturist mantaioa a perpetual strag- 
^e afpiinat thi^se Imricn. and fire alone is the weipQO 



impleto I 






»4t. -That pel 

■woist weeds the wool growers have to contend with. — 
■ and the rarduus marianns, or milk thistle, takes its 

^tn. Uow to eradirals these plagues in the most 
^ftuxi manner is tlie problem to be solrix], and a 
Hfe jattnersbip in the aydney Hoi-dcaltura! Improve- 
irentBociati(--the Piiin. 

" '■ ■ '" -'■-' '' -.1 the AllwisOiODiplj 




pta\iim<iKig jXtW v>d iibUiuils aeainst vli] 
iiajiiis rf man, (W, oeUoT dcstmofives) 
raised, with the abondant means ibr taking 
themselves. In the two weeds especially naj 
find eiamples of two very different wan br 
similar results are sccomplisbed in the u ' 
tribntinE their seeds. The B. burr s«dB 
those of the thistles, alated or wingecl. BaiT seeds, 
may be convered, unwittingly hy their most titter 
hit«i,toBl1 {wictsoFOie compass. Thev are icBltOTe^ 
abroad, by stjckiog in ths tnana, tails, or legs if 
horses I or hy cattle or sheep, migratory flacks iuqib 

himaeir. They wilt slick closer than some conMAlES 
to their priionere or bulilf to a delator. But the downi 
thistle seeds fly about with every pulF of wind, and fln^ 
access to every hole and comer. When pmnittodj bl 
mature their. soeds, the art of mania vun is enplofod 

It is verv doublfnl if buming itself is snffitaeDt at 
all times to deitroy the vitality of Burr soeda, aldiiHigh 
fire certainly makes a pretty sure exterminator. BU 
futile are all nttenipts la burn when once the sc«da an 
[ipened. The concDssiou of cutting down shake* out 
ono moiotv of the seeds, tie act ofcollertiop in ^eana 
allows otJiors to drop, and a part will pwhnadowly 

tuteofamatallio anrface. In fact any attempt to "t^ 
down matured borts or tliistles may bo dcnonUDiteS 
labour uselessly expended, tending only to incnuie, not 
diminish the evil. 

Milk thistle seeds sre eaten hy birds. By thtir 
rotundity, these and mauy other varieties escape the 
triturating actian of the grinding giuniila, aiid so ire 



tered ovei 






isuredly relied od for cbecldlig 
or erauicate, ere tho seeds no 
her cdunie is available, trecf 
mostor, ooght at all timM W 
for cnttjug- down and eradio- 
rjiil what united and lealonsly 
complish. Shepherds ouglitta 

„ of dislike to compulsory en- 
. it would not be excessively harrowing to Hha 
writor'a feelings, if he tew a little sage legislation 
apfUed tothis subject. There is no law m this colony 

they a™ 



shepherd, overse 
be armed with a 



IFiih s' 






,rehy m ^ 
qe thieves m the 
1 take up and rout 
i. So tbe barrs i 



.t tbe 1 



jMply 

IS ready and willing to 

u>.Lifi i.i':iu i uuL 1.XICJ1 lwo of his neighhoui« — ' 
le — talk aliontit — tmdlhat i» all. AssDoawill 

Buera unite for any nsofol purpose until dire 
ity drives fliem, perhain a little ton late, to 
Je for the common good both of ihemselvea uid 

. altho' the advice to " cut down the weed M« 
rare { yat tlw Ml 

nay be c"alled in ai'^uSb'in^ 

, with great propriety. We shall require all ^ 
pons and all onr enereios. 

1 open and tolerably Svel grounds repeated rolBuf' 
h^ ''"""d of ■great advantage as oitJrpaioiB,^ A 



I of this m 






soon crush down whole scrOajf !t 
to walk through the thistlea.^SlJ 
lewhen young and succuIbbI. Twq 



le weeds beoin *g;i& 
> destroy alt tfiistWii 
Britain, and the plfai 



is wut^y of a trial in Australii 

•»w weeds growing on footpaths or beaten traefca, or 





hiTfllKitliiB plenty. 

■ CominOD Hilt amonf British 

reiaiil u a wif-dHisainy runonn), op, eicitant nitliui- 

Sciencfl ncotDmends iu acliuiitur& witb othpr aab^ 
nea. A. beau mode ap iq the projiortiuu of twa 
iheta lime with one of salt, and allowed In Temain for 



operates a 






id benoftdal changes 
nftt for the 
the health 



growth of «Md», but „ .., _ 

vf aay cereal cTucifonn or UgnmiDona 
ur planbod Ihnrein The expenara ok hucii ;«iLi(i:uv» 
would be more than coDipenaaUd b; extra feniliCy, ir- 
respectivaof tliedastmctiontoaU sona of weeds : a very 
denrable dflsidoratdifl, if no other beaefita were gained. 
Fourthly : on arabla lands it b a ffood plan to scarify 
the aiMiCfl as .Boon as yonnn^ crops or weeda have sprung 
up. A'aingld jilooghuig fSr the most part will destroy 
the whole lot. But it is fur from nnosoal that, by a 
deeper farrow, of a few inches, otyriads of seeds have 
bees turned Dp which had been buried below the vege- 
tating depth, and shod grow np into amazing cmps of 
most hHtecogenaous vegetatioii when diaintorred. In 
Buch raaea, and to clean the land aright, a summer 
fallowing is the tma cemedy, A clean fallow is a 
cheap fertiliior eitenninating all weeds and also gen- 
oratiuf^ new grasses. When sails have been thoroughly 
piilven»d, they are renderod more capable than pre- 
viously of retaining moiatoio, a very requisite quality 

abundantly scjisrated, and the oxide of iron so plentiful 
in our colonial lands, is partially neuttaliied. 

The advanta^ of good farming may be summod up 
in a few words : they may confer a ffreat common vood, 
and yield to the proutitioneiB — paying ^roKts. 









mihilate all 



mother Important poi 
a of insacta and vermin 
This utilitarian vitality is 



ling, and racking 



all horticulturists, agni 

dulturists, if the word is legitimate, if not, please 
legaliie it. for the whole are included within the pale 

moderate use of alkalies in the soil would hu found 
viry advantagooua to Ite ownort of vineyards, for 
nentcalinng the natural acidity of their colonial wines. 

maturing in the grapes ^emselVes, wonld operate 

favouralily than all the fining and """' ' 

and aulpliurinE. and artificial 
skill can suggest. It is admitted that eradication 
would be the most e&ctive process of destroying weeds. 
For this porpoee an iDstrnment has been invented, 
called a weeding pincers, not unlike a bladumiths 
tnugs. Such a tool might be very nse^l for rooting up 
stragglers; bnt where weeds are countless the work <u 
eradiialioa gets hopeless, and tlie task is relinquished 
iu dcsjiair. Over wide aieaa, the system of cutting 
down at all times except when seeds become ripe makes 
the readv practical remedy. Doubtless, a few will 

apioiufrom the old if--'- ""-■-- ■--' ■- — 

ever to the youngw 
down, and in this eicti 

it ii an imparitive anty bo warn tne co[om 
the rumei. the dock begins to ^)rBad abroad in 
parts of the conntiy. Tha B. burr eicepted, 
pendcious weed could not annoy a colony t 
dock. Its seeds count by thonsaoda-. its rooli 
pate to every fibre, one npe dock is gnite ei 
stack a whole station with young rumtces. W 
fiiund this weed it pliguf^ sufBcient. 












ir^ogioedlhaC be had tbnnd avaloable nondescript 

which ho pn>pQsed transplanting into his gardon during 
auCum, as a reapertalile flock owner in the Darling 
Downs iii&litated doing for a 8. Burr, when, aa an nn- 
known plant, he first found it flourishing on hiss-aiion. 






villaii 






There is anutber bnrr producing weed which seema 
follow in the walks of sheep, after indefinite periods 
" -■' - Atfirst it looks like a trefml, andcer- 



themselvca pcrtluaceously to the legs and thigha 



i^ 



wDolly fibre. Not so 
machinery invented is adequate to remove it. 
pickini atone con detach this peruioous seed. 
Iowa, that by how much more the wool cosla a 



isfc"; 



band pick 
»iye &r 1 



we sink 



rtouphSd. By sending ill tot up and bnrt 
ig Australiaa wool bales to Bridsu markets, 
our good name and reputation in Enropean 

The bastard trefijil burr may bo ojoctod this way. 
Sow the seeds of any valuable grass which will diaplaca 
it. Any grasses of a contrary nature adapted to the 
cliraato of the dlstrictwill havethe desired effect. In 
short, to ci^rpaCe these curses of the soil, and their 
names are l^an» the vigorous ellbrta of a resolutely 
nniled body called all hands, firmly determined to ei' 
lermioate a great agricultural and pastoral evil, are 
absolutely reqnired- 

. Hoh nan thb most unusoal co-oporafion be attained ? 
Proposed then' — - 

1st. That all persons holding Ooyomment landa 
nuder annual leases, who use not their earnest endear 

leased, shall not again have their leases renewed | and 
no leases are to be renewed on any terms without a 
weed doatroyingclauseineach. Theroportof theCrown 
Land Commissionur or of any Police Bench on the tea - 
timonyof two creditable witnesses shall determiita the 



1 of landed proprietors may be at 



3rd. The in 
posed luffiriEn , 

ties free from the corse of the ground. If 



proper- 
.e snppo- 
required 

at ^^n ^e 



fulfilment. 

3tb. Every stockholder beyimd tJio bDUndaries wita 
neglects to pAuerve his mnclear of bfUTsandilljarioua 
weeds shall forf^t all claim to renewul of ucnnse. 
whether at the expiry of eight or dF fantteen yean, as 
the duration may be, on no conditions ii*ntayBr. The 
evidence gf three reputable wiloesses before 



ie,held as suSdl 
N.B. By the * 



1 negl* 



which auij h 

. The thistle ^.. 

a totally different f™ 



Magistrates will 
tiBlood bnns. 



The nunt proper time for cuttinir down this Inrr ii 
precisely when the plant she»a full fl 
afror. it ia maintained bv many ll 
Kiinomm (B. burr) b au annual ' 
dtiDB Duimu), or milk thistle. 

►V • - 




MiOAZINE OF SCIESCB lUlD ART. 



By dillgenea tbey therefur 
itm^ed. And. to prove tbu 
ifSaudilsn^oalhe Cbreics, 
tbo pecuicioUB burr. {■ anw tliarou^hly c 



tiliu, lb( 
» fuil of 

tb* liceniee). Mnan. 



B. ME3T0N. 



in illuatration of the mode of application 
«f the Italian wheat straw, si;eds of which 
were forwarded by Mr. King of Irrawang, 
Mr. F. Creswick read the following paper. 

Some jears since, several efforts neie made to 
introduce the nianuEioturB of straw hats into Eng- 
land, so as to resemble Ibpse made al, or in tW 
aeiglibourhood of, Leghorn ; the proper variety of 
of wheat was introduced and cultivated, but, I be- 
lieve, was not attended with auccess, aa the atraw of 
Rye was fonnd prererable. 

Leghombats are made from Ibe 



t, know 



n Tuscj 



it is largely cultiiated for that pnrpo! 
giana, marzuolo, or maizulano. It is much culti- 
vated in the neighbourhood of the Amu, betneen 
Leghorn and Florence. When required for the 
manufacture of hats, the seed is sown very thick, 
upon poor sandy soils, and is pulled when the ear 
is (iilly shot, but before the grain is formed. 

This variety is a! very humble growth, u a good 
crop does not eiceed eighteen inches in height. It 
IB considered an eicellent wheat for vetmicoUi or 
uiaccaroni; also for making bread. 

After being pulled, it is Ibea bleached, by being 
spread out and watered, much the same as flax. 
Aitet bleaching, it i« tied up in bundles, and carried 
to the barn, or other appropriate place, where the 

Cfor making hats are selected, which is the straw 
een the ear and firat jninl, no other part being 
•eiviceable for that purpose. 

On selecting the part on which the spike grows, 
they are classed or stapled, like wool ; the eourse 
and fine straw separately. The coarse nr thick are 
giitn out to ehildren, or inferior hands, while the 
fine or best straw are worked by good hands only. 

One peculiarity in the manufacture of the so- 
called Leghorn bat is, that the straws are not split, 
ai u the case with the kind known as tlie Dunstable 
hat or bonnei, manufactured at Dunstable, in 
Bnglaad, and in the Orkney Islands. The plait h 
always worked with thirteen straws, which, by the 
peculiar manner of plaiting, are not sewn together 
at the edges, nor overlapped. The straws are worked 
when very wet, for which purpose each person is 
fiunished with a jar, which is filled with cold water, 
in which the bundles at straws are put in, as re- 
quired; it softens the straw, and assii>ts the worker 
ia plait fine, and makes it appear as if drawn toge- 
ther, without which quality it is not considered 
good. To obtain the whiteness, so much required, 
it is imolted with snlpbur, previous to being worked, 
also after being worked; and, la^y. alter being 
fbrmed info thehatorboouet,— -itiidonebyplsoing 
a ahafiiig dish, filled with sulphur, and set fire to, 
in a large box, or small close room ; soroetimea the 
blenching requires repeating two or three times. 

The mode of plutrng In as follows ;~the straws 
Imng picked, and put into separate bundles, accord- 
ing to their quality ; let thirteen of them be t^keo 
and ^ed fimily together by the seed ends; attach 
them to anything, such as the hack of a chair, to 
keep them ateddy ; then take hold of ihe loose end 



rthe'dhi*!^ 




. l(!.palH..gih(<tMwsi! 
auu icven Inte the other. Take the outennost, 
with it [ztoss over two, then carry it behind the 
two, and lastly before the remaining two ; 
which, lay the straws into the sther pared of 
The first parcel of six, being now ' 



the< 



mdle by two, a 



■ of it 



Ute, 



.se, laying at lut 
the outer parcel, at beferc. 
It will be understood, that the outermost straw of 
each parcel is always made the acting straw ; and 
that, in the progress of the operation, each of the 
straws of both parcels are thus employed in its tuio. 
I do not pretend to gice a full deUil of all die 
operations required in the manufiicture of itri* 
hats or bonnets, ndtber am I sure if. irith onr 
limited supply of the kind of labour requiicd, we 
shall be able to compete with ulher older andmore 
thickly populated comitries. But, as Mr. King 
baa been so kind as to introduce the proper varied 
of wheat, I hope to see those very u^eFiil, and cer- 
lainly. in this warm climate, comfortable wrticlu. 
straw hats and bonnets, manufactured in evert 
homestead. 

FREDERICK CRESWICK. 



PIULOSOPHIC.U- SOCIETY, 

In pursuance of onr intention to publish 
the early papers read before tltis Society, 
we herewith present our readers with Pro- 
fesaot Pell's paper, read July 11, 1856, 



I have endearoured in the fallowing paper tn liu- 
mioB some general principles tnta which to aacei^ 
under what rircumslances railways are really cai(h- 
rive to the material pmsperity of a commonity. 

The moral and reOgious advautijes which fwre iBDi 
so much insisted upon as reanltinj fVom these meui oT 

ever the magnitude or importance of these advamuei, 
it is obvious that, in the natural cnorse of the eo^ur^. 
they occupy a secondary place- The lirat qnHtiaa u, 

proposed undertaliingi ? If this be answered in Qia 
affirmativa. then no doubt can reu " - .. 

proper conraa to be pnrsued. If, he 
trary, it should appear highly proliaEtie uuLt a cerlBUi 
matctiat Icgb to ths community wonld bo the coi»- 
quence of caxryiug aai the proposed wfM'ks, thea a 
qaisiion wholly diitiiu.-t from the first might arise. 
Will the proposed works confer upon the oommiuiiCT 
such important moral benefits aa to j ostiff the material 
loss? Tbore is no room for the oonsideratioo of Hoi 
secondary qneition until the linit is finally aettled and 
put aside. So long as the cwa qusstioas ats jnmUri 
toffetiier. as tbey usually are. there ia no poHBihiliWcf 
of reasoning clearly on the snbject, and very littl* 
chance of arriving at right eonolusiona. ' 

As a conntry advances in ponnlatioa and prosperiQ, 
impm^ments in the means of commnnication iMcasie 
ancceasively eipedient In the early life of nuatniB- 
munitiea there la utioie whenaothiup more can be daaa 
than what is neussary to render the inhatiited distrida 
accessible. Tracks are cleared, and riven spanned by 
the mdest bridges. There is a time when it wonld ba 
a loss 10 the coujiannity to perform anything mon Aan 
Aero necessary preUmmary operatiDOs. This may bt 
nnderstood moreclearly if we suppose, in tie first place, 
that the track is used by one man only, and thftt any 
imjirovement must be made, if at all, at his own e h 
pea^e, or by the labour of his own hands. Let ns iqp. 



MAGAZUfE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



threedan in tke three Vaara. i>i it. in ten dayi. he 
otuld e^ecl a, permajiEDt imprgvemBnt which wonld 
uv« him one day's libniir in the year fiir an indsflnitB 
DDte, it miglll, howBter happen tliat he could Bipend 

advantage. Or again, if the lm]irov«nent cim\d be 
made by the expenditure of a gum of money, the in 

it wonTd be manifeatly ailviaable to leave the road ia 
ia origioal state. But if tht.mnnnt of goodt to be 
traiLiponed incrsiuiea from year to year, the imnual loa 
of labour on account of the badness of the read in- 
creaaea in the same preportioa. and at last bccamea n 
jreat aa te JEUttify the eivcnlJOD of the repaira. 

The luJOe principies applj" ganerally to a road made 
use of by a coinmunitT, a-hioh should lie maintained in 
luch ^ itate of repair that tLe total aavin|j; may be eqai- 
vaient to Iho ei^ienu incurred in cGecting it. Any 
eipenditare beyond this ironld he so much waste. 

peditnt to maoldamiu the toad .an attempt is generally 
made to threw the etpenae of ttmitraction aad inaiute- 
eaj) tha i 



etnensB or Omitraction sod 
re directly upon thoie i*ho tea]) tha ndvantagB, 
■ay an attempt, for it ia ' ' ' -- . . 

and pay nothiaii. ab that some must pay more the 
Ihey ahould do in strict Justice, or a portion of the gj 
peDW must he detrayeduy the cominuniti' at larire. 

If it happen in --my saso that the tolla are not" snB 
dent to pay the intereU aima the money eipeoded an 
the mat of roajntenancc. we cannot from this circun 
■taoce alone infer ^at dw benefit to the camrat ' 



t to the 



^ipen; 



9 should 



jr the road ia of UBu 



pay in 



benefit which he roceiren, and to the cost incurred in 
priKaring it. It is not from any doubt as to the nsund- 

bat hecanae thare are many circnmstances t3o obvioua 
to require parttcalar notice, which render it inconveniont, 
if not impossible, to do so. And, morsoier. the injui' 
tice committed on account of the impErfent application 
of the principle ia genernUy too tiillmg to occaaion any 






eipended, and the coat of maintenance — then the road, 

the rHonriAB of the comnimuty. The mils arc paid as a 
matter of neessailj. no other means of commonication 
eiisting; but they are paid nnwillinglv, they are te- 
jarded aa a iurden — it is felt ^at the adyantagc gained 
IS not proportionate to the looney paid . 

When a eonotry liccomea donsefv populated, and the 
tPuWc consequently largie. a adil further improvemi-'nt 

HsperieoOF baa proved Chat under fnvonrable circum- 
Btanees a railway. With steani locomoliie power, aflbrds 
4ie most ecoDomical mode of ronducUog the traffic. It 
maf be shown in manycttaea that the actual cost of car- 
naga>'inclTiding eiery expense, is leas, in same cases 
much lesa, than upon ordinary roads. There can bo no 
donbt that in some conntriea the introduction of rail- 
irays has been attended with advon^gea anIBcient to 
repay their enonoona cost. 

Id calCDiatIng the probable cost 
proposed line, fram the results of 
fating lines, we mi 



carnage upon any 
jierieaee npoa ei- 
misd that, that cost will 



ads of UUiur to be employed in conducting th* traffic 
i maintaining tha way and works, upon the price af ' 

antity of goods to be carried. This last p«nt— die 
antity of iniods lo be carried — is perhaps the inut 
- -^ ■■ Unril ita amount & aw^ned. DO 



others 



calin 



1 any hope of 



lugatcon 



of statistical i: 
mast carefoUy distiDguiab between the ratea of charge 
and the actual costot carriage, hoaiing in mind. too. 
that in that cost must he included a proportional part. 
of the iatereiit apon the original or'' — 

Let ua start, for instanci " ''' ' 
In the United Kingdom, 

distance of S2j miles, at an average charge of about 

Ifd. ^er mile. Assnuiog Una lo be the real cost, aup' 

ing perfect statistical informatiOD resuect- 

omenta of expease, enabling ae 



W the following fact :— 
hoyear IMT, abODtiei 



d. per mi 
se that, hi 



in the Cnited Kingdom, we find that Che 
cmt here would be 3d. per mn per mile, 
tion would be entirely worthless tbr all p: 
cations, merely proving, that if we 
annually to carry 161 million torn of gon 

distance of 22i miles. """' " 

effect the dedred tran^t 
mile. We should still 



Parramatta Hailwav . 
inibrmation as Co the 



la compars 
y with that 
rreaponding 

ibr all practical appli- 

na of goods an average 

(Bt of 3d. per ton par 

anld enable os to effect 

iharge per ton per mile on tha 
6d. this f: ■ "■ ■ 



^-T" 






I proposed line. All 
not based apon well 
intry and district nn- 
e very natncB of tha 

[D the expedient 



Vber 



^ity under 
rhich 1 belie VI 



eh such nndertakini 
scettain whether tl 



ipo^don ^—llie material 
not advanced by the con- 



lurces. then in jost auch a degr< 



. is the chief object uf this 
expressed in the following p 
prtHperity of a commnnity i 
scroctioo of railwavfl, until 

community are niAi that the revenue derived trom t 
traflk cu, by a proper adjustment of the charges, 
mada sufficient to pay the workiog; expenses and the cc 
rent rate of interest upon the outlav. If with the BK 
advantageons arrangement of the charges, there 

a dofideocy. - ' -■- " - — ^ -' ' '- 

from other a 

It is not implied ia this proposiliaii that railw^ii 
shonld be looked to as a direct source of p^oS^ or that 
the principal object to be kept in view is a large money 
retim. I do not regard the moQev return as uta abject 
of these undertnkiDg hot as the test of their real'ntiJity . 

Supposing a railway constructed at the public expens* 
and under the control of Oovenment, the whale east at 
working and maintaining it. and the interest uodb tha 
capiiAl expended, must bo paid by the public, either in 
the form of fares nod charges, or through some mode of 
taxation nut connected with the railway. If we reganl 
the fares and charges as a lax, no tai could possibly bu 
more equitable, for I maintaia that it would fall apon 
every penon deriving ben>>fit from tha establishment 
whjch Ibe tax is intended lo support, and in a degrea - 
exactly proportional lo that benent. It is a miitaka 




ind that -J 



M^AlilNE OF SCIENCE j 



Soppwe, tor inalinre. tint in conBcqoence of a rail- 
way, produce is liniughC la a (^Mtain niirkel. Tlit 
railnaf is ao ailmnisge to the pcuducer wis gets :i 
hi^bor ]irice tor Iiis cummodiriM, noil ra the consumti 
who, in Fousequenceoftlie ndditional aupulf. is emiblnl 
to prnviile himBelf aX tk rsdoct-d rste.i If an addition 
be made to tbo iail'^ajr ubar^ita, it will full 



ailwajr ubarftes, it will 

laodiK'B will be witlidrawB in consegDeoce of tbu in- 
creased charges. Tfae sanply being diininisbod. tbe 
macket j^rice Mill luc. The pcodscec uiU pay mare 
for arAign, but will be p»rtly recoiaponiBd bv tlie 
increa^ of tlie market price, ^bicb s paid hy tbe 

It is easy to point ont coses in «)ileh Cbe nholo cost 
of carriagfl is really paid by the ptodncar, and in erery 
aucb case he alone, of all persona coacemiid in the jiaf- 
dcalar transaction, it benefitted by the lailroad, Kod 
apon him would any additional cbii^ lie ImviH. This 
would k»ppea with reap«* to ptodnee intaided for ei- 
portatjon, and which would liave been bronght to the 
seaside even if tke railway had not been made. Tba 
pmdocer alone derives advsQiage Train any [eduction 
effeekd by tba railway in tlio coat of cartia^, and he 
alone pays the charges* all other persons concamed in 
the tranaactioa being ia exactly the same position as 

I thonid cicced the limits of this paper by entering 
into a minute analyses of the various caees winoh svg- 
gvt thenosalvQS hnc I am convinced that an attentive 
innsideratiDn will sho'.v that the same law holds good 

by the railway are notdirectly of apccouiary character. 

■ Sncli beins the case, it is manifestly tJie duty of a 

Qovemm(?nt having the control of a railway bo to 

ibTe self-Buppol 
..j.foriti«WBlI 
beyond which, if the chATges be raised, Che proceeds 
dimiuisb, the passangera ami goods withilcawD more 
than compensating iur Che advanced ratca. New, Ic 
ns SDppiMe, the charges having been adjusted u as to 






otJisr (outce. 



a advantage. 



IT^Sa'^M." 



provide you with this advantage, 
BUni annually — you arc paying 1 
doT' — ^sobmit to an increased rE 
inst reply wDald be, " Wti acknowledge the advantage, 
botws are the best judf,'e> af the value that advantatp? 
is Co us. To pay mora than we are now paying would 
be just so much loss to ua." The Govei'omgW would 
onfy reply, "No doubt you aretlie best jndgi 



re will bi 



s the fori 



will V 






lathe 



will yield the required ai 
JO escape froui the cenclosion that in 
ailvay is a burden. The refiisal to 
'-' ■"-'-' ^ --y all tt 



incnrred, is made on behalf of the whole cnnimu 
It is DuULe producer aloue who r^stis to pay 
thai] a cartain price for nnding liis gouds to ma 
J^ ■ certain d^ree he acts as ihe agent for every 
Sin ia die whole country in any way intoreated 1J_ 
traniiiction. If it wete for the advantage of the e 
suiuer that the produce should be binught to niarl 
ha would offer such a price for it as would ™al,li. 
prsdncet to pay the increased charge, ths ac 



L carriage. 
I ^-- In this 

ft #<ot.imumty 
■ iithanoelves 
I i^nsed. whici 
^ perfeiitly e^ 



nif e' 



'ere included in the list 
the railway, Mid if a 
ihoold fall upon every 
irfefltly cquilahle proportion. Kvan uniier these ii 



disadrantmB, woald be ooliged to pay iLieir sluKe piT, 
the east The fares and charge are a poitbcttv eijnl- ' 
ubletai. Wbcnin the manner just det^criliiil, that 
tas becomes nu %rtbor pmdocdve, when the p»opl» la 
thefreeeiBrcisBofthair owl judgment li-liise to IHL7 
auy DKire, thennmstsomelai be imp<«e>l ludBi^rrlBi- 
oauly Dpoa thwe who are benefitted, tUlme who am oat 
lienefitten, and those who are injured by tlie eatablidi- . 

Two examples will show more clearly, in Uie Srst 
plaoe, the losa to the'cmq^onity, and in die second, tlie 
nnhist advantage confenxd upon individuals. 

a plentifiil supply of 3 tettaio mineral, "hirii beotiiilil 
sell tolhecapt[unofafi>reig»ahipin)>ort, 1'ot£6 IBs, 
and anppose ilia eommodi^to bo sold iniiB»li»teljr 
out of the cWmtry. to simplify, without altertiig ae 
nature of the tr.-uitactian, A r^lwuv we cimetjiM to 
ha mode by which this mineral may tie brought tt the 
sea))ort, and tliecliar^es having been atljiisi^ so as l» 
secure tbo luaiimuiu returns, let the charge upon A* 
mineral be £9 per ton. the acCiml rust of xrcaoMiSi 
it £7. Here is a commndily which would he with- 
drawn if the rlinrgas were raised so far as to eovsr'tlie 
en^re cost of triuspoi't. Under ciiiitng rates, how- 
ever, the poaseGsor of the ipiueral calculates that « 
profit oflOs per ton will be enflirUnt to iemuneials 
li'm (or his own trouble, to pav the ordinarv nt* nf 
upon tko C(ti>ital which lie may ruqcire to tn- 



e proftlB oJ 



diateir com 
wil then he 
luctr wi 1 D 

The h 1 ^is a -a h 
behind In ordta to 

Sj[l by the people a 
a time and cap ta u 
Jn ngum thing wo 
at£l The tradii Cbns unn u 



iny peisona a 



' eiportation and tli<t pri' 

of lOs pe ton Naf 1% I 

aff t, ha nmiuuW 



hmg 



-instead of rei.emai aur 
ne-al £,1 je ton n^ 
10 gei 11 remos LU. roraiarj t on that is eipoi^^ tte 
country loses tliat ton. and^^na £1. 

lint soppose there he Mother more forttmala pir- 
aon in the same locality posacaing a supply of otideral 
fur which be can ohtaiu at the seaport £7 IDs. 'pet ton. 
The charge for carriage. ai in the former case, uX6j 
the coat to the GovGranipnt, £7. From every (on ex- 
ported tlie producLiC derives a profit of 30s., twenty of 
whiifh are in reality paid to him out of tfae f ablio 

I have no doubt that it will be urged aa an -ti^ae^ 
tion to tliis reasoning, that there is no real Use bi A*- 
case supposed if the £7 expended does not ga aab^, 
the country. Tlie fallacious principle involved idVS 
objection haa been advanced, and in some dej 
opuu, from time immemorial. lEbas heen co 
refoted, and aa continually repMlnced is 1 
' and the ptoBpef - ''" ^- 





.JIA'JAZIXE OF SCIEXCK AND AET. 



miuntaiiied, v 



iva itork.. KVilora. it 
1 eniiie, fcr the tnunriy 

B i»i|if<nd«1, and if i\w QparaXima van 

(111 lOalc niirlil uiiglit be rr.'diiced to a nate of miaer; 
alii itatvjdiaa, 

TUb Vfliole difficulty aiisea finiu viewing tho cau 
througli what ili'iillod lir Mills tho ■■haiy medinmaf 

tmwn pappose:!! M be cha toat of carri^ in a particalar 
csw, dues not go out of tho CDaocry, tlien of canrae 
iboi'e is no ocCuul gijienditan of money on tbe part of 
the coiDinuiiitv- Tho £T in made uu of in tbe emplor- 
ineut of labour and caiutal. If £5 out of tho £7 be 
paid in tlie tonn of vra^ tft|D £5 worth of ordioary 
articlea DfcoDSDiapdoniaBIpwided in iinpporting tbe 
labourere. Thej' would hk™ coaanmod the name 
amount jierhaps if ths railway had sue eiiated ; but in 
^hlor to obtain that amoiuictlioy must havo boeu cm- 
ul«ved directW or indireMI)' in prodndng aomethioE 
to ibe value of at least £6. The nmairiSig £2 iiaid 
lor ike 1U0 of capital ia also loat, for the same capital 
might bare been otbofwise ptodnWivoly amuioyed. 
The loss ia not occamoned by the circuiusMnce that tho 
sum of £7 changes bands, hat by the wiibdiaval of 
labMiaod capital from full productive employment, 
it may be objurtpd. »l», tothaar; - . i i. . 

1.^.^ ^.^S^ ^1^ <k._* *1..,^ I»,.J 4^ .1... 



ing, because ihey dl 



ol, thai they lead- 
and mgs- 
icaosethi 



fbi. 



Fonclasion tha 



Ji is aimplj', 

eltahliahinent&alludedto do pay, in Ibeaenn wmui ± 
hold W be Deueasary to its real utility that b railway 
BhOUld pay, ThopBO!)lBgenarally reap tbe benefit of 
tbepDhlic eslablishmenta, and tbe people pay for them, 
libimpossible to deteiBiine in wh;it exact proportJon 
tllis beoetit is divided; it is impossible to determine 
Miue house is proBBTVPd fiom pillage or »hose person 
fmai violence { or in any particular case what the pro- 
tecttoD^ aUbrdod costs ; but one thing ia certain, the 
pQiqile'u a wbole consider the sdrama^ of Gorern- 
mtmC aa oquivaleat at least, lor the cost. No free 
peoplo WDufd B^mit to Ooverament under auy other 
MBditicni. Every pobliu establishment, nnder good 
and ^coaomical nnmagamenl, and snilable in cbaractoT 

every such estahlishiueni i>ayB. There remailis, how- 
ever, after ihenlility of an estaijlishmeut is recugnisad, 
tbe secoudnry, thoagh very important political problem, 
to bo soiled, how shall the bnrdeo be most cqnitablv 
diitrihuCsd? This problem, which does nut appear in 
general to admit of so eiactaolutiou, prcwnla no di91< 
catty, as 1 have endeavoured to show, in the ca« of a 

If It were passible, which of coarse it never can he, 
to detenoine how and in what degree every person de- 
tivec|iIO&t or advantage iium public eslaUiahmenIs, 
and in Mcfa partUulac case to withhold that nroRt or 
advanCwe DDtil its coat ha paid, (hen vould all roally 
OBeful Gaverauienc iustiCutuins become self ^snpportiiij;. 

Thera Are caaes, however, aa every one knows, m 
which a few poolde may submit to taiatiou for the anp- 
iiort of inslitntiaBanotreallyBdvantageoas. Thebardei 
nay be too ligUUT felt M amosB a sufficient effort to 
th««rit off; or the people may be deceived as to the 
tfaT value of an tBtablisbment maintained at their 
eiueiue. But with respect ta a railvrav, when once in 
1. there wonld be no num for doubt. The 
. . irhich could be collected in the form of charges 

Himld he the exact measure of its value aa estimated 
by the whole community. 

In considering, thaterore, tka expediency of con- 
- ucting railways at the public expense, the real qaes- 









•topoaod ui 






IB for fni'ilior dispusiiou rei-aim. B 
the revatw,' there are acill drctir 
particular 



consideration. It may be urged, for 
""■ )ugh iJio proposed works wU I 
f trade of the ■ " ■ - -'- 



' foi'diei- 

:ea^a loufora Smc, 
natural growth, will 



vears 




wonld n 


t improve bi kocpmi. 








reallly 




capital o 








Th- 


re is anotUor 




of a BiDgularly paia 


Invirn 


character ■ 




advanced. Admittuij 












of profit, It ia 
neitwouUea 








IMSUcha 




aj.dm 


niequentlyof 







adiction, 



^at the iolis 



little 



within itJBlf a ■ .■ , 

marie. It micht hapiMn indisd that the iolialiitauts of 
a parflcalar district would dcnie groat advantagt- ftoai 
a railway maintained by the couuiry at large ; ihty 
might fatten upon the nsourcea of the rest of the coai- 
mnnitv and grow wealthy at the expense of their ueigh- 
bouis,'bBt tbe whole community would ecarcelj; booeftt 
by the pmceis. There vronid ho an appai'OQt iui^reasa 
hut in reality onlv a caocenttaiion ofwealtli. The ei- 

which more thaa any other leemi to reopen, and jira- 
sent in a new light, ttai qneition under coastderatioo. 
The bearing of thia riteumsunca upon thB_ whole sub- 
iect of rMlwayi, may, I think, mlhout loiung much of 
its generality, he more conveniently diacnssod widi 

Those who have conaidBreS the subject in this par- 
ticular ajipett, have not, I (liiok, very clearly expressed 
their views. If it bo proposed to expend any portion , 
of our existing territorial revenue upon lailwayathe 

propeitv as a commanity, as anything else which is 
oars, it is just and eipedi^nt that it should be ex- 
ponded in die maimer moat condndve to the prosjierity 
of the whole commnnily. There is no teawn why thai 
revenue ratbcr than any ether should he expended upon 

It IS iDUntained, however, and in this liea the 
whole point of the argument, that tlioso works will 
cause an increase in the value of the public lands equi- 
valent to the luoney expended. It is meant. I stippow, 
that (ho monajr borrowed for this purpose may, mlhia 



lofth 



„ moderate tiine, be i^ud di_ 

birritorial revenue ; or, which is the same thine;, that 
we may exchange land for rmlwayH- If the circum- 
stances of thia colony were such that this operation 
could be porforr ' ' ' ' 



._ 1, JiOD, i" think, thera could'ben 

bt as to ita cipediency -. hnt under the same drcnni- 
Lces. it may be shown that a railway as a com- 



Suppot . 

£1,000,000 having been apent njion railwa 
of land become worth and are sold i 



H5*. p 



than '''"r a. 



eally c, 

i,ooo,odo 

ileatilo for 
:tj paya 



— land uader these circumitan ^ 

5s. for the land and £1 for the use of tho rail 
whidi is, tliarefbre, worth to him aonually the interest ' 
upon£l. He wonld he exactly in the same position 1 
if he paid only 5s for the land, and the interest upon 
£1 in the form of an increaw upon the railway charges; 
and this iccreue. when extended to all the iiurcbasurs 



I2S 



sf the 1, 



MAGAZINE OF SUIKNCE ANU ART. 



n the oullaj. The riulway «uald, 
tiialcfore. in tliii cass be ■cCasllv' aelr-asplioning, anil 
egiae^neotl)', acrarJilg to my viow of InM aubjact, a. 
reul odvjuitBgB ut the commaoit^. 

The Euae lessoniog, with lome sUglit moiUBca- 
tioiii, apj'liea to laud ftlresd)' ilienatfd. To suppose 
£1,000,000, otaaj other sum, eijwnded upon railwavB 

in the farm of an locrease Id the valae of priTste pro- 

Ulity. Before the hnldetBafiuch land woald withdraw 
thiiir goaia, that is, reject the adTanlagea of the railwaj-, 
they wonld luhinit to an iuereaw opoo tho chatgL-s ap 
to tbt Full tDtersEt upon £1,000.000, uid the railwa./ 
IDutd thia be made self-anpporting. 

It ii not my inteution to enter upon any Uoetbaaed 
diBcassino »a to tlie eipediency uf tonatruutiog rail- 

iine 10 Goalllatij. Aail ia prettj^ generally admitted 
to ba beyond the leaoarces of this commiuiity at the 
pment time to establish acttUjig afproaclimg to a 
ireneral 17816™ of railways, Uia queatioD whether the 
Tina throogh the Santhern District is likely to bo en- 
tirely independeot of the ^eneml teTOKDe. hBComes of 
great iiDpartance. If the iahahitaats of thit liisirl 



impmFe Ihsjr poaidon relatively to othi 

Ihemulrei, and by dimmiihed coat of cs 
idTBStags in the mukeC over other proi 
complaint can be made; bat that me 



Y^\ 



well said, U 



im^ned. 

Trom aoytJiiag nhich" 



and intolerable as ci 
groimd, kowever. 



irealth. 
»"^"fcr 



loamg, 



,._. j.__ . , , « saSicieat to leave 

anything tot the payment of interest upon the required 
upital. The pupalatins, except in the . immediate 
neigbbnurhood of Sydney, is so small and so widely 
di«pened tiiat a large pasieuger traffic cannot be ei- 
paOei. The goods Iramc is certainly, for the papula- 
tion, very large, but fat too small Co jnEtlfytheaJoptioa 
of so expensive a mode of tiinepnrt as a railway, I 
am in possession of a return, drawn up by the gate- 
kfiepor, sliowing the amount of traffic through th« 
Catn'aHiU Gala during the year 1854. In this relnm 
the Dumber and estibiated load of each kind of vehicle 
is specified. The total nunibet of tons, calculated u 
the supposition that ever ' 
loaded, is 13,909. Dfth 

Berrima, leaving 904O tons lor traffic to and f 
Oonlbum. But except In Che wool (easoB, by far 
;r part of the teturn ' 



over, Che i_. „ 
aiVerage load in each oa 
are made for these uirc 
■ m 8000 to 






When 



rather than 
Blate allowa 



>en Sydney and Gonlbum, the Dumber of to 
ongh the Cam's Hill Gate, includiuji Che lo. 



, r, road from Liverpool ID Camden by 

iray of Campbetltown, but the tiaffio ujwn that load 

^rr small distiict. 

I learn from a paragraph in the £niftr«, that in a 
retam ptgiared by order of the Government, of the 
goods traffic between Sydney and Goalbnm during Chu 
year 1S55, the estimated amount is 8570 tons. I am 
■nrprised. however, to learn that in this is inclnded 
as weight of tlie sheep and cattle: at the same time 
thatthecost of carriage is estimated at '£12 Ida. per 
lOB If this be Hue, which I have no reatnn lo doubt, 



than the letuni, in the form under which it hu s^ 
posted, ii entirely worthlraB. It seems however l» 
show a considerable falling off in traffic for 1855, u 
rouipai'ed with Chu preceding year. 

It beiiig thus established that the uiisCing traffic 
upon Che Ijonlhem Boad is altogether too small to sflord 
sufficient employmeni for a railway, euch an BbdoT' 
taking ran be no longer advooalad, oioept upon. ti» 
supposition that the traffic will be thereby eaonDOUily 
increased. How this increase can bo eiTected haji never 
yet been shewn. The great bnik of the traffic conust* 
of wool, and of ordinary articles of consumptiDD. Iha 

sumption must have reached very nearly their maxi- 
mum point, 10 that nothing can mutetiatly incceaso Ch> 
ctaffic eicept an increase of population. ToauppmetfaRt 
a railway will exercise any great influence in attractiaf 
population from othor countries is contrary to revsoB 
and 10 eiperience. 

Nor does there seem to he any reasonable pro^init 
&aC, in consequence of a railway, we should derive any 

Idnd, like eVerytliiire else which is bought add raid, it 
subject Ed the laiva of demand and supjilv. A lulwsy 
might increase the supply and so dimiiuBh Che vsloa of 
much land already to FultivalioD, but how could it 
increase the demand ! Vary little public land ia likely ^ 
to be sold eicepl tor agricultural purpoaos, Wli«q M 
the populatioo to come fMm to cultivate Che enorminln 
amoonC which must be sold u> pav for railMfriJ 
Where is the market for the produce 1 Where ia (ba 
capital to jiurchasu Che land, and the still (grcMr 
capital Id get it into cultivation ? Ooiil all these qoet- 



public lands as the possible s 

forsucV ' 

Ifw. 






from which to 
Liverpool 



£20,000 per inils, it wauld'lM ' 
necessary chat all the land for Gtteen miles on en^ 
aide of Che line slionld be sold at an average prin «f 
£1 per acre, to defray Che cost. How the greater pM ' , 
of this laud is so uerfectly irreclattnablcihatiuiiiinaaAi 
means are ever likely to reader it aTailabls for sfa- 
cultural purposes ; and of cha remainder almoil- thr 
whole is already alienated. Nor would there arUa uf 
great demand tor land beyond Gonlbum. for, i£ tM 
charge lor conveying goods is to be Cd- per ton per nuJ^ 
of £3 per Con to Sydnej, Iho railway would not enabls 
pruducen in that distneC Co compete very advantage- 
ously, in the Sydney market, with those who aupplJ^St 
by water-carriage. 

From all the circumsCincea to which I have Ihui 
briefly alluded, it seams. I think, tolerably clear dial 
.1 . ^!_._ 1 ^ — ^.._j r itructing railways in 



Chisoc 









illy allow 



would bo tounil eq 



It all artificial 
lI to the prosperity 
rtiiicial stinoulanU 



At the annual monthly meeting, lirfd 
Wednesday, October 14th, the foliowiog 
papeia Wi;re read by the Rev. W, Scoti, 
M.A., on the Meteorology of New Sputh 
Wales, and by Alfred Roberta, Esq., on 
the Strueture and Functions of the Venom 
apparatus in Serpents. 

OS THE METEOROLOGY OF NEW SOUTH 
WALES. 
In the paper which I am about to read. I must not b* 
HipecCedto advance any new doctrine, or to convey any 
information respecting the meteorology of Australia; 
subject which has probably occnpied Che aCteutiau of 
laoy now present, long before my_ arrival in iKl 



j^ 



dM 



MAaAZINE OF SCIENCK AND ART. 



129 






_ . probably have 

make to this saci»», wlien tlio mMearolo- 



itulite tbii sociaty, 
t I believe to ba Un 
work of registaripg 
^n entored on mora 
iftliisandoftheid- 



ri 

relkhTH -Ksnla which msy 
frnm ttBm. 

In tbe a»t (ilnce let tse 

fact. OMOBly,' that the iuiji 
metsotolpgital phonamena I 

la tji^r coontri^ the ^'ork la boin^ peiforui^ by 
individualB, by tocietiea, in private houses, and in dis 
connected obsarvatnciM i hut in Anatralia it i* a 
Datiooal andanakingi and not only so, but I am glad 
to be able to Btal« ot the AoMrnlua oiloaies, to tar as 
my DRu limited DbngrvaiiaB can he ifHod do. that 
altbongh they do noi at present possess a nay formi- 
dable nrmv of pbiloflojihein, altbougb from p^auliar 

in the aducatjou of their uuiabttania, yet there does 
•eem to eliit, BJiionjst a very ^reat nnmbflr of thoiB 
inhabitaula, an intelhgpnt desire for tlio promotion of 

ions of iha same clim in Unjland. 

This thirit after knowledge bo elevatiDg in its opera^ 
* ' '^- - ---'■- -'-"ia ihe doty of every eoveru- 
of this " 



[a enconra^ and in tJia ^wrihi 



B ffovammen 



Wales may claim a higL 



Oar little dIeeI 
beiidcs colUcting 
meteorology may, peihaia, gii 
nf tha winds And cloada, bende 



-ratterol aboot the colany. 

whioh tbe futore Newton of 

\d hii grand harmony 



mitable to 



^aidatha sickly la bis » 



engineer in providinj 



cultiva' 



Curist and EardGn 
■ndpllmt%will 
ramng a habit of thon^t. and promoting the pursuit of 

«»gue -wonder nill be succeeded bj eurioety, euiioiity 
irill begin enquiry, and thought, and some useful 
lessons may bs derived, fiom those strange looking 
plnOD honiCB, aa the bays in the tountry irravetentiy 
ail our tbecmfluietcr stands. 

I will now proceed to givB a short account of v/bat is 
abanttobodoneformBlBorology inthia country. 

Deniliquin, AlhniT, Cooma, Gaolbom. Bathurst, Pac- 
ramstta, Bydney, Jitaitland.ATniidalB, and li^ht faDosas 
Qabo Island, Nowcasile, and Mm 






) talnah 



. i the Liverpool Plains. 

Thaw thirteen places, thoagh they do not repreaer 
all the various cLimales of Now South Wales, ysl, g 
far towards attaining that object. 

Deniliqnin may fie considered a Wpeof tha oitenaii' 
dry SM> of the Moccay River. The countn' roun 
Allinry Ihoogb not much higher, is yet of a ver 
different charucter, consisting principally of a series t 
ranges of no great elsvstion. Coulbnx-n and Batban 
about tha same lieight, and bearing consideruble rESuID 
blauci' to each otfer, yet difler in being utuated o 
dilTerent aides of the Blno Mountain raufe. where w 
may eipect ta meet with a great diffotanca in thei 
meteorological characters. 

Cooma. and Armidale repCMOot the elevated plaic 
ofMancrooand New Eogland. Maitland and Parra 
■ ■ lands nea '--' -=" "■- "^ - 



■uSciently r 

mCHBtnre and eitremes of Ic 



o met I 



Xi 



The ohiervBtorv first (!Oiniild.ed. and the only one 
from which 1 have aa yet received any monthly returns 
is at tha Lunatic Asylum. Parramatta, whare the 

and takes great intereat in his dnties. 

The instruments employed were all made by Maura. 
Negretti and Zambra, and selected and comparod with 
the Greenwich standards, by Mr. GlaiBher, secretary of 



and the vernier 

cootracted near the lower end so si lA hinder the free 
paasaga of the oiaTunry, and so to diminish the risk of 
oieak^e ; notwithstanding this precaution, however, 
two of them, though most carefully jiacked by tha 
makers, were broken on the voyage. Wainad hy this 
circumstaoce I adopted additional precantioDi in pack' 
ing them for the country, and 1 consider myself fortunala 
in the fact, that four out of the five that 1 ha«a n>- 
amiaed arrived aalely at their destinatioos. 

In tha flflh the glaaa cistern is broken, which is not 
to be wondered at when it is considered that the dray 

loaded etght dmes. on the road. 
"" ' ' ,B nothing peculiar in their 



by the raakaCB, which 
■a kind that ha& yet boun 

Jie bnib, so that when tha 



produced. Its pel 

ihsrmomeler is placed in a horiiontal positioa lb* 
mercury will not recede with a diminnition of tompera- 
ture. but remains at in mazimnm height until caused 
to return by being placed in a rertical pintion. Thn 
inatrament whose indications will perhaps excite tha 
greatest interest is that known as Mason's hygrometar. or 
the dry and wet bulb the rinomatani-. The difforence be- 



ttors depending 
noutened bnl» 



matter of great importaace 



hygromi 
That so 



proportional to tbe diflerenca betweei 
of vaponr at tho temperature of evaporation, and of ths 
vapour actually present io tho air : now this diffcrenca 
of elastic forces is (for a given barometric pressure) pro- 
portdonal to the depression of tho net bulb ihermameter, 
so that Dalton's rule agieaa with that which I ban 

tropoeed to a great eitent; there is this objaelion, 
Dwever, to Dalton'a rule, that it makee the evapoiation 
proportional to the atmospharic pressure, as well as to 
the deprcsaiDu of the wet bulb liermometer, a result 
which seems by no means posaibla- 

In the introduction to a volume of Madras meteoro- 
logical observations, I flud it stated, that the evaparatioii 
Eer minntc in inches of water, is not only proportional 
nt exactly equal to the did'erence in inches of mercury 
between the elastic forces of vaponr at the air tempera- 
ura and at the dew point. This result is, to say tha 
east, very remarkable, and J have been unable tD< 
■ ' I on what principle or at"" ' -'---- '-■ 



MAIlAKISfi OF SCIE.VCE AND AUT 



rami uilJ quill! diaajipeiLr in tlic catculidoa uf lueao 
mole* for monthi anil Tmn. 

The gnai difficulty, wbifli pteseoCs Itself is, thai tlie 
surfoMsofrivMi, laies, (u„ ire geneisllj- exposed to 
the Ban Bsil wind, vhilst the inatruoieDla are pntHted 
fcom bath : nmethiug hnwever may be duno tuwards 
removing thi> difficnlty.brexiiBriiDeDts for determitiing 
thu affect of the Bin and wind on the iiulieUions of the 

The best method of conducting tiio eiperiraents on 
eTaporition is atiU under consideration, and I shall be 
obliged to any member of the society vhosp EXjieiience 
may enable him to nsaist me with suggestions on the 



10 doulit but th^ the relation bctweei 
Bod ettlier of the before lucnlionei 
t, in reality, be i:uui|ilicated br lenu: 
intulvin; the atmospheric presBore iUld teia|ieiature 
r we adopt Iha first aMnmiition, 1 . 



need Chat 



»ill b< 



subject. 






n which I h; 



' stated ii 



tvillbe 



branch ohsecyalaries, for if the suppuBed relation can 
aaoa bo satJsractarily cstablish«d at one place, the 
evaporation at any ot^r place where the readings of 
the itry and w^t bulb tliermomelers are rc^stet^ um 
be Dbtaised by a simple arithmetical procose. 
. I beve been induced to enlar^ somewhat on this 
question, parth 



in the cc 
iron amongst wi 



nv. and pftftly 



I noticed, not long since, that one writer had assomed 
the evaporatiou in Australia to be the same as in 
England, and another that the evaporation vas propor- 
tionatetc the mean tempeialDre; nlieceas it will an- 
donbiedly be foosd that the ra^ between the evapora- 
tion at many of our inlandstationsand that ofEn^laod, 
witt. 09 account of the dryness of the air, greatly ex- 
ceed the lalio between the mean temperatui'ei. 

Amonitt the instruments sent oat from Snf^Iand are 
twnlvc Dnniell's hvgromelais : those I fear wiU be of 
very little service W ns, foe when the air has been very 
drv, I have found it somelimea impMsible, partly 
oinng, perhaps, to the inferior quality orthe n^tber, (n 
obtain flie deposit of dew on the bnlh : even when the 
desired result can h* obtained, the readings are in sarh 
cases probably incorrect, in consBcjaencB oftheproii- 
Diity of the observer to tlie instrument for so great a 
lenjlhoftinie. 

The remaining instrument! are n rain gange, a wind 

vane, and an electrostope ; the latter is a common gold 

leaf elentroscope for determining the ijuality, batnot 

! the intKisity, of any considerable electrical disturbance 

in the otniiosnherB : the electivucopes will he used only 

and suitable for the parpostt. ^a shade tlionoometers 
are mounted on a stand resembling that used at Green- 
wich, nith some tittle addition of my own to remove 
the necessity of a freqnent change of position. 

Tlie instruments will be read three times a dav, 
namely, at B a,ro„ 3 and 9 p.m. ; the refristers will be 
AOLt monthly to the Sydney observatory, where all ~ — 
patations and reducdotis will be made. 

Having now giv«n a brief atateroent of what 
tended to be done for the science of meteorolc 
colony, I may conclude with the hope, that v 
r calf your attention to tlie auhjert, it will 



ials for 



subject, it 
paper 



teorologr m 
. that when 



ire. that Messra. Flavella 
to those used in the gov( 



ON THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS ■■ 

OP THE VENOM APPAll.iTUS IN 

SERPENTS. 

BujALFllED ROBEUTE, Esq. 

HE Structure of the poison fang, in celationVi il> 

groove or canal, has been deeply investigatS^ in 

aommon With tllB general Organism of lerpeiOia, 

hut there are other poiiiti^ scarcely less inCecesiiDiC 

' aportsut, which have not. as far a» 1 onn user* 

been sutfioiently elucidated — and same of 

■, this colony afibrds facLities for itudying. 

ith this feeling, and under the impreBsion that 

mast trifling contributions to the minute atia- 

r of any portion of the nnininJ klugdooi, U 

acueptable to the physlalogical Zoologist i fimUng 

also, 03 tlie subject opened to me, tliat the acrpents 

of tlii| country iiad scarcely received the attu^tm 

which their importance demands, I resolved, when 

opportunity ottered, to examine the geoenl 

acter, appendages, and struoture, in the ptin- 

I varieties of the terrestrial and pelagic Berpents 

of Auatralia. 

I should have been glad to complete the series of 
iissecllons which I have in view, and defer any 
iDtice of thEin, until I, was enabled to lay hdoK 
i'ou an abstract of the whole, with such observattapa 
IS might then appear necesBary. 

This is, however, at present iirtposaihle, and 1 
nust content myself with bringing beforo yotl,fifltn 
ime to time, the results of a dissection and mieS>- 
icopical eiamination of »uch sjwoiinenB «i Lmh 
;nabled to investigate. 

It will he first neeeisary to notice the prMtqi 
tystems of classifying snakes, and to consider, trhei- 
jier it is of a charactGr likely to alford a ready ti 
fell as just acquaintance of the subject. IT thi> 
should prove not to be the case, I shall venttire to 
olTer suflh suggestions for its modiScation^aa.iiUT 
be deetned likely to render it more generally tu^Ui 

The present mode of clasaificfltion iii well exent- 
pliflad in the following Ubje, for which J Km 
indebted to the kindness of Mr. Wm, Macleaj, who 
abridged it Ibr me from the valuable work of SU- 
meril and Bibron. Ill his opinioa it is far tha hOlt, 
as it is the most simple, that has Seen hitherto sAtl- 
liihed. 

In this ayateni, its iu others, llie order Ophidts is 
divided into two families — Inaocoa and Veuenosa; ' 
which are again divided iuto five genera, the latter 
having their species, &c. 

It will be seen hereafter, that the genus SoletiO. 
glyplrn does not esist ; hot I wish now. mo 
daily, to draw your attention to the ma 
which the division inlofamiliii is cfiecled. 

In charaoteriaing these by the ternia Itmonut 
and Veuenosa, a distinctive name is given lA ei ' 
which should convey a correct idea of th«jt re^ 
tive qualities; or, in other words, it is implied by 
such a nomenclature, that while one variety ii 
harmless and innocent, the other is dangerous and 
venomous ; but no inference is oftered of what I 
believe to be the primary function of the sO-oaHed 
poison apparatus. 

With the BXcepliDn of the Opoterodonta, all 
snakes attack living food, and all have the lOEUiabf 
rendering it powerless before taking it into the 
gystem. The Boa tribe peribnn this by constrtc 
tion; the prey is encircled and compressed by the 
reptile, and when powerless, or dead, is slinied o< 
stiec which it is slowly taken into the month, b 
whence it gradually pssaes into the digestive mbf. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENl.T. AND ART. 



131 



CLASS REPTILIA—ORDEIi OPHIDIA, Oil SERPENTS. 



FAMILY. 



f ■ 



GENBRA. 



,. A, INNOCUA, 
OR, 

If ARMLESS SNAKES. 

t. e. 

Snakes having no grooved teetk in 
their upper jaw. 



B. VENENOSA. 

OR, 

POISONOUS SNAKBS. - 
i. e. 

-Snakes having certain teeth in their 

ui)per jaw grooved for tiie passage of 

poison. 



1. OPOTERODONTA. 

pM 4>r other of tlie jawB without any 

teeth. 

2. AGLYPHODONTA. 
Teeth in both the upper and under jaws. 

3.. OPISTHOGLYPHA. 

Posterior teeth of the upper jaw grooved in 

front. 

.'\ 4. PROTEROGLYPHA- 

Aiiferior'ieeih of the upper jaw grooved in 

front. 

5. SOLENOGLYPHA. 

Anterior teofch of the upper jaw offering two 
fangs, pier^ by a veneniferous canal or tube. 



SUPPOSED EXAMPLES IX 
AUSTRALIA. 

None known. 



Diamond Snake. 



None kuo>K*n. 



Black SnakQ? 



Death Adder ? 



In the mouth it is pierced deeply by numerous so- 
called innocent teeth, and the slime as well as 
saliva has thus the opportimity of penetrating into 
its structure. 

Without venturing to assert that the slime ani* 
saliva of the Boa possesses unusual digestive quali- 
ties, it is evident, :first, that this serpent is provided 
with a sufficient means for overcoming its preyj 
and, secondly, that there is an especial secretion of 
fluid, with means for its transmission into the 
structure of the food. 

In the next genus, Opisthoglypha, no especial 
venom gland has been detected after careful dissec- 
tion. Thus Professor Owen, in his valuable work 
upon Odontology (page 22-5), states — 

" Having been favoured by Dr. A. Smith with 
specimens of the Bucephallus Capensis, the results 
of my dissections are confirmatory of his own, as 
regards the absence of the poison apparatus in that 
snake ; the ordinary salivary gland is large, espe- 
cially at its posterior part, which transmits its 
secretion by many pores, into the sheath of the 
grooved fiings ; the presence of a distinct poison 
gland, directly communicating with the grooved 
posterior teeth, requires to be established, before 
the .serpents with thiese teeth can be ranked with the 
poisonous genera." 

Yet the posterior teeth, or fangs, are grooved^ 
and, doubtless (as is surmised), for the transmission 
of an acrid saliva, which can only pass into the 
food after it has arrived at the back of the mouth, 
and must be considered as an adjunct to digestion, 
not as a life destroying agent. 

The last of the genera, Proteroglypha, includes 
all snakes possessing grooved tubular fangs in the 
.superior maxillary bones, with or without a greater 
or less number of simple or grooved teeth. 

In some, we find a long maxillary bone, carrying 
the fang, and six or even eight teeth (Fig. 3, a. 6.), 
in others, as in the rattlesnake, the entire dental 
•development is centred in one long fang. 

In proportion to the number of the teeth is the 
diminished breadth and increased obliquity of the 
articulating surface of the superior maxillary bone, 
and the small size as well as inefficiency of the 
fang ; from which, we may infer that in this genus 
the teeth carried by the superior maxillary bone 
^ct in concert, more or less powerfully, with the 



fang, and possess, with it, the function of inserting 
an aorid and poisonous fluid into the structure of 
the food, in accordance with the arrangement nature 
has adopted in genus Opisthoglypha. 

I shall, moreover, endeavour to prove that the 
primary object of the/an^, in all varieties of this 
genus, is also adjunctive to digestion. — the second, 
ary, a means of killing prey, and the tertiary, a 
weapon of defence and offence. 

From these general facts, we gather that all 
toothed serpents possess an apparatus which secretes 
a fluid, possessing, in some, a simply digestive ac- 
tion, in others, more or less of an additional life 
destroying power ; that the function of this secre- 
tion is indicated by the individual dental apparatus, 
and finally, that the transition from the one to the 
other is gradual. 

In the innocent snake, (genus Aglyphodonta,) 
the upper jaw possesses four rows of teeth, all of 
which are of a simple conical form, more or less 
curved backwards, and generally very slender. 

The upper jaw in the Opisthoglypha also pos- 
sesses four rows, but the posterior teeth in the 
superior maxillary bone are grooved. 

The upper jaw, in the Proteroglypha, possesses 
only two fiill rows of teeth, viz., the palantine, or 
internal ; while the superior maxillary bone carries 
at its anterior extremity a fang, larger or smaller, 
with or without a certain number of simple or 
grooved teeth posterior to it. 

The parts of the head, included in the venom 
apparatus, are as follows : — 

1st. The superior maxillary bone (Fig. 2, 6), into 
which the fang and teeth are inserted. 

2nd. The fang (Fig. 2, a) ; with its mucous and 
aponeurotic enclosures. (Fig. 1, a. e,) 

3rd. The teeth. (Fig. 2, g,) ^ 

4th. The pteregoid bone. (Fig. 2, c.) 

5th. The venom gland (Fig. 1,/.), with its duct. 
(Fig. 1, h,) 

6th. The retractor muscle. (Fig. 1 and 2, d,) 

These I shall now describe. 

The superior maxillary bone itself (Fig. 3, 4, 5,. 
8) consists of an anterior irregular body (Fig. 4, 
8, c), and a posterior fexternal ramus (Fig. 4, 8, e.) ; 
the body is laterally convex, the convexity being 
greatest in the least venomous specimens ; at the 
moit anterior portion is a vertical ridge, on either 



rr 



MAGAZINE OP SCTENCIi: ANT) AllT. 



lA ^im 



ilCie of vrhich 



■hich is a large fcramen (Fig. 8. a.) for the 
linn of the vesKls and nerics to each nF 
tke Bntcriot fengs, sntl prolmbly tho to the poste- 
rinr rudimentary fangs i upon Uie inner side, the 
hody terminates in a more or lc!i3 rounded portion 
of bone (Fig 4, d.), projecting baolcwaids. The 
uppar Biirfece of tho body laries muoh u^character 
and form ; in the highl; poiaonous snaEee it con- 
sistB of a flat articulating surface, the'entire width 
of the bone, which, in such a Bpecimcni is always 
broadi this surface (Fig. 8. b.) it -perfeqtl; fat 
laterally, but slightly concave aidero posteriori^ r 
the concavity being greatest in the least ,pobanaus 
■erpents. It articuiales ^ith a coiranondtng 
mrfacB of tlie malar bone. * The > under 
surface (Fig. •(, c.) of the bMy 3 irregularly 
cnncaTe, and possesses an external and anterior 
aemilooar strong nlteolar ridge of lione (Fig. 4."/.), 
behinil the anterior portion of which arc two deep' 
foss«{Fig. 3, 4, n.a.); in one of them (gfeera)ly, 
but not inrariably, the eiCemal), the fixed or func- 
tional fang ia placed ; the inner fossa 15 eqiullj 
eapaoioua, but wants the posterior wall of bonfe 
forming the posterior alveolar ridge, aqd which is 
only developed when the supplemental fang be- 
comes fixed, upon the shedding of the 'C^B^nal 
tang, and, probably, also its accidental' ft actsire. I 
have not met with any specimen possessing itn 
fixed fangs in one ma»llarj bone 1 — the poaterit 
portion of the floor of the body (Fig. 4 and 5, g.) 
upon this surtace, is freely coji cave, and form: 
fossa, in which the rudimentary fangs 



fiiU) 



acted. 



Projecting from the eitemal posterior end of the 
body is the ramus ( Fig. S, 4, 5, e. a. e.), which passes 
backwards, and possesses an anterior neck (Fig. 3, 
8, if.if.),Ehort in the venomous, longer m the inno. 
cent varieties. Behind this is the dental body (Fig. 
3, 4, 6, epC. ^.); this possesses the same variations 
of fbrrn, to a greater extent, in the most deadly 
larietieB, carrying no teeth ; in the comparatively 
inocuoui, B» many as eight. The posterior extre- 
mitj(Fig.4, A.) articulates with the pterygoid bone; 
The motion to which thisboneisliable consists only 
of an antero-postedor horizontal movement, which 
is of conrse conveyed to the fimctiona] fang, and 
s caused by the action of the great retractor mus- 
cle through the pleregoid hone. It is generally 
staled that the maxillary hone can be moved for- 
ward in anger, and by such a movement erect the 
fang, whirh, when retracted into the gum, is sutli- 
eiently horizontal not to pierce or interfere with 
the passage of the food into the mouth ; but this it 
will be my duty to prove is not the case. 

Thepteregoidbone(Fig.3,c.) is small, irregular, 
and oblong in shape ; it articulates anteriorly with 
the posterior extremity of the superior maxillary 
bone, and posteriorly is firm^ attached to the retrac- 
tor maxillary muscle : its purpose appears to be that 
ofserrlngasabinged communication between them. 

In describinff the superior maxillary bone, I 
mentioned tito'lental fossa, and stated that the 
fixed functional fang was situated in one, and the 
supplemental fang in the other. The former will 
be immediately described, and the latter is, in alt 
nspeols, similar to it, except that the base is not 
fiilly developed, and occupies hut loosely the dental 
fossa ; the &ng iteelflying recumbent in the loose 
mueans membrane. Behind these, also embedded 
In the loose membrane, are the two or more rudi. 
mentary fangs, in all respects similar in itructure, 
though less rierelopert. 



portion, .. .. i :jives getilly back- 

wardi iiu ■! .. . . ___, ... ,.-;iL, ill somg instances, 
turning ^hilvdoii^ R a f lis. Hituated antcriorljat 
tM boiri^ 14 11 jeep^risnglilar 'fossa (Sig.- 1, d.); 
'hp- f offj*' °hii4i is iaferior; It is bounded on. 
^^SSfyjl a rowideri pillar of dsntine (Fjg. 7, 4), 

Iha anterior surface, is s ntrrow elipfleal opening 
(Fig. 7, n. ti, h.), and communicating witb these isi 
a^ry sliyhilydepres-ied line (Fig.7, i.) ^n stnic- 
IWS^flie fang is composed "a I most 'entirely of den- 
tine; 'and this has been ap (iillj described in 
Professor Owen's^ok upon Odontography, that il 
is HnriecBssary I ssould enter upon it. The tbtm 
is peculiar, and haS'^ven ttse tl> much misconeepL 
ticpi-*Ot a correift idea ofK may be gathered from 
utile aceompinylng'dmwings. (Fig, 6, 9," ID, 11, 12.) 
It will be seen, that in addition to the pijljioarily 
(Fig.6,djlI,*.),vrfiichBCcupiei, the centre of OTMjr 
tnoth, a second cavity (Pig. 6,/. II, if.) exi^^ 
entrance to which is at the triatigular opening at 
the base, tbe e xit being the eliptoid apical 
apertule. (Fig, 7, n.) ••_. 

I have spoken af this as. a tube, and practically 
it is such, but physiologically .ft is » eraaa,&s 
anterior edges of whieh are'closety aparbiSnald}; 
so efiectually indeed, that most writers have can ' 
dered it a tubular structure. That !I is a g^oo _ 
mechanically closed, is proved bj Fig. G, whi^ *»»' 
takcB,^ fi-om a longitudinal section Ijpiade a^att 
time nni;e. The tang ws; ground down upon ■ 
hone, and when so much ha^ been removed, that 
both the trifluffular and elipti6iJ opening had been 
entered, I was enal^ed eaaUy to lift off, with the 
point of a fine knife, the intervening thin layer of 
dentine. Tig^fli 10, U, 12, also display well the 
grooved tubular chatflcter-of the fang ; tig. B " 
horizontal section through the triangular opening 
t the base of the tooth i fig.H. isa section a short, 
istance below this opening, and shows the appioxi. • 

mating side^ of the tubeir/; fig. 11, is '' 

from the centre of the fang, Where the spproxima- ' 
if tho sides is perfected ; fig. 12, is a leclioa 
across the upper psrt of the apical opening, 
and shows the formation of the aperture to be by 
the separation of the formerlx approximated si^ 
■"' dative proportions of the fangs of all larii 

lOmous snakes which I have examined, have 
similar, and the following ore those fi^iji a 
fair specimen of an adult death adder. 

Length of fang , 3-10 inch 

„ eliptical opting. . 7-500 
Breadth I of 100 




MAOAZLNE OK SGIRNCK AND AI!T. 



The poison 






ctrfipeupy 01 



HhtSi I hate eMflmined nilli- 
ill many mpecia rrmij tile slFiic-.ureof the glnnH ^i. 
(iiJBIlrihpi! I.J ProfBsaor-MlilliT, in his great work nn 
the gliiudulnr spleia, I have rxCrsi^te^ thep;;n- 
grapli iu whiyh ho explainB it. He. Oiys — " h 
conaiMa of.n nunil)er of elongated nurow lolits, 
esiendfriB from ihc maui duel, which nm« along 
the lower bonier of the gland i each lobe gives otT 
Inbulea ihroughout its extent, thiia presenting a 
pinnaEiSpd structure ; and each lobul^ is diiiilcd 
into deeming ececB, which eonalilutU the uHimala 
atruetute of the giand." ' '■■ 

T'he poison gland lies inimod lately un^er the 
akin, on the side of the head posterii ' " 







, and il 



' and ei 



^s rotVari 



■cofll 



aponeurotic fang sheath 

death adiler, about the eiie ana snape ot a aaiai. 
almond, the a]ieK being placed anteriorly ; the pos- 
terior half in covered by the muscles of maslicalion 
and the conipreasor inuacte, nhich also eilenda 
diegoaally across the roof of the mouth f It^as^ev. 
a dense apaoeurotic sheath, of wavy, shining, ani* 
fibrous tissue (Fig. !■, /.), between which and ihi 
skin is a close network of rather large blood veSsela, 
The gland itself is highly vascular ; when d traniu 
verie section of an injected specimen is maguiSed, 
it h!m the appearance of a aponge. The atrur""— 
as found in the suakes of this country, ia si 
and may be explained in a few words. Tracio 
4uot backwards into the body 6! the gland, 
leen to divide into lubes, which again divide 
anbdirision oontinueB until the terminal tubules 
end in a minute closed 
nccted by a fibrous matris, in which capillary 
blood vessels are most freely distributed. The 
terminj tubules are, by means of a high power, 
seen to be lined with a structure- less thin mem- 
brsne. under which basement cells are placed, 
forming the mass of the walls. 

It is evident, from the nature of this structure, 
the large supply of blood it is capable of receiving, 
and the elastic nature of its aponeurotic covering, 
that it is fotmed to secrete a large quantity of its 
peculiar fluid in a short apace of time. 

The aponeurotic fang sheath (Fig.l.E.) is raadily 
seen, upon opening the mouth of a venomous unaki 
it covers the fangs, encloses the loose mucous li 
sue, vhich surrounds the supplemental and md 
mentary fangs, and possesses a wide base. In son 
speeimens, as the death adder, its fimbriated opei 
ing is cDuflned to the apes i in others, a fissurf 
' opening eitends postertorly from the apes to II 
base; the central coat is composed of elasti 
lihroua tissue, and h attached only at the has 
1 both the - ■ • 



surfaces, by a ■ 



ionofth 



of the month. 

When this aponeurotic sheath is reflected back, 
in a well injected speoimen, the lax and highly 
vascular mucoti^p emh ran e. in which the suppte- 
mentd and rudimnitary fangs lie embedded, oomea 
into view, and forms a beautiful object, when seen 
tmder the microscope with a with a full light and a 
lowpower;itiathcnfoundto'consist ofnmassofin. 
tensely vascular mucous membrane, reflected trom 
tha internal surface of the aponeurotic fang-bag and 
freely covering, by ample folds, the rudimentary 
and supplemental fangs ; the fimctional fang is not 
embedded in this loose mass of membrane. 

The duct is externally la^e, and unattached in 



Ti|nin the loniT p()rti"ii of ihc f.xl'.Tnnl nnil aBtericr 
surface of Uie ftng Gheath, bi;coming,^e(fcJ, if* 
not continuou!^ with its structure. - " ^ J 

The manner in which the duct cnmmunicilra 
with the functional .6ng tube, as well as with those 
■ of the supplementKl and radinjenlary fangs/Jlta 
not been yet made -tfBt ] bi»t 7 hope, in my nf ' 
p«per, to be alUeU eiplain (hii. 

'Tiit.ictraclorn.aidirari.CFig.l and 2, rfjttuscte 
■I'l'iirallts, wbich does 

;'>ri! the base of the 

' ■ ' ■ '■ 'hoplereguid bone. • 

hut alio mto the i^MernsI surface of the palatine' 
bontB. The comparative dimensions of this muscle ' 
ar^erj- great, and its action is powerfully to retract 
'SP^P^'''"^ masillary aniC palatine bones, ajd 
tWbufeh them their fijiigs and teeth. . 

Having now completed the (fl^neral and structural 
deaoiiplion of thelniaon apparatus, I muM invitt 
attention to the relative character of the injierior, 
tnaxiibtrj bones i^i^nakes more or less venomous. 
^Pig. S ia the si^eripr maxillary bone of a small 
' make; fig. f, of B black snake; and fig. S,' 



le, as well as from a broad and borizontal,'!* a 
:row and diagonal articulating eurlaoe. . " 

So far as I have observed, these are insion™. nf 
general rule, viz^, that in proportion ti 



horiaontal position of ijs articulating ai 

Let us now observe tho josition of the fang in ' 
relation to its maiillary hone, as seen in fig. fl, tati ' 
the character and position of the above-mentioned 
articulating surface, when placed in its lelatlve 
position with the other parti of the head. It will 
then appear evident, that any amount of anterior 
and pnateriijr movement of the majullary nnpn the 
malar bono, can, in no materilil d%ree, influerico 
the position 4f the point of the fing, in relation to 
any substance that may be in the mouth ; and, ftir- 
ther, that if in the less poisonous serpents, a move- 
ment of the masillarj hone forwards would, fi«m 
the slight curve of the articulating surfaee.jender 
the fang slightly more perpendicular, its position, 
when retracted, would still he such, that tho point 
must enter whatever the mouth contained, if presarf 
upon it. But we, moreover, find, that [ha mot* 
venomous the snake, the more perfectly flat, hi»v 
soutal, and eitensise is the articulating RBtlici^ 
and, therefore, the less does the fang tend, in «iy 
movement of the maiillary bone, to alter its rela- 

WLen describing the structure of the poison 
gland, we were led to the eonclusioti that it w» 
'ormed to secrete a large quantity of fluid in a short 
ipace of time ; we also found that the means for the 
'sit of this, viz., the fang tube was small, and we 
know that the olfeasive bite of a suake is instan. 

We have seen that the retractor masillaris miM- 
le ia very large and powerful in venomous snakes, 
:)d that their action it directed, so as to retract 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



BimulUneDtuty ttia supeTior maxilUrjr and pKlmiiii 

boilE9. 

Lastly, we may surmiss, thongli this has not ye' 
boeii fully proved, Ijmt ihp venom and aalivarj 
glandi act simiUr iu tbeir structure. 

Coiwideratioti of theie points lias led me to tlit 
followmg eoileluiioas [ — 

Kval,— That aUhoueh certain snakM may poaSBsa 
a pDWflt of rendering their fangs aoraewliat mnrt 
parpen dIcuJar; auch is certainly not the case in tbi 

Secoud, — That in no instaiiDe do the poison fangs 
become so much retracted within 'heir membraneous 
beds, or assume so horizontal a position, as to res. 
der thetn incapable of entering substances contained 
batween the jaws, when these are pressed together. 

I am furtliiT led lo suppose that the primary ob- 
ject of the so-called poison apparatus is tjUt of 
assisting in digestioni in tlve tulfilmeot of 'which 
purpose, the fang ia in constant use, duriug lie, 
process of swallowing the prey; and that in the 
less venomous varie^es this is less necessary, and 
less provided for, in coiiaequence of the presence 
of a greater or less number of teeth in the aupetior 
mBKillary bone. 

I have to orave the indulgence of my heaters, for 
the serious imperfections which I am aware exist in 
Ibo foregoing pages ; and, in apology, to state, that 
the present Is the llrst instance in which I have de- 
viated from the especial path of prolfeBsional obaer- 
valion ; and that the dissections, neoessaiily minute 
as tbey have been, were prosecuted in 
inrtohed from the duties pf my practice. 
(To he ctrntiaui'd.) 

[The aathor requests us to meation that be will 
gla^to re<uivfl ipecimens of serpents rcom uiT part 
the colocy, alive and uninjured, where poasiblB.] 



C0REE8P0NBENCK. 
We have been favoured by a correspon- 
dent at Duntroon, near Queaiibcyan, with 
an interesting collection of fossils gathered 
in his ' immediate neighbourhood. They 
were accompanied with the following me- 
moranda, which we reprint, together with 
the observations thereon, by that eminent 
authority the Rev. W. B. Clarke, F.G.S., 
&c. &c. 

We are induced to do this, in order to 
stimulate other gentlemen residing in re- 
mote districts in the interior, to forward 
geological specimens, or illustrations of 
natural history that may surround them. 
We shall in alt cases endeavour to obtain 
a first-rate opinion upon them, and where 
the information contained is valuable, we 
shall print it in our correspondence 
columns- 

To the Editor o/.tht Sudnm/ Magaiiru a/ Sdmee 
aitdArti. 



liar IntercHt, bein|[ types of the earliest inhalitanta of 

tlic globe, and ap]>are'nt!yaiiaiogDBS of Euro peaa genera. 

lani'Bot awaro of aajr simiUr Bpei-imeiu havia; been 

discovered in Aus'ialia. but it is possibio 1 nuy be in 

They may be t^m elaaified :— 

1. Shale, (llicaceoos, and Soely lainiimted.) 

2. Calcareons Grit, fornimK the base of the Slatian 
system, lOd similar to the Fotadaui Sandstone of tlig 



Z. Subcrystalline limestone (analr^us to the Aytaeq- 
bnr7liuieiIone},which cDoIuns shells of the PeatamemE: 
a specimen of vrbii:)i I have found, oat in this fbima- 
tioi. bat in an arfillaoeous limestone in the nnghr 
bourhiuid. 

4. Petriflud wood. 

5. Btatairy. or saccharine limesMoe, nen-fOHililhionB. 
The remainittf cpedmens are ail taken from the tama 

formation, whieh appears to be identical with the c\vf 
slate of the lower ^briau. The fossil sheUs are prin- 
cipaUy Brachiopodoua moltuscs. as aiiewn by the 
oomerons impreaaions of Aljrypi, Pentamems, Orlhla 
Terebratula,and that sin^lar crustacean, t)io Tritobile. 
The etnUam from which they were procured is drilled 
in loms parts with pBtforatin); molfau^a, and containa 
qnantitiea uf Tsntacnlitas, allied to the class Annelida. 
These s]>ei!iTaens may be interesting to you, though 

cipal value eonsisls is the light they throw u]Kin the 
early geologic conditions of Australia. Tlin uiistenca 
ef the oldest sedimentary rocks proves the great and- 
qnity of the southern continent, and confutes the erro- 
neous improssioo, that the greater portion of ths 
Aoat^aliau uuiqtand ivas Dot elevated above the wa* 
anterior to the carbonilerous period. The shelU of tlla . 
gencm Terebratula prove that this must bav^ been a 
deep sea formation. It appears to have been sobjectod 
to eatcnaivB ipieon* acfion, and is looch fractured and 

in past ages. I remain. 

Ycjur's faithfully. 
CHAS, GRANT KOBERTSON. 

SILURIAN FOSSILS. 



Duntroon, belong to the lower raemberj 
probably, Ibe equivalent of the Vpptr Silarian for- 
mation of England, and to that position which ii 
marked by the Wenti'l' shale and limestone. 

In the neighbourhood of Duntroon. and fbr « 
considerable tract of coimtry on eacli side, extend- 
ing, at intervala, throughout the whole region 
between the Coodradighce river on the west, and 
the Clyde river On the east, I have long ago traced ( 
the existence of this formation. X am very giad to 
fitxd, that a genflemaD'.of observation and aci^uire- 
ment in geology is engaged in adding to the 
collections whieh' have been already made by others, 
and in endeavouring to extend our knowledge of 
that interesting field which lies around him. 

The specimens before me are, therefore, not the 
first discovery of the kind in Australia. It ma; be 
satisfactory to mention some that have preceded, 
"he late Sir T. L. Mitchell, in his account at 
.Expeditions," mentiona the fact, that corals, 
hich were ascertained by Mr. Lonsdale, of the 
Geological Society (to whom we are indebted for 
the geological QOticea in tijflt hook), to belong to 
the Wenluck, rocks, were collected 'by him ilrom 
Ymi pUiu. SHbuqaiHily, fron Iht uhs totality , 



HAOAZINK OF SCIESCS AND AKT. 



nid othen in Ihe ndghbourhaod, Mi. Williim 
Hirdy, whou teal •> i colleelot i> wfU known, 
made k fine collection of foHili, which he was good 
enough to pUce at my dUpoial, and theae have aa. 






rches, dur 



IB parta of the colony, hv 
bled me lo dUtover many new genera and speciea, 
at well t» some already known, which have been, 
after comparisonby Mr. Salter, and other geologists 
in Europe, referred, without heiitation, to Ihe 
Silurian epoch. Mention of these discoveriei ii 
made in Murchiion't Siluiii : and some of the fosBili 
of thii epoch ftom Australia were included by me 
In Ihe (election which I exhibited at Sydney in 
last, and in Pana in I85£. 

Ur. Hera "Vf. Kiehola, of Bulsnunang, alio sent 
tne foatila of the ume age from the neighbourhood 
of Queanbeyan some yeaia ago, and aubteijuently 
from Maneroo, in which dirtrict 1 explored numer- 
oui localities rich in Silurian rotsilt. Of my Tsrious 
collections from the districts already mentioned, 
and others in the New England district, I tent 
home a Urge series Co the Woodwardian Muieum, 
in the University of Camhridge, in addition to Ihe 
roeki and fossils of the Carboniferous forraalion 
which I had previously forwarded. The foseili from 
Yarralumla are herealler to be described and tllus. 
tratedby Mr.Salter. I can speak of (hat, as a most 
feitils and interesting locality ; it han already sup. 



tbercith B numerous array of Coralt 
&D., aome of which I hare faun 1 also common at 
the Shoaihaveu gullies -. on the Jeleget river ; at 
auedong; Rock.flat, near Cooma; near Tarn, 
worth, on the Peel river; in the western country, 
and in other localities, 

Mr. Stuchbuiy, also, tent down many foasila of 
the lame epoch from the Bell river and iti neigh- 
bourhood ; and in Victoria, Mr. Selwyn, Ihe distin- 
guished geologist, now employed by the goternment 
of that colony, has discovered abundant aocumula. 
tioni, which are under the examination of that 
•ocomplished Pal»onlologist, Professor M'Coy. 
I had the satisfaction of a day's exploration with 
Mr. Selwyn, at one of his caaipa, in the neighbonr- 
hood of Melbourne, and had ocular evidence oftbe 
existence of the Silurian formations [n tliat neigh- 
bourhood. Moreover, when I waa at Hobirton in 
1856, my friend Dr. Milligan exhibited to me 
fossils from the Franklin river, in Tasmania, nearly 
identical with species I had collected abundantly 
in this colony. I had also, in IS51, found Silurian 
foaails not far from the head of one of the upper 
branches of the river Murray, within the Victoria 
border of the Alps. I am, therefore, justified in 
stating, that it has now been long known, that be- 
low our Carboniferous formation, there are well- 
developed strata of true Silurian age, which appear 
to repose against rocks of igneous character, parti- 
ally of an older epoch, though the whole of these 
forinationa in this Colony, in Victoria, and in 
Tasmania, have been dislocated, and transmuted, 
and overflowed, in numerous localities, by igneous 
oulljursts of a comparatively recent epoch. 

I, however, a singular fact, that although I 






hara found 

other ancient foaails, agreei 

with ape eies figured in 






been able to detect 



ingle species of " Gtaplolile 



and it wat not till late in 18-56, that the geological 
surveyor in Victoria had made the discovery there. 
This should be an inducement {o collectors in this 
colony lo be on the look out for thai characlerjitic 
genus, and others akin to it.wnich, I have no doubt, 
will be found here, at in alt other Silurian regions. 

The specimens of rocks sent by Mr. Robertson 
are such as characterise the Silurian beds in New 
South Walea. In his neighbourhood, as elaewhere, 
the upper Silurian formation is made upof biownish 
or greyish and greenish mud.i(onei; light coloured 
and otten white limestones (transmuted to saccha. 
rine marble); whitish grits and sandstones! with 
soft silky schtult (nearly alalet) of grey and tight 
tints, and coarser brown schists, banded by veins 
and ribs of quartz (which are auriferous) and of 
these the mud-stones, which are much charged with 
yellow farruginous powder, contain the grater 
part of the fossils, though occasionally the lime- 
stones, as on the Molong. the Murrumbidgee, and 
Deleget rivers, and on the Shoalhaven and Bell, 
are full of corals, whioh are exposed naturally on 
the weathering of the rock. These rocks, placed 
in parrallel juxta-position, are highl;^ inclined, 
along a meridian line of strike. 

The Carboniferous formation about Tass, and to 
Ihe eastward along the Dividing ranges, has been 
greatly, and in numerous localities, entirely de- 
stroyed, and the only relics are frequently pieoei of 
ailicified wood, which occur on the plains and the 
slope) of the hilts, A specimen of ibis is inclnded 
in the oolleetion under notice. The rock speci. 
mens are white marblci dove-coloured limeitoqe; 
white sandstone ; and greenish mudetone. 

The genera of fossils contained in the latter, are 
all that can be ascertained, aa they are only casts 
closely congregated, and loo imperfect to distin- 
guish as species. The genera are as follow :~ 
Rhynconella. Orthis. Hemithyris. 
Leptena. Atrypa. 

Mr. Robertson mentions Ttribralala, Ttnlani- 
litei. and Pnttonmn. The former genus is now 
discarded from lists of Silurian fosaila, as no trtts 
Terebratula exists in the formation. TentacnJiles 
and FentameruB I have found to the southward of 
Duntroon. and the latter genua on the Shoalhaten; 
but they are not included in the present lolleetian. 

The otl)er foatils consist of casta of a beantifai 
minute Pitraia (with 30 lamellaj) ; fragments of 
Crinoidal remains; the pygidiiaa of a trilobite 
allied to Encrinurus, hut near Cromus of Barrande; 
and a portion of the glabtlta of an Eiicriourus. 

The Sihirian collection which I lately arranged 
in the AuBtralian Museum contains Encrinurua, 
Harpes, and a fine Calymene Blumanhachii, with 
another Crustacean, a Beyrichia, all of which are 
from Yarrulumla. It it not necessary to mention 
here other genera and species in my own collection. 

At I am very much interested in the derelop. 
ment of Ihe Silurian formations in Australia, I ihall 
be Ihankfiil if collenlots will be good enongh 
to forward to me for examination and use any fossils 
they may meet with. Even if they happen to send 
me what I already have, ih^ will be doing good 
service, because it is almost impos:iib!e to ascertain 
species, unless one can dcMroy several specimens 
in the comparison of the distinguishing charaoler- 

I take the liberty of requesting this si the hands 
of geological colleclora in the colony. 
St. Leonard's^ W. B. CLARKE. 

12lh Obt^ 18i7i 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCB AND ART. lS7 

Registrar General's O^e, 

Sydney, Gtk November, 1857. 

HEALTH OF SYDNEY. 

The number of Dpatha registered at the Central Office durbg the month of Octoher 
is 102, viz., 58 males and 44 females, of which 33 were under 5 years of age. 

The Deaths registered during the corresponding month in last year are 90. 

The number of Bitlhs registered during October, is 173, viz. : 77 males and 96 
femali^B, being an excess of 71 over the Deaths of the month. 



SUMMARY OF DEATHS of both sexes Registered in Sydney, from la( to Sltt 
October, 1857. 



^^ACiii or Dbatb. 


i 
1 


i 
1 


i 


1 
1 


1 

1 


!^ 


1 
1 


5 

1 
1 


1 


1 
1 


% 
1 
1 


1 
1 
8 


1 

a 

3 


s 

1 

1 


1 
1 


1 
1 
S 


3 

1 
i 

S 


8 

1 
1 
S 


1 
1 
19 


1 
1 


1 

i 


i 
1 

i 

3 


i 

1 


1 

1 

s 


i 

1 

a 
s 


' 


a 


Zymotic Di!«*aS!<. 
Endemic. EpidBmie. ft Con 


3 

S 

7 
3 

1 




3 






8 
12 

3 

... 

7 

3 






■ 




a 

1 




■• 


■ 
















1 












Of UnefTtain S»M.— DropiT 

Bi>d()Clu,rDi»a»iorTar[ 




1 

I 
... 


■ 


1 










fl 


0/ Iferwiu ai),tcn.<:. Di>- 


1 


2 






3 

a 










3 

2 


2 

1 

1 
1 


B 


... 


■ 
















O/ Rfspirahry Syittm.— 
Diseawiottha Lungs, &g 






^ 


B 


a 














Ift 








... 






















Of DigaHa Organs. DU 




















•in 


0/ Urinary Organt.-Da 
euM of &6 KfdDeyi, Ac.. 

O/Oentrativs Organ* 


■■ 






■■ 














1 
S 


3 


, 


■ 






















2 


•■ 


■• 


.. 


■ 


■■ 




■■ 




Old Age 

Sxttmai CoujH. Tiolencee 
PriralioD. & intsmpennce 

Cnipecijied. 


E 


... 


,.- 




"■ 


■ 


















■ 


■^ 


2 


Total from oil Cania .. 


20 


3 






33 


4 


4 


4 


* 


J 


4 


' 


8 6 


G 


" 




I 




1 


1 






a 


(B 



K 



CHRIS. ROLLBSTON, Keeutnj Gaianl. 



f ISS METEROLUQICAL REPORT. ^^^^^H 


or OCTUHBB, lg57. ^^^^^^^H 


From ohservations taken at 9 a.m. and 9 p.nt, each day. ^^^^^| 


1 i 


k^ 


Tkuperatchk oriin - 


MOLITITHB. 


(■L'>cn. 


IV. sea. 


^^H 












Remari^^^^^l 


If 


w 


■s 


1 




i 
A. 


•ii 


1 


1 


IJ 


Weather. ■ ,^^^^W 


2 


30M7 
■16i 


53-0 
60-7 


68.0 
70-5 


37-U 


29T 
33-5 


44-5 
50-1 


■00 
■00 


T 


Cu. 


a. NNE. 
NNB, 


1 Pleataui mjallicc . J 
1 Freali aea-bre^^^fl 


S 


■119 


62-5 


77-8 


40-4 


37-4 


539 






Ci.-Bt. 


NE. 


.4H 


20-000 


64-0 


ra-a 


454 


STH 


55-4 


■00 




Bt.-Ci. 


NE. 


Qlogmy wA 'd^Bfl 
PartiafubridT^^^I 


I 6 


■BTi 


B6-9 


74-8 


34-5 


203 


69-4 


-09 


9 


St.-Ni. 


Variable 


S g 


■841 


61 a 


«7 


S6-3 


8-4 








Cu-Ni. 


Variable 




T 


•BIS 


62-4 


70-a 


5*0 


18-2 




B7 


7 


8t.-CD. 


N. WSW. 


IPark dnn^^^^H 




■800 


58-7 


67-5 


55Q 


12-5 


50-5 


-09 


to 


S(. 


BSW. 




9 


■837 


oa-i 




49-1 


20-3 




-00 




Cu.-Oi. 


NB. 


10 


■■'75 


5r8 


03-3 


544 


8-9 


61 -5 


.28 


ID 


Ni. 


aw. 


^^^^H 


113 


■84T 


eoil 


67-2 


431 


24-1 


49-3 




4 


Cu. Ci-8t. 


8, NE. 


^^^ 


12 


'655 


B(y7 


71-5 


53-4 


18-1 


52-7 


■21 




Ni. 


N. wNw. ) .___„ :^^^^m 


IS 


■740 


62-5 


71 6 


54-3 


1?3 


45-0 


-00 


1 


Cu.'at. 


SW. 




14 


3D'1I4 


58-4 


71-0 


42a 


29-4 


46-9 








8E. 


1 Very fine weather. ' 
fPreihseabieeiei. 


15 


■180 


65-4 




^'6 


297 


56-8 


-00 







NNB. 




2e'BD4 


66-0 


76-3' 


403 


30-0 


.50-3 


-00 





. a. 


NNB, 


17 


3(M»3 


61-4 


flSfl 


54-3 


13-7 


S2-8 


■06 


10 


Cn. 


SoRth 


■Southerly " aqnall. ' ' 


1 1E6 


-■118 


60-0 




S2'8 


15-8 


52-fi 


■m 


10 


Cn. 


NNB. 


Cloudy. 




aB'B7l 


«3-0 


OS-0 


54.6 


13-4 




■35 


10 


Cn. 


N.K 


Misty'iaia all day. 


. ao 


•IS! 


04-1 


75-5 


60-0 


15-6 


617 




10 


CB.-Ni. 


SSE. 


Thrcatsnina cloodi. 


' 21 


■828 


STi 


075 


,W0 


14-5 


S3-9 


■20 


5 


On, 


South 


Clearing. : 




■799 


84-0 


75,2 




29-7 


5B0 






Be.-Ci 


NNE. 


Light breeze. 




■Tee 


68-1 


655 


51-8 


13-7 


46-2 


■41 


6 


NL 


SW. 


[SqualUandshoiieM. 




■BBO 


£6-0 


64'S 


43-3 


ai-5 


432 


.14 


6 


Cu.^t. 


saw. 


2S 


■sso 


.«-5 






23-e 






5 


Cn. 


BSE. 


Fine. 


29 


S0'0e5 


59-7 


67-8 


484 


19-4 


50-4 ■ 


-00 





Cu. 


East 


1 Urge cumulose cloud. 
J and showers, 
eieating- 


27 


■318 


S8-5 


B7-6 


40-5 


18-1 


51-3 


-38 


ID 


Cn 


East 


1 2S 




eO'B 


6S-0 


50-4 


17-6 


52-2 


■on 


5 


Cu. Ci.-8t. 


NB 


1 S9 


29-981 


62-8 


708 


55-7 


16-1 


58-0 


■34 





Co. 


NE. 




■725 


mi 


73 8 


49-9 


23-9 






5 


Co, Ci, 


NNE. 


Reinarkable.claiulii. 


31 


■690 


-eo-5 


75-2 


063 


18-9 


«-7 


■00 




C«. Ci- 8t 


Weat 


Strong wind. 


30 230 


71-2 


77-8 




40-8 


64-1 


T^ 


"lo" 


Highest ) of single readings M 


,i 


29-499 


47-0 




sr'-i) 




39-7 




" 


Lowest J at9a,m.or9p.m. ^ 


■| 


29.928 El-0 


"to^ 


49 4 


"wb" 


528 


5'26 


"-60 


Means and Bums. October, 1857. "-' \ 


I 


30047 1 0O-8 


n-7 


495 


222 


51-5 


"a^ 


-50 


Mean, of OcloUr, 1855.1858. ' ■ 
±Ji^ 


' N,B.— The olaervatioiis ara no! coiracteil for dinraal 


ffiNiporafH™.— The total depth of water ovajiorated f$l 


ranio Tho principal iastranic-nts hava been oomparBd 


full eiponore to nun and wind ia 4-75 iMdiaa. .Tha 


total evaporation during the nrenoos tlirea mtaidw 


) cordingly. 


1 frcMUre.— The tarometer is 1 1 feel abov« tho aea-lsrol 


Claud.— The oitent of cloud is ^pressed by the tendu. 
of the whole aky covered bj- it. 
The fonua of clonda aro denoted as fnlloffs, the nnm- 


the iireatert langa ofpreaanre i« TSI ini^h, The 


mean gaseouB presaate of dry air is 29528 inchsB. 


( The averain iTEJEht of a, cubic [bot af air is 531 an. 


bar of day. on which each kind occiurod during 
the month being added in flgnrea. 
Cn. OomnluB 17 (S-Cu. Cirra-comnln.. ... 


Ta-^alura V A{r.~tU mean of aU .elf-regiBtcrad 


niaiima and minima ia 597 degreea, Tho nrfoptad 
tnuui itmptraluTe of Ihe month from all observattoaa 




Ci. Cin-na 6 Ci.-Bt. Cirfo-slratns ...„. »- 


for iha iK'o previims veani ii 608 dearem. 


St. Btratu. 6 Oa.-8t. Cumaio-atratus ... 2' 

Ni, Ninibus...,0. 


■ Jtfbi«»r«.-The dowpoml ia ralmlated from roadings of 






WSW (day 


SE I » ■ 




' W«.t 1 „ 


Eaat 2 : 1 






■ 


S r-m . ta 5B degrees. Tho mean elastic foc<« of 


WS'iT 4 „ 


NE 6i .. 1 


vapcmc i» -40 inchoa. The average proportional 
L hoBiiditr of the air a denoted bv 75, or j, perfectly dry 




NNE 6i ,. 1 


saw 3 ," 


North 1 „ 1 


1 air btiag taken u 0. and aatufatad dam]< air ai 100. 


South 3 „ 


Variable 2 ,. 1 


.flain.— More or le« rain fell on H dava dnriiig Iho 


BSE 2 day 


1 


. .month. Tbe total depth bein; 5-26 inches. It a 
' rnlleclfd ut one foot above tlie ground, and meaaured 


W. S. JEVONS. J 


: at 9 p.m. 


Douhla Bay, Bear Bydoey. N.S.W. 1 




^H 


■ 






■ 


■ 


■ 


m' 




^H 


■ 


^^^^^^H 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ABT. 



139 



INTERNAL COMMUNICATION. 

The heading is enough to deter the most 
conscientious reader. Can any thing new 
be said on this subject? Have not rail- 
ways, tramways, plank roafls. and macad- 
amized roads been discussed in every 
variety of form, and reported on by all 
sorts of committees, and all grades of 
officials, until the country is utterly weary 
«f the whole matter ? We fear, too, that 
the public is getting very disgusted to find 
that it has to pay the sum of £40,000 per 
annum, for the excess of interest over die 
net receipts, on the two lines of railways 
that have been completed. The more so, 
that it is difficult to see the advantage that 
has been gained by the expenditure of up- 
wards of one million sterling. We are not 
able to point to one of the resources of the 
colony that it has developed hitherto, and 
to enable it to do so, thS promoters ask for 
additional capital, to the amount of some 
hundreds of thousands of pounds. 

Our enterprising neighbour, Victoria, 
attaches so much importance to this modi 
of opening up the interior, that she con- 
templates, without dismay, the expenditure 
of eight millions sterling in the necessary 
works. This is a flight tar beyond the 
ambition of our boldest financier, and we 
consider that our fellow colonists may be 
congratulated on our comparatively modest 

In order to enter on this subject, with 
proper information as to the views of the 
best authorities now in the colony, we have 
perused carefully the following papers. 
The Governor- General's two able and cla- 
horate papers, read before the Philosophi- 
cal Society, which we 'have reprinted in 
this periodical, A paper by Mr. F, T. 
Peppercome, on- the same subject, in our 
September issue. The Report of the Select 
Committee of the Legislative Council, ap- 
pointed to consider the most advisable 
plan for securing the formation of the 
Great Trunk lines of Railway ; and a Re- 
port on the Internal Communications of 
New South Wales, by Captain Martindale, 
R.E., Chief Commissioner of Railways. 
This is an admirable paper, and although 
our space is so circumscribed, we reprint 
it at length in our present n umber. 
We have also noticed the complaints 
made by the Postmaster-General, as to the 
Htate of the roads, in his Report on the 
post-office ; and in every specth delivered 
No. 7. Dec. 1857. 



in the Assembly, or in public meetings of 
the citizens, we hear constant re-iteration 
of the same grievance. 

Every body says "something must be 
done," and all the authorities we have con- 
sulted see nothing else than an extension 
of railways, to merge, after a few more miles 
are traversed, into tramways, or macada- 
mized roads. The expense at which this 
will have to be accomplished is enormous. 
The railway for locomotives is estimated to 
cost about £12,000 per mile, aad tha tram- 
way, or macadamized road, about £4,000 
per mile in construction, and each will re- 
quire a large annual sum to keep it in 

We firmly believe that this country, 
with its small population, cannot afibrd 
this large expenditure. We direct earnest 
attention to the paper by Professor Pell, 
reprinted in our last issue, which has re- 
ceived such ample corroboration since it 
was written. The fact is, we must find 
some cheaper mode of transport for goods 
and passengers than those that have hitherto 4 
been suggested. 

We believe we could devise a cheap form 
of railway, and we are bold enough to sz- 
plain our plan. We are prepared for de- 
rision. We expect it. The " constituted 
authorities" and the professionally edu- 
cated engineer have too much at stake in 
retaining things as they are. An expendi- 
ture of millions is not to be lightly relin- 
quished, no matter how they are screwed 
from a groaning population; not to mention 
the audacious intrusion of a profane step 
within the mysteries of a learned pro- 
fession. 

However, we shall give as plain a de- 
scriprion as we can of the form of road we 
should recommend, and leave any person 
who feels interested to make the necessary 
experiments, should he think it worthwhile. 

The idea was suggested to us in tlie fol- 

wing manner. Our readers have, no 
doubt, seen in the toy shops (a place by 
the way where they may obtain many a 
practical mechanics*) the figure 
of a horse suspended on his hind legs, and 
kept in equilibrium by a heavy weight 
luch hangs below the point of support. 
We propose to apply this principle to a 



140 



MAGAHNEl OF SCIENCE AND ABT. 



^ 



Let a single line of stout posts be firmly 
iuBerled in the ground at distances of ten 
feet from eacli other along the present lines 
of road into the interior. Let these be 
united at the top by a continuous rail or 
sleeper about six inches square. The sur- 
face of this line of wooden rail should be 
about five feet above the surface of the 
earth. There need only be a tingle line. 
Along this continuous sleeper let a light 
semi-circular iron rail be laid of about two 
inches diameter. 

To travel along this rail there should be 
a strong iron wheel say of eighteen inches 
diameter, with a deep groove on its edge 
to fit the tail. Through the centre of the 
wheel should pass a strong axle not more 
than eighteen inches in length, and fitted 
with antifriction rollers to diminish the 
friction as much as possible. From each 
end of this axle an iron rod, swinging 
freely, should depend about four feet, car- 
rying at its end a flat surface like the scale 
of a weighing-machine, extending outwards 
from the rail on each side to receive the 
load. This pair of scales would thus hang 
About two feet from the surface of the 
ground. 

There might be two or move wheels follow- 
ing each oSier, but the principle is equally 
applicable to one wheel. The load would 
thus be suspended on the rail as it is in 
panniers over a horse's back. If the re- 
ceptacles on either side were equally 
loaded, a perfect equilibrium would be 
maintMued, and a very slight force dther 
of horse or bullook power would be re- 
quired to draw the load so suspended along 
the even surface of the elevated rail. 

In order to give a more graphic idea of 
the plan, we will suppose the electric tele- 
graph posts now placed along our streets, 
to be only ten feet apart, and five feet in 
height, and that the wire properly sup- 
ported by a strong longitudinal sleeper, 
were two inches in diameter. This in fact 
would constitute our railway. Along tlie 
surface of this a wheel or wheels are to 
travel, having loads suspended some four 
feet below ^eir axles, and equally dis- 
tributed on each side of the line of rail. 
Horses should be employed to draw the 
load. They would travel on the present 
imperfect roads with ease, for it is not the 
feet of the animals which destroy a road, 
but the grinding action of the wheels of 
carriages. This latter action is done away 
witji by tlie above plan. 



It is important to state, too, that this 
form of railway would provide at once for 
the fixing of the electric telegraph wires, 
without any additional expense being in- 
curred for posts, &c. The wire could be 
continued along the under surface 6f the 
lon^tudinal sleeper, by which it would be 
effectually preserved from injury. A sav- 
ing to the Colony of about £50 per mile 
would thus be effected. 

We shall not enter at present into any 
further derails. We hope the scheme will 
be calmly considered by those best calcu- 
lated to fnnn an opinion on its merits. We 
beg earnestly that our readers in the in- 
terior will take some little piuns to inyesti- 
gaie the principle, and to attempt its ap- 
plication each in bis own way. By these 
means some cheap and practicable mode of 
communication with the interior niaj' be 
discovered, and the permanent settlement 
of the country may be greatly .-iccelerated. 
By this means we are sanguine enough, to 
believe that we could lay down a practi- 
cable railway for horse traction of goods 
and passengers to Bathurst within three 
months, and at a cost of less than £1000 
per mile. 

At all events, whether our plaa is prac- 
ticable or not, we have made an attempt to 
solve the difficulty in which the country 
is placed. If it has no other benefit, it will 
doubtless set some ingenious minds on the 
search, and eventually produce some more 
satisfactory result than the reiteration of 
the melancholy refrain of 
must be done." 



PHILOSOPniCAL SOCIETY OF 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

We this month present our readets widi 
the following highly important paper on 
Irrigation, which was read by His Excel- 
lency the Governor-General at the monthly 
meeting of the Society, held November 12, 
1856. 

IRRIGATION. 
The tetm "irrigation," which, in oriiinary parlance, 
means the applicatim of water to Iho soil tgr die put- 
pose of develoirinit tha growth of plants, whether indi- 
genoui or tultivated. nmj, with reftreare to tbe subject 
matter of (Jiia jiaper, havo a more eitunded mesiiin; 
giTea tn it, and be taken to inciada not oniv the appti- 

YBjance, and distribution. It is a subjert to which but 
Utile attention appears to have been jaid, either by tha 
Govemmenl or the poopla of Nb» South Wale* 

If, Lowerei, ve consider tbe chiiacter of tha ctitnite 
of this calonf , and its operatden npon the prodq^ra 
[Mver of (lie colony, and if we bear in mind tbd lU- 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



portiat fact tbat tls popnlatian, in the stiiMESt and 

the produce of die iarlsjx of tlie soil— Lhat it ii. in fact, 
a pastoral anil agricnltoral comniaaitr, I think it will 
he admicled ihstthetsii not in the wtola range of sab- 
j(<ota bearing a'pon tlie or;cupation of the fleokowner, the 
a^cal^riat, and the hordcaltadst, a »iigle noe which 
is deeWving of more rarefol study, or one from which, 
if pro|ioriy undemtood and applied, peater or mora 
bsoeBcial rc.iulti would he obtained. 1 have alluded 
to the climate, 'imd it muy be aa well that I should 
ntate what, in my Dninion, peculiarl; cbaraL-teriim it. 
But, in dmtrihing tho climate of a counWj extending 
over 14 dagreei <A latitude and 10 of longitude, I mOBt, 
of coUFBB, speak in very BEDeitL terms. 

With this iimititioi], I ihonld aay that the climate 
of New South Watca Mjivaiackable for ila dryness, 
uid consequent evanwatm power, by which 
Dpon tlia feaetatiou, ufc nbtely thi ' ' 
which is rendered incapibla of |— '~ 



rying 



aiitbe >uil thmngb^ which 
the roots of the ' ' 



foliage 



may observe that, if this be the case at present, when 
SD large a ptoportiou of the country is covered vith 
timber, it will jirevail ta a far greater eileot when the 
denudation of the graund by the axe will dlmijush the 
quantity ef ruin, and allow the sun and air to act more 
powerfuUv than at present upon the exposed sur&:o of 
the soil. It is, Ihei'efaro, evidently, most desirable tliat 
atlentiwshonid be devoted to the invostigatiaii of the 

sent, is likely to be enhanced by the vtry steps which 
must be taken to render (he country more praductive, 
and I trust the time is not far distant when tbe QoTern- 
ment, by making aproper use of the rneans at itsdis- 
pos«l of acquiring information, will be placed in pos- 
— ' in ofdatasnlficieiittsenahlaittolay thefonndatioo 



of a aysu 



h only will i1 .. 
a pajtial remedy to the evil 

TOT, as OiB diHcnssion of anb- 



jecta of this kind c ^ 

useful, I propose m the 'present 

acU upon the vegetatian. I ahsll then jnve a brief 
•hBtoh of tiie aysttms of irrigation as practised in dif- 



neresmrTBupplieB of water may be obtMned; the cba- 
taUfTDfthe works which must be constructed to col- 
lect, convey, and distribute theee sujinlies ; and, lastly, 
the mode of protiding the fnnds which will be required 
to defray the cost oFsneb works. 

1st. As tu the mode in which water applied to the 
surfats of the soil operabis npon ve^tation. 

Most [ilants derive their nourishment partly from the 
uil through the interveutiDii of (heir roots, partly from 
the aUuDSpheto threngh the action of tlieir lesrei ; the 
roots, ha^'ever, perform the most important part in this 
combined system. It is through (heir action that the 
elementary snbslaaces are shsorbedfrom the soil, which 
ale afterwards combined in the plant, (h rough the action 
uf air and of light, into thoso fbrms which ^ve diatinc- 
tile of its enslenco as a species. These roots, however, 
are incapable of abiolbing any solid subslancea. It has 
been proied by eijierinieutB that the lincat powders, 
■nch as would tequire a most powerful microscope to 
define the particles of which they are composed, ate, in 
B dry state, utterly incapable of maintaining the lift of 
a plant, even tbongli Ciey should be composed of 
elements with which the plant bai the closest afflnity. 
Mfflsture, then, ia necessaiy to vegetable life. The food 

liqaid formal mean such food as is taken up by 
la, Water, tlieo, applied to the suiface of the 
[son vegelatiun by dissolving uid pteeoatingta 




the roota of plants those matters which an ecsential to 
tbeii' existence. 

Water, however, has a secondary action in modifjinj 
(hoeflectof the atmosphere npon vegetation. In dry 
conntries the presence of water would neutmliie to a 
certain extent the parching effect of the atmoiphere, hy 
altering its bygrometric state, and would enable it to 
act i<B part in the chemistry of vegetation, Wch it 
could hardly otherwise perform eflecavely. 

In coM countries, ^aln, water is applied to tha 
meadows in winter, and it has been found by experi- 
ment that the temnerature of that in contact with Uie 
graiB is seldom below 40 degrees vblle the eurface is 
froien ; and the effect of this imgation ia to ptesorvo 



ittei of snrprisB 
to us to lind (hat mankind have not failed to avaU 
Ihemsolvea oitensively of i(a a^ney. 

The great nations of antiquity, the Egyptians and 
Asayri;tn9. with whom bistorv may be said to com- 
mence, occnpied the fertile valleys of the Nile and the 
Eophralea, where the periodical ovsrflowing of dia 
rivers gave, it may bo, the first hint of the importance 
of water. History, and the still I'listing remains of 
the great works eiecuted by these oadoiUi for the nnr. 
pose of extending and regulating the djstribi 
their natural supply, hei ' ' ' ' 



)Dse of extending and regulating the distnbulion of 
heir natural supply, bear testimony to the valne placed 

of these countries now. ontr«stinj( u it 

doea so nnfavonrably with that which they eihibitM. 
soma 25 centuries ago, mav ba imputed to >, certain 
extent, at all evenO, to their neglect of tha mean* 
which Nature has placed at their disposal, of which 
their ancestors availed thetnselvea with such skill ind 
j adgment. 

If we look aronnd us in the present day and aMompt 
to investigate (he reasons which have induced tha set- 
tlement of a dense populatianin any particular locality, , 
wo shall find, in an agricultural community, that popu- 

(he richness of the soil, or (he facilities offered foe its 
cultivation, the means of anbiustence are easily pro- 
cnred, and we shall also find that this will be matt 






le been moat extensively u 



Id availa^. 



iting Che 
rtim 



paiticuiariiB those districts in the North of Italy whidi 
are watered by the Fo and iB afiluents. and portions of 
the Bi^itish territory in India, where popnlation may 
bo said to follow the water ; for wherever the means cf 
irrigation are provided, a dense ]iapulatioa is sure to 

Ae millions who Inhabit the Chinese Empire eonld 
never be supported were it not for the care bestowed by 
the Government and the inliabitante generally upon af 1 
the works by which the cultivation of the toil is im- 
proved, sod specially upon lliose «bich provide for tlia 
conveyance of water for irrigation, and other puriioso. 
Any description of the means which have been and still 
are employed in differeuc countries, for the pntpcso of 
collecting and distributing the water required for irri- 
gation, most in snch a paper as this be confined te auob 
m outiiue as may be sufficient to give an idea of their 
character. I hope, hereafter, ta be nble to go more 
fally into the details of particniar schemes ; at present, 
I must Bjieak in general terms. 
The principal sources from which sn|iplii!S of water 
r the purpose of irrigation may be denvedn are — 

1. BsDiung streams. 

2. Bewrvairain which tha drainage of the eonntry 



B. Boweragfl or drainage from (owns. 
The first and most effectivH tourco of supply w 
Inays be the riven and streams, which have tH 






■142 



MAGAZINE OF SClENflE AND ART, 



-MH 



Aoiirce in mountain ranges. In countries liko tho 
North of Italy, where the rivei-s which dischvge ^em- 
selves into the Po have tlieir sources in tho J&m amid 
peq)etual snows, or liko the North of India, lijfq^.re the 
streams. descend from the still more lofty raiygf^^ the 
Himalayas, there is never any cessation in thft, supply i 
^a warm summer in the mountains me^ts '^lai'^er 
quantity of snow and produces a lar^fc SEuppl^^irhile 
a cold summef has tho effect of reducing it;,, but tlie 
streams always discharge a large hody-^fwatcr, and all 
that is reqaire<l is .the construction ;ot^.Ui.'h works as 
may enable the ei^kupor td-have .at liis command a pait 
or even the whole of^^u3 dlsHharge,- so that any ix>quirod 
amount may be turned into the proper channels by 
which tho water is to be conveyed to the districts whore 
it i.s to bo u.st'd. 

I have said that the most effoftive source of suj>ply is 
from tho rivers which are led from perpetual snows on 
mountain ranges ; but I only mean that the source is 
most effective because it is the largest in amount and 
most to be depended on. Any stream which will fur- 
nish a supply of water, however small, during the sum- 
mer montlis, can be made available for irriijation, and 
there are thousands of instances in England where the 
water of a mere brook is made to produce the moat 
beneficial results upon the cultivation of the small val- 
leys through which it runs; but these sources occa- 
sionally fail in dry seasons, that is, at tho very period 
when there is the greatest demand for water, whcreiis 
the river heading into tho mountains will at that very 
time be able to furnish a full supply. 

The 'V{orka which are required to make supplies from 
ronning streams avallabio are, first — dams across these 
strsams, h^ which the water is raised to such a height 
a^ ■wtli allow of any given amoun<: being turned into 
tfa^ olianiiel or earner by which it is to be led into tho 
district where it is to he applied. Where the rivers are 
laxve, and where the water derived from it is intended, 
as in the case of the Ganges Canal to sup])ly tho wants 
of a very large district, the stability of tho dam on 
>(-hich the supply is dependent is of immense import 
ance ; but the larger tjio river the less generally will 
be the height of the dam, and the l^ss subject will it 
therefore be to the risk of accident from floods, against 
which it is necessary always to take special precautions. 
Great care is required in selecting the site of a dam, 
the fonndation must be solid, or capable of being made 
so — the banks should bo high enough to retain the 
heaviest floods, and should form solid abutments for 
the ends of the dam. 

If care be required in selecting the site of a dam, no 
less care should be exhibited in the selection and adap- 
tation of the materials of whicli it is constructed. 

These should be of tho most solid and enduring de- 
scription, and should be framed and connected together 
in such a manner as to bid defiance to the action of the 
heaviest flood ; and as water acts in various ways upon 
a structure of this kind, partly by direct pressure, partly 
by erosion in passing over its surface, or by bringing 
other bodies such as trees and stones to roll over it, and 
partly by acting upon the foundation upon which tho 
dam is built — all these various actions must be foreseen 
and guarded against. 

The second class of works which aro required are 
those by which the water is conveyed and distributed. 
These are in fact mere water-courses of dimensions cor- 
respondent to the amount of water to be convoyed along 
them — care, of course, must be takeu to regulate the 
slope of the channel of these courses, so as noc to create 
a current so rapid as to act on the bed or banks. 
Bridges are required to carry roads across these chan- 
nels ; aqueducts to pass the water across valleys ; waste 
weirs to get rid of any surplus water ; culverts to pro- 
vide for tho drainage of the country in the upper side 
of the carrier. In carrying out an extensive scheme of 
irrigation, there will be a demand for such an amount 
of skill and intelligence as will bo found only among 
men who possess the highest order of engineering talent. 
Means, also, mnst be provided for measuring as accu- 



rately |if poMible the quantity of water which is passed 
into tile distributing channels, as on the appliances for 
thin purpose, ind the care taken to secure them from 
being t<impere€l with, must the revenue to be derived 
froni the water depend. Upon this revenue must be 
churged not only the cost of maintaininff the works in 
proper r^air, but also the interest of me capital ex- 
pended4^ their construction. 

l'he.<^ollowiDiL abstract of some of the information 
collected by Ca^fin Baird Smith, of the Bengal En- 
ginccrti, during il professional tour in tbe north of Italy, 
when ho was sent by tho East India Government for 
the express purpose of collecting information on the 
subject of irrigation, will be both interesting and in- 
structive, lu Ijombardy the amount of land under 
irrigation exceeds 1,000*1)00 acres — about one-eixth of 
tlie whole area of the conntrv ; the canals and branches 
by which tlie water is distributed are about 4500 miles 
in length ; about half the water of the rivers which flow 
through tho country is made use of for irrigation. A 
discharge at tho rate of one cubic foot per second will 
irrigate 70 acres. The purchase of this amount of water 
in perjjetuity costs from £290 to £300 ; the annual 
rent of the same amount of water is £13 10s., or about 
3s. lOd. or 4s. per acre. The actual benefit or direct 
return to the Government, which is the constructor and 
maintainer. of the works, docs not exceed the amount 
required to keep tho works in repair ; but the indirect 
benefit, which is measured by the increased value given 
to tho land, of which the annual rent is the index, may 
bo put at 12s. jjer acre, about £600,000 per annum. 

In liombaidy, where the works have been carried on 
for centuries, and where every description of labour has 
been emj)loyed, it is of course impossible even to guess 
at tho total expenditure upon tne various kinds of 
works which have been executed for the purpose of irri- 
gation. Much has been done in the earlier periods, 
upon bad principles and imperfectly"; much was com- 
menced and after a time neglected and allowed to get 
out of repair, so that it would be impossible to say 
whether there has been a return in the suape of interest 
upon the whole of the capital expended ; but in certain 
instances there is distinct information to be obtained 
with regard to particular works, whicli is sufficient to 
show the amount of benefit wliich is to be derived from 
a well-digested and carefully executed system of irri- 
gation. 

The canal of Calnso, in Piedmont, has a course of 
nearly 20 miles — it supplies water for irrigating 17,955 
acres -, it is not well laid out, as the slope of the bed is 
far too great, causing a waste of water and of mill-' 
power. It is expensively constructed : that is, there 
are many works of importance which have been neces- 
sarily undertaken — ^such as a heavy river wall at the 
conimeucement, 90O feet in length, two long tunnels, 
aqueducts, bridges, &c. The total cost of the work was 
£34,906 OS., or, on an averap;e, about £1700 per mile. 

The amount of water available for irrigation is 350 
cubic feet per second. The direct returns in the shape 
of rent for the use of water amount to £1780. Tae 
annual ex])enses of repairs and maintenance do not 
amount to above £500, and which leave £1280 as the 
net revenue, being about 4 per cent, on the capital in- 
vested. The indirect returns, however, are estimated 
at 126. ])er acre upon all the land irrigated, together 
wifh a share of tho retuins from mills, and this will 
amount to about £11,000 per annum, or about 80 per 
cent. })er annum on the outlay. 

I do not think it necessary to enter into further de- 
tails at present \rith relation to the mode in which the 
water ol running streams is made available for irriga- 
tion. I may mention, however, that I have reason to 
believe that the revenue derived from irrigation in 
India is far in excess of that mentioned as the return 
from tho works in Italy, and the indirect return ia fully 
as great as in that country. 1 have, however, requested 
to be furnished by the proper authorities with full de- 
tails of the works which have been executed, or are in 
progress of execution, in Bengal and Madras, and with 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



143 



all the statistics connected with them, which 1 shall 
have great pleasure in submitting to the Society' here- 
after. 

The second mode in which supplies of water can be 
obtained is by the construction of reservoirs, in which 
the drainage of the country is collected, and stored up, 
as it were, for future use. There are several countries 
where the streams are not ])erennial, but are merely 
the outlets by which the periodical or casual falls of 
rain are discharged. In the southern parts of India, 
within the tropics, the rains are periodical and very 
heavy ; but although the earth is thoroughly saturated 
while these rains last, and though, rich crops are pro- 
duced after they have ceased, yet the beneficial effect is 
only partial 2m4^temporary, and for several months the 
ground is paiSwd and dried up for want of a supply 
of moisture, which can only be obtained by irrigation. 
The supply from theaAB penodical rains would probably 
be quite sufficient, if distributed over the whole year, 
to keep up a constant fertility : all that has to be done, 
therefopit is to arrest as much as possible of the water 
on its way to the sea, for the purpose of doling it out 
during the dry season, as the wants of the community 
may desire it. 

This system of storing water is not, however, limited 
to those countries in which the rains are periodical and 
certain. It is quite as applicable to countries like Aus- 
tralia, where the fall of rain is casual, uncertain, and 
scanty in amount. The following abstract of the effects 
produced in the hill country in Central India, by a 
judicious system of tank embankments, will enable the 
Society to judge of the possibility of adopting a similar 
system in New South Wales, and of ^e advantages 
which may accrue from it. 

In the district of Mairwara water was the great de- 
sideratum. Pi'om the hilly character of the country 
the rain which lalls speedily flows ofi^. The rains, too, 
are exceedingly precarious, and bad seasons in this 
respect are the rule, good the exception. The amount 
even in favourable seasons rarely exceeds 22 inches, 
and it often ranges from 8 to 12 inches. In 1832 not a 
single shower fell, and a fearful famine was the conse- 
quence. Some small embankments had been made, 
and the good effects produced by them encouraged 
Colonel Dixon, the Resident-officer in charge of the 
district, to submit to the Government a scheme for 
carrying out the system of tank embankments on a 
large scale. The reservoirs foimed by these would 
supply irrigation to the lands at a lower level through 
sluices ; and to those situated above the level of the 
reservoir by the wheel and bucket, or by any other 
simple machinery. The percolation of the water 
through the ground would supply wells formed in rear 
of the embankment, from which, again, water mi^t be 
raised to supply land which could not be reached \fy 
the sluices. The Government entered into the scheme 
proposed, and gave encouragement and assistance to the 
inhabitants of the district, wlio set to work energeti- 
cally ; in the course (jf a few years constiiicted no less 
than 290 dams, holding up 9675 acres of water, and 
irrigating nearly 15,000 acres of land. The following 
table will give, at a glance, the expenditi^re of the Go- 
vernment, and the results of the expenditure in adding 
to the happiness of the people : — 



- 


1— < 


4 

o 


Village 
Tanks. 


a 

o 

3' 

a. 
& 


• 
■ 

d 


Total in 1835 
Total in 1846 


2233 
6148 


2712 
9691 


2065 


39,648 
100,282 


£9,680 
21,022 


Difference 1 
(increase J 


3915 


6979 


2066 


60,634 


£11,342 



Expenditure by the Government, which has 

produced these results £24,111 



Natural springs form the third source from wliich 
water for irngation may be obtained. It is not neces- 
sary that I should say anything as to the mode of 
making use of the water derived from these, the pro- 
cess ef distributing it being of course similar to that 
adopted with regard to like quantities of water from 
any otHer source ; means, of course, would be taken to 
enhance the supply as much' as possible, but the 
quantity of water must be so entirely contingent upou 
local peculiarities in the geological structure of the 
country as to render it impossible for me to do more 
than to allude to springs as a means which may, under 
certain circumstances, \m made very extensively 
useful in irrigating land.. 

In many countries, especially in those where the 
upper surface of the soil is of a light and porous cha- 
racter, the rain which falls speedily disappears ; it 
percolates through the upper strata, and is either col- 
lected in subterranean bawns, formed by undulations 
of the strata, or is discharged lower down when the 
watertight stratum crops out. 

In such countries wells will be the principal source 
upon which dependence can be placed for the supply of 
■an adequate quantity of water. In the account given 
of the works in the Mairwara district, in Central India, 
wells fortn a prominent feature. Here again a know- 
ledge of the geological structure of the locality is indis- 
pensable to those who would engage in the construction 
of wells, for the purpose of applying the water derived 
from them to irrigation. When ' proper judgment, 
however, is exercised in the selection of sites for wells, 
and in the application of the most econ6mical and 
effective means for raising the water, there is no doubt- 
but that tliey will be found most useful and avulable 
sources of supply for irrigating small tractf of land 
which would otherwise be condemned to sterilitT. 

The last, and, under certain circumstances, the most 
valuable source of water supply, i|, the drainage or 
sewerage frem largo towns. The quantity of watar is 
limited, of course, but it is charged with the richest 
and most nutritive matter, so that a much smaller 
quantity of water produces the most marked effects 
upon the vegetation of the land to which it is applied. 
In the vicinity of Milan the sewerage water is poured 
into the Vettabbia, and the land irrigated with this 
water produces eight crops in the year, and such land 
is let at from £8 to £22 per acre. Similar results 
have been arrived at in the neighbourhood of Edin- 
burgh, whore land, worth originally £4 per acre annu- 
ally, has been let for £20 per acre, the increased value 
being due altogether to the fertilizing effects of the 
sewerage water. 

Having given a brief description of the various 
systems of irrigation which have been, and still are 
practised in various parts of the world, I will now 
draw your attention to the practical application which 
it is possible to make of some, if not all, of the% 
systenjs to the circumstances of this colony. 
' It is quite true that the state of things here is essen*- 
tially different from that which does or has prevailed, 
either in India, or in the North of Italy, so far I mean 
as regards the tenure of land and the i)Ower of the 
Government to undertake works of the kind to which 
allusion has been made, but in some respects the differ- 
ence, is to the advantage of this colony. The antount 
of laiid in the possession of the Government is a very 
great advantage ; it not only does away witii the neces- 
sity of purchasing the land required for the works, but 
it places at the disposal of the Government an amount 
of capital which may be most usefully exjjended upon | 
works of improvement generally, and more especisuly 
upon those by which the value of this capital may be 
enhanced Labour, it is true, is dear, but the materials 
for the different descriptions of work arc easily pro- 
curable. I will not, however, attempt to institute a 
comparison which must necessarily be imperfect ; and 
which, even if it were possible, would not, in any way, 
affect the question to he decided, namely, the amount 
of advantage which may reasonably be expected from 



MAOAZIKE OF SCUSNOJB AND AST. 



EBBelKl ij^m of irrigatigD in Nen Scatb Vllei. 
BefoK I tfCempt to describe the mode in which lorh 
a ayitein viiij bo catried into eflert, I muat diiect yont 
attBBlion 10 theresolt* «hicb miy reasonably ba ex- 
pected from its mdoptioD : am! it will be tims enongb 
to go into ilotoiled eiplHoatiani nben I havs proved 
tUt adrkntageODS resnlQ idst ritrlj be anticipated. 
1 may obserre. in tbe Htst place, tbat there are two 
claisu of ptinwni who will be in»l "pedstlv beDofitlcd 
by tbe devolo|iniBnt of anif simple aiid easily managed 



ownar, Tbe formur has oftea to regret . 

tnp fiouj the droughts wbich too froqOBDlly interfere 
between seed time aod harvest. Tbe Uttor has In 
e_ lossof florks and herdi TiUch perish 
'ant of food to eat, bat 



daring adroD^t, partly fc 
principally from want or wi . 

Tbe flockowner, again, oven when not affertod by 
diougbt, is obliged to diitribnlo his flocks and herds 
over a larra area. Tha produce Of the nalnral paa- 
tnrage of tae conntry is too scanty to admit of the de- 

rturageof one-lenlh part of tbe stocli which might 
kept upon it, wrre pro{>er means calieS to increase 
Its ferliliiv, among which means irrigation ranks 
bieheit. The agriculturist a obliged to content bim- 
*elf with inferior crop* from the want of means of ap- 
plying the proper stimnlns to the soil, which means 
would be alTanled were he placed ia a position to 
initalO hU farm. 

PThflloil and the climato of Lombardy are not more 
brontabla tocultivatiao than those of many parts of 
thu eslwy ; and the distriil betweeo Milan, Ijodi. and 
Favfa, Bont^ning about 100.000 acres, supports — — 
head of Mttle, ag.OOO bona, and 100,000 1 
■nmllor atock — an amount which would in this conniry 
weoty times a* great. The 



evident tliat in (bii 



upjiiri 

What 



then IS the qnantitT of n 



'bich &lls ia 

irtion of iha iBn 

order to reply to these queetims tstisfaciDrily, 1 no^ 
to be in poileEsion of the recnrd* of meteorolcfuil 
observations made in all parts of tha country, snd of 
Ittitujoiu obwrvationa upon tlie discluMgo of dit 
S tha aorplus watel— " ■- 






> uf drai 



■yinj. 






,« an°y k»>. 
e qUaoCity tf m 



to the mode in which advantage bas been taken of 
vale r by wlii'ch this district ia surrounded to irrii 
the wholfl of it perfectly. 

I will nnt pratend to estimate tbe actnal amounl 
the benefit which would accrue to New South W; 
by the adoption of a good system of irrigation ; 
'"■^ """" 'bich have been Ijud before yon 

;e that they are of —'^-—- - 

a largo ooti ay of mo 



fncbi, howovr 



in the 



snfllciBnt li 



11 propErt 



ifold. ha ' 
ipiUt 01 



>n the nnder- 
d be oqaivatent to 
five times the rental ; or, to out this into a CDmerical 
shape, if the annual value of a property amounted to 
.£100 the owner would act wisely in eipending £10,000 



■.ifbj 












show from w 



even one-tenth part of tbe land ofthi 

it wtnld bo wise to look forward to the probability 

of operations oven npou the whole of this titlie of the 

V maiiy^ years to come. My object is rather to 

Bupply of water for snch a 

, . . and to give a akolcb of the 

works which would be rejuired to make it available— 
and first as to tbe quantity of water. Jodging from 
the eiiJflrienco of other countries it would seem that a 
supiily of water equivalent to ono cubic font per second 
lasnffideDt. if properly administered, to irrigate 100 
arres of land. Now. llM acresof landcontiun CSSO.OOO 
square feet, and 1 cubic foot of water per second in two 
hundred davB (during which period it may bo neces- 
sary to appK- water to the land) will amount to 
1T.SSD.000 cubic feet, or about four coble feet of water 
to each foot of land— this qnnntity mort be applied at 
regular intervals, and it temaina to be seen how tbis 



with the amonnt of the diachar^ li 
the colony, would afford data of the ntnoat imponiBn 
in snch aa investication aa that which i aa n^ 
atteraptiog;. Lnckily, 1 am in possession Dfi|^Eiaqf 
meteorological obserraCions givinr the quantity of nia 
wliich has fallen at the Sooth Head, and I haveilm 
bcca furnished with the area from actual aorvajsBt 
the eronr.d which drains inelf into the Lachtan Swamf 
also into the Botany Swamp. Blperiments which ban 
been carried on by Hr. Cell for some time past 
actual discliarge uf water from the area of -ii 
hive given mo the means of taaking a 
to tbe pmiortion * 
amoant of disdis 



1S4U .indtheEmallestqnan^ty wuin UI49. when lbs 
rain.gangeonlv marked ai-48B inchtw. 

The area of drain:^ into the LarhUa and Bobaf 
Swamp is said to be 4T3T acres, or sav roughly EOBD 
acres, or 2173X1,000 square feet. The niaui daily. to- 
charge daringthemonthol'Septemher. an iDeasundMAs 
sluice at Soiany. waa 1,S<]!),500 gallons; to thkniBt 
be added 600,000 raltons for the amoant fnniiibed to 
Sydnev from the Lacblan Swamp. The waste thio^^ 
the dam and soil at the ootlet at Botanr is fstimattd 
at 100,000 gallons, and tlie dischar^re throng a tU- 
yard ia said to be at toast asaOOO gallins. The main 
daily discharge to waato mav amount to tbelotalof 
these itetae. that is, to a.SB^.SOO g.ill'.n.n, or 1SS.3S> 
cube feet, and iu the month to 13, }illit),<X>0 caV (wL 
Now, the area of drainaca. a« riven above, h 31 7,«»flOO 
aqnate feet, and the fall of rain in September wis S96 
inches. The actual qnantilv of water over tbs wfada 
of this area was about 61 millions of cube feet i ladu 
the disrharee was, aa befoJe stut<fd, 13.8eS),60e vM 



Tbe qnantity of water which is nqutred to irftnl) 
thnrougbly anv quantity of land danng 200 day* f« 
been stated at '48 tnchn, and as the aren«e quaimtf 
of rain shown in the returns for the whole yKT U 
4S'S09 inches, the quantity falling in 200 days in^be 
taken at B7 inches, of which the available amount, ao- 
cording to llje proportion dctoraiined before, of 1 t -SfiT, 
will be about 6 inches i but as 48 inches are wanted, it 
follows that the rain which falls upon 8 acres is mffi- 
cient to irrigate one acre fully, or that a proprietor of 
RN) acres might, by making nse of tha water falling 
u]ion his own property, irrigaie 100 acres 'perfoctiy. 

I give these nnmbars, of course, only ta approiima- 
tions; bnt they are founded upon aatisfactoiy data so 
far as regards the land in the immediate vicinity of 
"■■■'— ly. The Government has received twelve Hta of 
rulogical instruments, and as instructions hare 
liven to the snrvcyots to take every oppoftunity 

n tho course of a lew years we may be iu jionea- 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



1 of the I 



•ufficieDt supplj of water cir 
mitter far coosideiatiofl is th( 
IE made svulablB. The work! 



be procured, the ne 
meaiu by vhioli it r 

whicli it will be oec , , __, .. 

of callecting. conroyjog, and diatributine the water, ara 
identical in principle with those to wlucL I have before 
alluded. Dams will bo required to collect the w ' 
flhaoDeU to coniey it, and i^ecial airoji^nients 
luLie to be made for its uiBaauremant and liistrlbot.. . , 
bat as the supply will depend upon the casual fall of 
nin, the dami will have la he b 
instead of ffl^pd of lar^ dimeiui 
■arj consequmee the rhannela froa 
bfl of nmallerdimonsiona than would be the case wbtre 
one lane canal, drBvio| iti ■sppi}' from a river, coa- 
veyi allUte water requited for imgatiDD of an extensive 
didlriefc^ 

In tSo conntry Clw water will bo amsted at every 
coDVDaieTLt spot, and a portion of that which would 
oLherwiH run to wade will bo kept back in a reservoir 
as a source of auppiv dnrisg the dtyieaaoo. 

This system WDoTd arrive at its perfedion x^ben the 
-whole of the flood water wonld be retained, and the 
atreami brought oodEr BDch cammaDd as la allow of 
the reqnistta supply being doled ant throogh iduicfs to 
>D«t the wants of the settlers on the banks. This, 
however, muat of cDune bo the result of caitnrics of 
work. 1 only allude to it at present as being the limit 
beyond which it wonld bo useless to go. but to which 
we onght to strive to attain. As roguda tho mode of 
conttruction of the diOerent kinds of works a few 
genei'si remarks are all Ibat can properly find place in 
snch a paper as this. In some place Iho dam may be a 
lucre bonk of earth or clay, raised sufficicntlv high to 
be beyond flood level, with culverts large enough to 

dam may be formed ot roogh blocks of stone, with an 
niHtream Taring of earth. Here timber may be used; 
then dmber and etone. In fact, the mie shonid be to 
make use of the .■■■-■- 






m to jmard affaii 



E laces where a dam is erected ii 
ai ita head in moonl^nous g: 
down so rapidly and h^avilv tfai 
ofwaste channel would suffice 
Tise of 50 or 60 feet has been k 

eumitancis the 



;e from Booda. Qenerally 
1 go lo some eitra eiponse 
for surplus water, than to 
'je dam itsslf; but in 

iitnd, the Hoods come 
t no reasonablo amount 
carry them off. A 



Jio only a 



le to adopt is to make the dam 
lo bind it together in such a 
im damage, shosld the floods 
a purpose a miiture of timber 



of timber will servo to. bind the 
geCher, and the massi 
weight and stability. 






Duldbe very desirable that, w 
formed instead of a bridge- 
and a pennaneni 



s- 



according to the Blopo of the ground. 
■a the discharge would be so great at tin 
re the whole length of the dam as a ffuti 
■i case the road would have to bo raised at 



When diB porous character of lie soil cnmjiels the 
■sttler to have rorourae In vrells, the mode of^ raising 
the water from these wells will, of courw, roqiiire a 
good deal of (oniiderstion. WindnuILt, stc«a angines, 



bine or animal power, may all bo applied, and the pre- 
fereoce to be given te oue kiad of power ever another 
will de]iead upon their rvlativs economy. The follow- 
ing couMderations may serve as a guide to the settler 
in nranecuting hii investigations : — 

In the first place, the quantity of water which a well 
can furnish should be ascertained, and this, of course, 
will determine the amount of the power which it will 
ho ueccssary to employ. An engine of one horse-power 
will raise 33.000 Iha. one foot liigh in a minute, and as 
water woigha 62 5 lbs. per cnbie foot, a horse-power is 
equivalent to SS8 cubic feet of water raised 1 foot high 
in a minute, oi S'S (.utiic feet 1 foot high in a second, 
or-lT6ofafbot50Csethigbio asecona. Now 1 cube 
foot of water per aecond will irrigate 100 acres of laud; 
-ira of a cube foot will, therefore, iirigate 178 acre*. 
Sd tliat the power of a horse applied to raise water f^m 
> dt^th, or to a height of 50 foot, will he sufficient to 
irrigate 1^-6 acres of land. 

It wonld, as 1 have aud before, be ont of place in a 
paper of tljis kind to enter into detailed descriptions of 
the works to be constructed. 1 trust, however, upoa 
some future occasion, to be able lo bring before the So- 
ciety accDunts of the works which have been erected la 
India. I have written both to Calcutta and Madras for 

will form a valuable supplement to. this paper. At 
present I hare limited myself to a sketch of the value 
of the work when completed. I hope hereafter to Le 
able to explain how tlie work sheuhl be done. 

Although it would be impossible (o give even anap- 
proiimate estimate of the cost of the works to which 1 
have alluded above, yet thiipaper wonld be obvioualj 



udotations which must always have a most importuit 



in determining the adoption 
- '^ * rfwfich' 



scheme, the object of which b ]^eBsedly the iacreaia 
ofthe national wealth. The teat, of course, hj ■Mck 
'""^ ""''■"takings must he tried is an arithmetical one, 
sstion lo be asked is. Will the benefit eipeeled 
■d from tbeelpeoditureof any given amount 
e soffirient to meet the coat of working and 
Je, and to return, in addition, a lair interest 
)r{giiul capital T In replying to thia quea- 

of the benefits which are likely to result from works of 
what are called public utility. The indirect returai 

' be taken into coosidoratioa, as well as those which 

irect and obvious- In a paper which I read Home 
ago la the Society 1 laid ^at alreas upon the di- 
I of the returns from the railroads into direct and 
<ct. and showed that the proceeds under the latter 
were of far greater im^tortance than those under 



Thet 



■pply in principle to the re 



given: 



mgatu 



In a Con 



us froi 



I paper 



I, while tlw di 

irater did not exceed fc 



ucted 
I have 



ived from the i 

ladc use ofthe water, to irrigate his pro- 

ited to upwards of SO per cent, noon the 

ipeoded ; it is ovidoDt, therefore, that the 



perty.au 

benefits to the community which are represented by the , 
tcom the undertaking, might be very greet, J 
though llie persona. engMed in it, be they individuals, 
or a Compaay. or Uie Goremment, — should obtain no j 
4 at ajl upon the capital laid out Again, in 
iihig the returns, either direct or indirect, from 
' expended in railroada, canals, or works of irri> 
gation, we must be content, in many instances, to look 
npoa them in tbe light of a deferred annuity ; that is. 



thet 



of Iha greatly enhanced re 



IS good an instance as I can bring forward in illiw- 
ion of my meaning, will be the New Kiver water- 
works by whiili water is brought from certun aprings 
in Hertfordshire, and from the river Lea, fer the supplT 
of London. The work nat nodertakeN by Sii Hujjb 



143 



MAGAZINE OF 9CIENCB AND ART. 



HiddleWD, uid BnocsBafully compleMd in 1813. For 
the fint IB \«n tha dividsnd did not anauat to toon 
Una 13 ehiHinga per ihate ; trnt a iteady improtemeDt 
nMnrally took place, and in 1834 a raturn w»» inada 
to Farliament, wUicli BlmirBd Ibe grosi aanilftl imcoma 
to he £104,809, tha averasa annual bharge for ntpalr 
ud muntanancs to be £3B.UD0, so tl^al Che net letncn 
ma £66,909— theialse of &BharehiLdrusnto£15,ei2, 
and the interest of four per cent, upon that value waa 
£620 imtaad of 13 atitltings. To reyert, liowerer. to 
the flnasdal comddccatioas by which iadividuals. or 
the Goietnment acting for tlie commnnity, should be 
guided in andettakipg works of the cbaracter of those 
mlludad to in the former pact of this paper, I woald 
eiuerve that the only gi-ouad upon which the Gnvern' 

manta — that is in eahanring the value of the land 
■which may ba looked opon as the capital of the eolony 

the shape of infreased rent or of enhanced value whpn 
hrouirht iato the market for sale. The increased rent 
woald only apply to nastoral landi, none other being 
nndar laase^ and as the enhanced value of land mu&t 
depend altogether on the capacity of the pait^haaer to 
•vait himself of the facilitiea n^iich a aupply of water 
ihi triigatlon would bold ent tn him. it would seem 
ILat the only mode in which the Govemmeot conld 
properly engaj^ in snch nndertakinga would be by 
Bfibrding faoiiitiee to ite own tenants, and to the 
ownara of land geoerally for raising money for ira- 
provemenen. Wnh regsnl to the tenants of the Crown 
the eoniBa would, u it appears to me, be very simple- 
Ifthfl occupant of a pastoral tractof conntry shoald 
bn of opinion that the capabilitiea of his run would be 
e^nced bj- the cDnstiuction of damn fur the retention 
o^ water, or by the irrigation of a portion of it, he 
Dlgbt apply to the Government, as his landlord, cilhr-c 
torudeitake the work, charging the tenant the interest 
of ehs e«sC, otto advance a certain sum of money for 
tha execution of ihii work, for which Che tenant would 
ba raspensible. In either case Che Cenant wonld ba en- 
titW to tile full beneitt of the improvement, either for 
the cnrreuoy uftiie ieaae. or fur a specific term of years, 
sflar whiol) the Govenuncnt would derive the benefit 
in an incieised rant. With regard to owners of 

what similar to that which is practised in England, 
wfaare.mDBe^ is lentloa landed prat>rietor on the 
aecnrity of his estate i the whole amount of iJie loan, 
together with the interest, being repaid by annual 
inatalmenta] eitending over a period of (eay) 20 years. 
That the beoeflls which the colony wonld doriye from 
the improvemeais effected by an application of muaey 
to irrigation would fully j uatify the intarferenoe of the 
Oovarnment to the extent alluded to above, I feel fully 
coDvinced, Even the Hocial advnntaeei which would 
result from the coacentration of populalioti opon land 
rendered by irrigation capable of sHpiwrtinir tbonsands, 
where tan only dwell at present, woald beof thantmoAt 
importance. These, however, do not admit of being 
vatned; but the pecnniary benefita to the individual 
owner, and the advantaae which accrues to the eom- 
mnnity from the increawd pToductivenees of the soil. 

the notice of tbo BociL.ty'l trust I maybe taking the 
firat Btap towards the adoption oTa system which, I am 
confident, hoLdn out the prospect of increased proaperily 
to the great staple inlcreats of New South ^ale*. 

[We quote from thi; " Sydney Morning 
Herald," the following report of Professor 
Smith's remarks ia the short discussion 
which followed the reading of the fore- 
going paper.] 

In tha cour)« of some conversatian which followed 
the reading of tli!s,papi>r, Professor Smith ' ' 



to tharitr.ihawed the fblloviing results:— The mean 
rainfall dntiog the months of July, AugnsC, and Sep- 
tember, was 8lnchei, which spread over an area of ITOO 
acres, which was the drainage area of Che awampa, 
shouldAmishS* millione of galloniper diem. Bat 
only 600,000 gallons a-day were actnaliy delivered 
during the month of Beptanbar, showing that only 
about one-aitth of the whole lainbll was really avml- 
able. Tlie sinl, however, in that locality was eindy. 
and therefore absorbed water like a spon^. Tha 
general surface of the colony was hard and impetma- 
able, and the water rapidly drained off the surface, 
whence the heavy floods after the rain. As a general 
mie, on undiiuned lund, not more than one-fifcb of tha 
rainfall could be gathered, on well drained landi one- 
half of Cl>e qnantity conld bo cotlajgft. The hard 

equivalent to well-drained land. But while the water 
could be easily collected it quickly evaporated, owio^ 
to the eitrema dryaeisoftha ur. Some lew experi- 
ments lie had made aa to the rats of ovapotatHm had 
yielded reeulta showing so high a rate that he hesicated 
to mention them, and wished for more experience ; 
but in Melbourne several gentlemen had, by different 
oiiieriments, shown the rate of evaporation to benina 
feet per ananm. In this colony, where Clio ur ia drier, 
the rate would probably be greater. Plenty of rain 
fell in the colony if it could but be retained. On eadi 
housetop enough' fell each year for tha wants of a largs 
family. On cvcrv square vard not less than two 
bnndred galloua SiW. An inch of water falling on as 
■ere of ground would yield 32,^ gallons, and as 
much as five inches had been known to fall on an acre. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE AVSTRALIAN 

HORTICULTURAL and AGRICULTUEAL 

SOCIETY. 



Mr. O. Ottley in the Chair. 
Members of Council present — Messrs. ( 
F. CreswicV, C. A, Bell, J. Graham, P, 
L. C. Shepherd, W. Deane. O. Ottley, J. 
W. Wall, and a large attendance of mem- 
beTB and tlieir friends. 

The following prines were awarded by,-' 
the Council — CoHection of wheat and 
grasses ; exhibited by Mr. G. A. Bell, 
Lathalan, Nortli Shore. — Prize, mlver 
meda!. Consisting of the following van&. 

Velvet, or woolly-eared wheat ;'»oira 
June 27th, cut Dec. 1, 1857. 

Piper's thiclcset wheat ; sown end of 
June, cut Dec. Ist. 

Taiayraa wheat ; sown June 27th, cat 
Di'c^ember 1st. 

Port Curtis wheat ; sown June 27th, 
cut December 1st, 

■\Vheat from a sample obtained at Bar- 
ker's mil! ; sown June 27th, cut Dec. 1st. 

California prairie grass, or oat-grass, 
from seed presented to this Society, for 
diMributitwi, by his Excellency ihe Gorer.^ 



MA&AZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



147 



nor-General, to which was attached the 
following remark—" This grass may an- 
swer as a hay-grass, hut ripens its seed 
very irregularly." 

Oats, from seed ohtained from Mr. 
Wyld, of Spring-street, which he received 
from India ; it has a great similarity to 
the hlack Tartarean oats. 

Lolium temulentum, or darnel, supposed 
to he the tare of Scripture, from its nox- 
ious properties. 

Kalosanthes miniata ; exhihited hy 
Messrs. Shepherd and Co. — Prize, hronze 
medal. 

Collection of pinks ; exhihited hy 
Messrs. Shepherd. — Honorahle mention. 

Collection of poppies ; exhibited hy 
Mr. J. Gay. — Honorable mention. 

Wax flowers ; exhibited by Mrs. An- 
drews. — Honorable mention. 

MINUTES. 

Minutes of last meeting read and con- 
firmed. 

PAPERS READ. 

Agriculture, and the necessity for a bet- 
ter system of cultivation ; by Mr. Lewis 
Markham, of Armidale. 

Mr. F. Creswick thought that soaking 
the seed in liquid manure, prior to sowing 
it, would prove injurious, it being contrary 
to the laws of nature. 

Mr. J. Graham stated that it was a plan 
resorted to in Scotland of old date. 

WHEAT AND GRASSES. 

Mr. G. A. Bell n^entioned, with refer- 
ence to the specimens of wheat and grasses 
which he laid on the table, that he did not 
think that labelled as Indian oats to be that 
variety, but believed that it would grow 
very well in this colony. IVIr. Bell further 
remarked, that there were several varieties 
of grass at the North Shore, and that they 
were now ripening their seed, and he would 
take this opportunity of suggesting to the 
members the benefit that would arise by 
their collection, and by experiments being 
made on them, 

REAPING MACHINE. 

Paper read from Mr. Lewis Markham 
giving a description of the reaping machine 
invented by him, a working model of which 
was placed upon the table, and its modus 
operandi explained by the Secretary ; 
several opinions were expressed by the 
members, as to the ultimate success of the 
machine, 

Mr. Bell thought it would be better to 
have the horse, or propelling power, placed 



behind, in order to avoid the trampling 
down of the crops. 

Some of the members considered there 
was a grea^oint gained by avoiding the 
use of cog wheels. 

A practical agricultural implement ma- 
ker, who was present, said he considered 
the machine extremely simple in its con- 
struction, and spoke of the number of cog 
wheels which had been sent from the 
country for repairs during the reaping 
season. 

The ingenious inventor of this useful 
agricultural' machine has furnished to the 
Armidale Express the following descrip- 
tion of the model. We were much grati- 
fied by an inspection of it. It reflects 
much credit upon the ingenuity and the 
perseverance of its inventor We earnestly 
wish that a few men resident in the bush 
occupied their leisure time in similar use- 
ful pursuits. Australia would not then be 
dependent on foreign sources for its daily 
bread. 

The body of the model is 8 inches in breadth, 12 vj^ 
length, and 6 in height. The model is light, being 
principally composed of framework, and moves on tfaxM 
wheels — ^two on one side of 1^ inch diameter eaqh, and 
on the other one large wheel 6 inches in diameter, two- 
thirds of the weight being thrown on the latter. The. 
nave of the lar^e wheel is the motive power, and by in- 
creasing the size of that wheel and diminishing the 
diameter of the nave any amount of motive power that 
may be desired can be obtained. On tius nave are twe 
grooves for belts; one belt works a fly-wheel of 2^ 
inches diameter, the other a roller placed over the 
knives which project in front. . From uiis roller tiiere 
extends two-thirds the length of -the model a succession 
of rollers, which carry an endless canvas belt across the 
whole breadth. Resting on the roller in front which 
carries the canvas belt is a large hollow drum, placed 
in grooves which admit of its rising or lowering. On 
the second groove of the nave above mentioned is a belt 
acting in opposition to the one working the knives ; thi» 
belt works tne roller carrying the broad canvas belt on 
which the large drum (as a gatherer) rests, and conse- 
quently as the belt revolves backward the drum revolves 
forward, drooping the heads of the wheat and bringing 
them on the belt, where they are held firmly until cut 
by the knives. As the brosid canvas belt extends two- 
thirds the length of the model, the other third contains 
an inclined plane thence to the back of the machine. 
At the end of this incline there is a box swung on axles ; 
the mouth of this box extends nearly the whole breadtii 
of the model, but is so constructed as to have only two 
inches of an opening at the bottom. As the canvas belt 
brings u]) all the cut wheat heads foremost, the straw 
consequently runs down the other incline in the same 
position until it is received in the box. The box has no 
bottom, but in lieu of this a fixed board attached to the 
machine answers the purpose required. From this box 
an iron rod extends to the side of the largest wheel, but 
is not attached thereto. On the inner side of the wheel 
various bolts placed at equal distances from each other 
project, and as the wheel revolves they in succession 
lift one end of the rod, whilst the other, pressing on the 
box swung in the rear, raises the latter clear of the 
machine, and it having no bc^tom the contents fall out 
heads together ready for binding, and the box instantly 
resumes its former position until the wheel, in revolv- 



MAGAZINE OF BCIBNCE AND ART. 



!o(tl,e 



ia boln in contact with tha rod. 
ault). Thewbolti areaetouard' 
avrflduited. (ircaarH if the 



laa 

bold UB few in iniinbeT [he sheiTes vill bo \^fe -. if 
Dumarous, ttie Utter nill he sm^ler iafeUtiTe^roin> 
tioR, In the model thebolti are nawRt to dnt^slt the 
prodnreaf eaeh lii inches (qnani — Uini repressaiing 
»U teet with the machine in pmcdce. The kiives are 
eight in nurhber, and sharp on both sides, and in the 
mndel are each li ioch in Icosth. At one end they ate 
attached to a bar. and wuik in slides formed go as lo 
impart to the knives in their action the true ait of 
tnttinf! — ininewhat similar, in fad, to the action of a 
•ickle in tho hand of a roai-or. They piuh fmward and 
draw backward, and at the same time sweep to the riijht 
and left. Tfasj are worked simultaneonalv by a crank 
BndaleieT4iacbeslouiia the model. The crank in 
workod by the (lj-wh<»l, and for one revulution of tho 
main wheol, which embrace* IS inches, the crank re- 
volvca 12 times; and the knivrs being- li inch in 
length, for every revolntion of iha main wheel or 

Directly above the knife is a rake which seliarates fur 
each knife its proper proportion of straw, and at the 
hanaf each angle foroicd by tbe teeth ia a ruund hole 
Jatver than the narrowest part of the an^tar aperture, 
which prevents any pcmubilitv uf clogging. At the off 
udeof the niachiae. directly in front, is a apeat which 
■eparates the nhvat. AU passing inside is canght ]iy 
the knives, whilst jiil on tho oatside of the track is 
ffuided off by a guard and passca clear of the macbine- 
From the above descriplian it will he seen that all (he 
machinery is governed by the main wheel, aoii if the 
laltar moves at the rato of either one mile per hour or 
twenty, it will nevertbeleas cause the w-ork to be per- 
fenned with equal exactitude and in a correspondin; 
ratia. At the front, on the neac side, aad removed 
from all interference with the proper action of the ma- 
0, is a pole to which the hoises used (or propelling 



the maobino will be attached, and s 






The Chairman said he thought Mr. Mark- 
ham was deserving of a vote of thanks for 
his vahiable paper on Improvements in 
agriculture, as well as for the description 
of the reaping machine, invented by him — 
which vote was carried by acclamation. 

The Secretary stated that the papers and 
model had been forwarded to the Society 
by the President ; and read a letter from 
Mr. Markham to Alfred Denison, Esq., in 
which he mentiona having invented a 
wheat-sowing machine, capable of sowing 
any given quantity of wheat, in drills four 
inches apart, and three inches deep ; and 
that this machine will sow, harrow, and 
rover from eight to ten acres per day. 
Mr. Markham also mentions that he is the 
inventor of a digging machine, for work- 
ing stubble or cultivated land, which can 
be constructed to any amount of horse or 
bullock power, and by attaching two 
horses, the machine will be equal to four 
ploughs. 

VETCHES AMOMQ LEGHORN WHEAT. 

Mr. Creswick remarked, that in some 
«r the wheat which he had obtained from 
this society he had remarked a vetch, and 



stated that it was Tcry often found that 
injurious weeds had been introduced into 
the Colony with imported seeds. 

No ballot being demanded, the gentle- 
men proposed at the last meeting became 
members, together with Mr. E. Lynch, 
who was proposed at the last Council 
meeting. 

NEW MEMBER PnOfOSEP^ 

Mr. Wr Mnrdeau, G-eorge's river. 

Mr. T. W. Shepherd— Native Plants, 
and the Pastoral, Agricultural, and Horti- 
cultural Resources of Australia. 

ITie next monthly meeting will be held 
on Tuesday, 5th January, 1858. 



To Alfbeb Denisos, RsQurRE. 

StR, — I desire to otTer a fen remarlu, the result 
of practical expenEncH and long observalioB, 
which 1 hope will be of some Berviee with reference 
to agriculture in this oolooj. 

In iloing BO, I do not pretend to aasunie the ptr- 
aition of an Essayist, or to deal with agriculture 
geiierallyi my object is to show the necessity for a 
better system of cultivation. 

The division of the matter oonoected with the 
subject upon which 1 intend to treat are u tol. 

1st. Subsoil ploughing, and lurntng the isd. 

End. Sowing of wheat. 

3rd. Smut in wheat. 

lit. Subsoil, is the under soil which is proleoteJ 
by the surface soil, and when allowed to renuun 
undisturbed by the plough, it is generally too hard 
for roota to peuelrste, and consequently coDtinoe* 
comparatively rich in vegetative nutriment. Sub- 
lail ploughing adda mare to vegetation than the 



ginal u< 
IE froi 



would otherwise be carried offby evaporation! but 
there it is oontained, protected by its depth, and 
accessible only to the roala of the plant. AU 
vegetables are supplied with tap roots, which pene- 
trate the soil, and sustain the plant in its poiiCion; 
they are also provided with smaller roota, which 
supply the plant with nourishment i and when- 
eiei this nourishment abounds within Iheir reash, 
there will they be found most numerous. Nature 
gave to man reason, to the beast instinct biit to 
plants and herbs she gave a law of attraotion, 
whieh is not less faithful in performing that duty 
which nature has assigned it. 

Repeated crop]iiDg inipaveiibhei the soil i to , 
every agriculturist this is the result of practical 
ejperienee, yet many are ignorant of the cause. 
All vegetable matter consists of earth, air, and 
water, and the ground becomes impoverished by 
the absorption of its nutriment by each succesiive 
crop, the crops in reality being the fatness oF the 
land, and eonaequenlly each crop removed is ■ 
portion of the soil. 

Nature's laws are perfect, the whole is perpetual 
molim, degenerating and regenerating — [he death 
of one lubslance essenilal to the life of another. 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



U9 



the rot and deoa; of one plant the healtli and 
utietigth of ita neighbour, and nu un. Tlie world, 
SB a body, consiBta of eacth, air, and water, and 
Trom these three eleinenla sprung all crtfation ; non- 
Bequentlj, all animal and vegetable subatance ace 
certain portioni of each. Air, by the inflation of 
the lungii, propels the machinery of life ; it con- 
aista of varioua gasaes, eome of which are a subw 
Btance in a state of solution, inasmuch as salt, 
lime, or other minerals, are soluble in water, and 
thereby nature continues regeneraUng, absorbing 
through the sun's heat all cormptioa and deconi. 
position, which are again returned by the process 
of vegetation in the altered shape of animal and 
vegetable life. 

Decomposition is the sustenance of vegetable 
and animal life, anil as the sun absorbs niointure 
from the ocean, again to be returned In rain, so 
also is a similar process carried on in absorbing all 
corruption and decomposition in charging the air 
with those essential gasses, which are again returned 
through the means of vegetation, proving that Che 
death of one substance is the health of euotlier. 

All soils are not equally productire, anymore 
than all herbs are equally nutritioua ; some will 
scarcely support animal life, while others are rank 
poison. So alao are the different earths, some con- 
tain little, if any, vegetable sustenance, and others 
are eucirely unproductive and barren. As a general 
rule, all suila are vegetative only in proportion as 
they contain decomposed vegetable or other matter i 
all alluvial sails are richest in this substance, and 
uoC only ia it absorbed by repeated cropping, but 
alao by repeated turning of the sod. By repeateil 
turning and exposure manure of any Idiid »m lose 
considerably in quality and qoantity, simply ftoin 
the iact that it is composed of decomposed vege- 
table and animal matter, and ia rich in those essen- 
tial gasses which are the soalenance of vegetation ; 
and I maintain that the absorption of those gassea 
takei place on Che &eab-turned soil to a much 
greater extent than we ate aware of. 

When ■ ■ ■ ' 



n this 



iBsly. Nat 



to guard against such effects, has protected hi 
by its own productiveness, and, as ita season of life 
departs, it yields back to the soil, at leaat that 
which it gave, and the air claims back iCfl own pro- 
portion. Do we return to the soil that which it 
gave t no I we rob it of all, and much more [ban is 
necessary, by turning the sod. 

Land once brought into cultivelion, the sod 
should never ailer be turned, for the loss caused by 
absorption is very great, and no corresponding 
benefit obtJiined. The object of ploughing is to 
soften the ground and smother weeds, but the weeds 
are not destroyed, they are merely kept in cheek, 
and the object in view could be more bencQcially 
accomplished, by using a hoardlees or wedge-shaped 
. plough, and harrowing the groand at)er. 

Wh E AT-sow I H (I .—Moisture is the agent by 
whioh atmospheric aclion contribntes to vegetation; 
without moisture vegetation could not exist, and in 
a climate like ours, where absorption is so powerful, 
it is clearly illustrated, and hence that most inju- 
rious impression — that all depends upon the sea- 
Experience has taught us that good seasons will 
bring good crops : while at the same time, we seem 
entirely forgetful, that a more careliil system of 
cultivation would have a most beneficial effect. 



Unhealthy plants are the foundation of unhealthy 
otops ; and, consequently, it should be onr study to 
produce healthy plants, and to guard against that 
powerfijl absorgtion, by prolecling the seed with 
proper Coverinjf and giving it the bensfit of any 
moisture which the ground may contain. 

The present system of seed sowing in New 
England, and, I believe generally throughout the 
Colony, is 0/ two kinds — ploughing in, and har- 
rowing in ; ploughing in, i!i by acatleritig the seed 
on the stubble, and ploughing it in with horses or 
bullocks. Harrowing in. Is by ploughing the 
ground first, then scattering the seed, and harrow, 
ing the ground after. Taking, fSr instance, a bad 
season, and ploughing in for example ; the seed is 
oilen sown as it comei from the i/ieq/', and when tlie 
sod is turned, it is generally buried to a d^^th of 
six inches, in evapor^ited surface dmt, where it otlen 
remnins for weeks, or until it saps from the aur- 
rouBding soil sufficient moisture to create vege- 

It will be borne in mind that the substance of 
the seed itself is the first, and only nourishment, 
the plant reedves. which, is, in all cases, sufficient 
to place it in ftal forward stage of maturity capable 
of providing for itself, namely, hj providing it with 
roots ; and not till then does the plant derive neur- 
ishmcnt front the surrounding soil. In many oases, 
from ia gt«at depth, regeneration Ukes place be- 
fure ^ flout reaches that atmosphere which ia 
moat £inutiel to its beings or, in other words, the 
seed becomes entirely exhausted in giving being lo 
the plant without deriving any assistance &ora 
atmospheric action, and hence the result — weak, 
uuheallby plants. 

This is a subject worthy of attention, particularly 
in this climate ; and in this case nature can be 
materially assiated by art. There are many causes 
of unhealthy plants, but as moisture ia the life of 
vegetation, a want of that moisture is the principal j 
to supply this want should be our greatest care, 
and this, in a drg leaton, can be materially accom- 
plished by saturating the seed with liquid manure 
previous to committing it to the sail ; by this 
means the seed would absorb sufficient natriment. 
as well as moisture, to create inaunlaneous vegeta- 
tion, and, independent of the season, the plant, ere 
the seed becomes exhausted, would derive additional 
strength and nourishment from atmospheric action. 

On the subject of harrowing-in wheat, in a oli. 
mate like Ibis, where two days' sun is sufficient to 
sap any little moisture the ground may contain, it 
will be sufficient to state, Drat as moisture is essea. 
llal to vegetation, the health of tnch plants must 
entirely depend upon the season, one-eighth of the 
seed is destroyed by birds ; and inslancea have oc- 
curred where, under this syatem, the seed remained 
dormant during the whole season. When the soil 
is not properly prepared or manured, and the seed 
scarcely covered, it is not at all astonishing that 
the seasons should possess powerful influence over 
the crops; it is a well -established fact all over the 
world, that moist seaaons are bvoutible to vegela. 
tion, and that indiiTerent aeBseiiB are the lept bf 
agriculture. The preparation of the soil, and the 
planting of seed, requires much more care in this 
colony than in a more moist or cold climate ; sim- 
ply from the Iact, that absorption lakes place 
quicker, and to a much greater extent, and, conie- 
quenlly, when the seed is scarcely covered, it is 
suddenly deprived of that moisture most essential 
to its being ; from this will be seen the neccasity of 



MAOAZINE OP SCIENCE AND AKT. 



s proper aeed.sDwing: machine, tbat ncmld plant Ilie 
seed three inches deep in the fresh soil^thesE pro- 
tected from the sun's heal, and where it must in- 
Btanlly abaorh moisture from thaieBh uoi]-— sueh 
plants, nheii assisted hy manure, inbld be healthy, 
and (Uiie to contend against the severit; of a season 
which would certainly destroy all thoGc produoed 
under the present syatem of hairowing-in. 

Practical experience has proied that deep-sown 
wheat throws up but few stalks, while aelf-aown 
wheat throws up mimberE, but still more dependent 

iehmenC from its depth, while the latter droops for 
lack of moisture. From this it is natural to oon- 
clude that a medium is required, and neglect of this 
one material point is often the oriftin of indifferent 
orops, for as we sow lo shall we reap. 

Smut in Wheat.— By a close obsarralion of 
nature, we will find a great similarity in anim 
and vegT^table life, and in some cases, JlKg^a 
governed by similar laws 1 for instancy ^■' WW 
tive plant, ihe male and female hop, l^iaocdalji 
of pumpkins, the barrenness of fru^tl, vagWaWe^, 
and flowers. Smut is barren wheat, utd is not jf 
be detected by the best j udges until the plmLftr 
rivea at nearly its full growth, and &it pegulia 
stage, when the milk ought to form in the.huxh, 
which is the first formation of the seed ; but at this 
stage nature is etidently eihausted, Slillenoe the 
tesult^barren or smutty wheat. ' ■ . f 

All vegetable weds have two distinc^^rtufes to 
pfrform, and plants, like animals, can be perfect in 
ajHjearance, deficient only in productiveness. Of 
this I have had positive proof, as regards potatoes 
and wheat, and from which I conclude that all 
other vegetable seeds are governed by the saiqe law, 
and differ little, if any, in Ibis case from tllB ani- 



During the potatoe failure in forqr.one ia, Ire- 
land, I was a considerable sufferer. On ejapining 
the sets, I found, in all eases, that rot originated in 
the centre of the set, and when vegetation did take 
place, it was supported only by the outer coat or 
margin, and all such plants, at first, were cmmpled 
and unhealthy ; in time they derived nourishment 
fromthesoil, and grew most lunutianlly; but,alaal 
to the horror of a starving population, they yielded 
neither fruit or flowers ; thus the set performed 
only half its duty, rol deprimd it of the other por- 
i iOH — j/rsdurlineneas. 

Smut is scarcely knowu in the south of Ireland, 
though I have seen solitary 



D tl\Kt it did e 






probahly flourish to the 
Colony, if proper preventatives were not adopted. 
There it is the custom to steep all seed-wheat in 
pickle, for four hours, On the night previous to the 
day of sawing ; during this process, the wheat is 
occasionally stirred, till all light and barren wheat 
is brought to the surface and taken aS; the pickle 
ia Ihan drawn off, and the saturated wheat is spread 
out on a floor, and dried with quick.lime; by this 
process, sound wheat only is committed to the soil, 
and where I have seen a similar process adopted in 
this Colony, I never knew an instance of smut. 

Smut is barren wheat, and barrenness is caused 
by a small insect, which destroys the flower or pro- 
ductiveness of the seed, leaving it light and almost 
psrfaetly hollow j this oo ems both in the ground 
and out of it, but the process prescribed is a cer- 
tain remedy. 

I no* beg lo state, that my remarks ou agricnl- 



tnre allude merely to this portion of the interior, 
and not to the Colony generally. Being conscious 
of my inability to do juslioe lo such an important 
subject. I have confined myself lu obseirvationa, 
the result of practical eipetience. Tnialing U 

I have the honor to be. 
Sir, 
Your most obedient servant, 
Armidftle, LEWIS MARKHAM. 

Sept. 12, ISSr. 



RepoTt la tht HonoF(AU the Secretary for LiauU wi 
PuUlc Works, hn Captain Martina^e. R^. m^ 
ComvMiionerfoT RaUviayi. 

On assuming the dicBcdDn of the Railway DapartmOit 
I have aiongbt it my duty to submit, as earlr u 
jKHsible, a bnef vsneral Keport on the InlsAil Ognt- 
■ *^ of this Country. 



propose to 
1st.. Tlie . 



m of the eiistiag Railway 
ioDS ordered or prgiiused. 
on of the eilstijlg Haads. 
to ba adojitod tar their im 



K is a double lina throuEhQqt. laid with Bailow^ 
saddle-back rails, 75 Iba. to the /ard. I'heae liavi 
proved too weak for the he^vy emrxnes rati upon Aiem, 
and the means taken to Increase tlieir streagth by the 
addition of cross sleupcrs placed nDdemoath, hare iM 
fully answered i the joints have bemuia )iiA. aod tlia 
rails beat and twisted. Tbo ballast campoaed of n^ 
ia itself an objectionable material, is eonrtnb 
washed away by the heavy rains, and this hU jBuk 
the cost of tlia uiaiulenanee of the peruinent viKf ntr 
considerable; aud, though gre^ e^orts have beesumde 
under the superintendence of the Kngineer-in:-Ohirfta 
keep the line in gond order, the eipeuse is Mt htnj 
that I am of opinion the rails sboald ho giadul^ 

as reijulred, and Uuiwr 

initb the donblo-be«d(d 
/I the yard, or withtJu 
nd strcogthBTod by, 4a 
introdnctioo of additiimal sleepitra brneath them. ' ~ 

Distance ngnals aro wanting on the line, and ihooU 
. . introiiiioBd. ThL'se, with tlie use of the ElBCtrii? 
Telejraph now in progress, will Biatorially iBcnn* 
■"-- -!cnli(V 'Of travelling. 

iiti I'arramatla 10 Liverpool, a diilancs of Si 
single, with double-wav works, uM 
s constructioa ia stated Co have cost nSajMO 4a. ltd. 
The pennancot waj;, (lud with tbo H. rail. T5 Itm. 
I the yard and Bsh-jointed), ia raaintajned by &a wn. 
actor under his contracC for making the line, and it 
1 good order, but this aiTangement will ejpire on tba 
tst instant, and the eiponse must afterwarda be dS' 
aved from the Rh venue. 

the rolling stock is. on tbo whole, ia good cunditim, 
id the adoption in fntnro of camposits carriages, ia 
place of first and socond clais carriages, will be u im- 
urovement ; and with tbo additions aolJlorised bjr tba 
Votes of ^is year, the present stock will be snffioent 
to work the line to Campbollcown, when it is opened. 

From this favoarable report I mnat. however etcBiil. 
(he engines, which are too lai^ and. heavy for iBe 
traffic, and in indifferent orderi and of two entiiw* 
to«ei>ed Troffl Bni;land ia tlatch last, the 



i-liid with ftesb 



miles, the lint 



n- 



MAOAZHJE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



was oiiviiuill; dalective. Tiie arFangemenU Tor tlie 
futnte luiieclisii of Itailwaj niaUriJa orderet! from 
England, aniunilbtd to }au by my letter of the Ttli 
instant, will, ir rarriod ont, rqodat sncli on nccurtence 
again inipo&Gible, 

From Honey Bnokle Point, near Newcastle, to Eait 
MuClaod, a. diatolMs of Itii miles, is tlie cuniTnenne- 
meaGofihe OrflH-t l^anhem Lino. Ic baa dotiblu-w^y 
WDikiwitlia ilnirlo line laid with the U rail, 751bs. 
To the yard. It wan only opt^aed for traflic oti the 3Dth 
of last March, aad is in good order;* die Kolliog 
Stock is nearly new, and ths aupplj ample. 

This Kailway, which labora under tlie diHadvantage of 
competins with the steamen on the Biver Hunter, has 
anotner drawback in not poaaefislrig any lai^ amoq&t 
ofpopolatioa ataither tanniniu, «nd mngt depend for 
' ' traffic ariaing' from the opening up of 
1 _ ;- .-._ ne^liJxiurhood, 



and its futttwr eiteoBioa into the . 
The cost of the lioa from Honeyaiickll 



for the t 



jB,(J37 1 



lOd. 1 



re £1,426 



.. nd[haeipeDJituro£S.'i8I.5a. 

Upon the Sydney and Liverpool Line the jroas 

. teDelpts for the sii months endinjf SOth June last, wero 

""■■"'- 2d., and the eipendituro £11,805 13s. 9d. 

f iho tolling stock upon both lines, indud- 

the parmanent vav of the Great Northern 

stated at £104.400 ISs., and the total 

nded upon them at £1.D19,1M GS. 5d.,+ 

r inteirat Dvci net receipts being £38,439 

U 7d. jesrl.. 

There will yet ha an addition to the coits of these 
lion foim claims still onUtasding for land taken fur 
Bailway pnrposas. or injury done by severance. 

It is oiDst desiralile tbess should be soHled, snij I 
propose to give them my attention as earlv us posiibio. 
While in England the mst of the mainienanca of 
pannanent way and other working eipanses average 
48 per cent, and in America from 56 ta 60 per cent, 
of the receil^ta here they are (i6-2 per jiont, npon the 
Great Sontharn Line, eiclnsive of the maintenance of 
the way between Parramatta and Liverpool ; and 67'2 
per cent, upon the Great Northern Line for walking 

aBDsBi only i and at the uime rale they would pro- 
^lyamonntneit year to 85-4 per cent of the earn- 
ings. Thew charges mnat, however, ho reduced. 

My estimate! for the onsaing year, tboagh neces- 
sarily calcnlated upon the data afforded by past bx- 
petiBOce here, hava baen framed with a view to tliia. 
The principla has been introduced of payini; into the 
Troasurr the gross in place of the not receipts only 
derived'from liailway traffic, and of taking distinct 
Totas of tlip House for all einenditure chargeabi* lo 
reveane daring the year, independent of the Totoa 



nthotiaing the 
At f 
mitted 



log of capi'al foe further 
tme nmesQcb altoTsdODB havs been mk- 
■be Btaff of my Department aa '•il!, fcy 
greater efficiency, tend lo promota MfHUimy. 



Among tba anpintmenti 
General Traffic Manager, tu 



I abovB [behlghm at 



t InLereil of £l.019.1» Bi.Jd., at 5 per 
Receipts of IUi1«y over WoiUng Ex- 



If suitable persons to fill these apnointmenls cannot 
e obtained in the Colony. [ consider they shenld be 
roeured, withont delay, frara England. 
By these means, and'by the enforcement of thatcm- 
omy and individual i-esjionsibility iu ever^ branch of 
the Department, which the public liave a right to de- 
mand, I have BO beiitation in saying considerable 
savings mar be majlH, and the work better done. 

Thus, for instance, cranes may lake the place of nn- 
merooB porters, and the employment of men as pXe- 
keape;^ at level croBEings be abolished. In America it 
appears that the public take care of tliemselves, with 
no better warning than the bell of the engine, and 
notice boards, inscribed with the words " look out for 
the can when the ball rings." and no donbt tliey would 
do M equally woll here ; and simple arrangemBiiU 
prevent cattle IVom straying on the lines, or reiMiQ 
them witbont injarr to Iha tnun should they Ai loj- 
But if such a system he thought objectionable, ^e al- 
most tliat should be done would be to build small lod^ 
at each crotising, to be nrciipied by married men em- 
ployed opon tlie permonont way, whosa wives shonM " 
attend to the gates without wages, in consideratiaa of 



is Bulways are for the moic part 
nl or not, cicteria paribut, ac- 
paid to economy in the details of 
jiy consider too trifling for notice. 



nilDwn the Great Southern 
ivontable country ; the dii- 

lirst four miles will be completed in September Deit ; 
the earth-work on this portion averages 13.000 cnbiE 
yards to the mile, and the total cost will not eieeed 
£T,filX) per milsi the worst gradient fcenng 1 in 100, 



ipenditure, which m 

3, THB J 

From Li»6Cpool to 



dthes 
Tenden 



eight n 



■ptod for the cOBstnictioD of 



The earth-w 



light, ai ^, „ , 

total cMt vollnot eip^ead £7.000 per mile t tite scaapast 
gradient bang 1 in 100, and the sharpest curve having 
a radios of SO chains. 

The numerous creeks or ^llies intorsectiDg tho lines 
materially increase the eipense. 

The permanent way will he a single line throngiiDnt, 
laid with the double-headed rail, 75 lbs. to the yard. 









e first fou 



Tarda the close of this 



id fish jointed. 
liloB will bo opened for 
,-ear, and the remainder 
March, it the weatlier 



L^r^i.r"^!." 



Tenders have been received &r its formation, and 
he cn^ of this addition will not eieeed £!0,ODD, 
hf which the psnnaiiont way and works will requir* 
ibout £6,0UO, and the remainder be for sidinga, turn- 
ablee, and buildings. 

Tenders have also been occepted for the eltension 
rom Bast lo West Maitlaod,— 2 milas 67 chains in 
.v,-orl;B wiU averase 15,000 cubic 
:he total coat will he about £8,000 
, iC gradientTbeing I in 100, and tba 
radios of the sharpest curve SO'chains. 

The permanent way will bo sitmlar to that on tha 

earlv as the progress of the earth-works permits. Ths 
lino into Newcastle will, I Imst, he available for traffic 
in December neit, uid that to West Maitland by tho 

Id the above-named amonnts nothing has been al- 
lowed for the purchase of land, or injury dons by 

When those 
finr-fbuT miles 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



»iii 



I increuB uf tnfflc mafbe anticipited aj 
le gr™ annual receipta ciiual to £82,000. 
lat tlijg must be set ttia imm etutnditura, wbld 
ite at £&6,S0tl for tho jeai. 

to the pTVJient 



IV and cue viU fieva 



Dated 



cee^ed. 

£15.200, andaitbetoUl 
£I,1T5,»1M. the inter 



igeipenses 
eat will be 



lected with the land hai 



In aewirdBnce, «g I am infonned, wi 
theli^iilatu™, ascipresBed last Sew 
been taken to a.icertajn the uractical 
fnrthar eiteosionfi- 

Proni C-im[ibellio»ni to Rcton, aboui 
Pnrramattalol'onrith.witha.hrandhl 
WmC Maitland, (avoids Singleton... 






ver, bu been done to permit mo 
.r tbe line a« fai as tlcnangle woi 
t tbe land, £10.000 per mile: t 
~ 1 in BO, and tlo BuialleM radi 



not eireed, withot 
wont frradient hei „ 
df a carve 40 chains. 

Tbs cost of the line from Memngle lo Pirton will 
not eiceed, with.nt the land, £ia.OOU nor mile, includ- 
ing a mm of £)S,000 fbr a bridge over the Nepcan ; 
tbe vorat gradient being 1 in 70, and the laBst radius 
of aMrvBMrhaina. 

The cost of the line from Panamatta la Penrith, 
with a branch to Windsor, will bo about, withirat lie 
land, £9,000 per mile i (he worst iradient 1 in BO, and 
the amdliat radius of a cun,-e 30 chains. 
_ The tectioas of the line from West Maitland towards 
completed, but the coat will pro- 
is, indnd- 



UnBlet 
ablyo 



:esd ifl,00O pet oi 



u reqmi 






SB and proposed, I am indebted 
.meting these 



Tbe amonnta charged against existing railwavs have 
been famished to me by iba Accountant from tlie booki 
of tha dopartmi 
the extenBiona in progress 
to the Engineet-ia-Chief. 

The question of liiB advisability of 
additional lines has had m]; aniions consioeraiioa. 

Unfortunate ly, the prinnpal data required far It^ 
solution, vii,. the amonnt of existing: traffic upon the 
dilferent roods has never been accurately ascertaiDed. 
I bavfl made oae, however, of lliB retnnis of 1855-9 as 
the best to be bad, and I trust eijierience may ■prove 
that the estiinateB founded upon them do not give loo 
bigh results. These are as follows i mpposing the 
aouthem Hulwaj- open to Picton. tbe Western to 
Penrith and , Windsor, and the Northern towards 
Singleton : the details will be found in the Ap|iendii 
marked A. The estimates are based upon the exist- 
ing rates, in which it is not desirable to propose any 
altetadgn until further eiporience has shewn how far 
tliey neet the present wants of the country. 
Estimated Annual Keceipta from 

Trafific £201,774 10 

Expenditure 1S8.000 



EstimUed ga 
Gain to 



iyhfim- 



362,907 11 8 



the Railways 
7d. will be 



WB, that «hcn the 

)f I^TOil 

n addition i 



required on tho Re 
le capital expended, 
mined receipts over working expenses. 
This presumes, however, that there would be no 
igmentation of the reported^ootfff tmflk 
proportion as this improved, tbe ai 
e» a more lavouralile ho (an™ 
By extending to Pel 

tire land (mlDo between Sydney and the wot iU< 
nth, and Newcartle, and the Nonhem Districts. 
luld be conveyed along the rail ; and the iiii riimiil 
cililr of transport repay tha pnblic for tbe teuIt 
•" of £59,070, while raqnirad. ' • 

■.!.„. I. j_„ 1.-.L the above calcnlati«Bt|pt 



d Windsor, and F^ctoii, 



If then tho dat: 



liat these ej 
Btfofetni 






Hyde FiOl 
itationiBUta 

public of 

of Hyde Park, 'and the probable consoqoeQt 
of passengers, especially to and from the G 



Railway upon what has al' 
looked upon as one of" the li 
The plans and sections are 
state to be laid helore yi 
Bogineer-in-Chirf that 

the west nde of Carter's 
street br a bridsie. ani 




i-street, and, pauing under Idverjisol- 
dge, enter Hyde Park ; tbe lermitiaL 
the side opposite Marliet .street. IV 



The only land requiring to be pniTihasea wonlj b* 

abmlt 350 yards mn from Eliiabelh-stract to Lix^ 

d-strooC, containing an acre and a hiUf, mora W 



this should be rednccd by an amount equal ta thft 
capital of the rent required for offices for the RaUvay 
Department, and might therefore be omitted in tin 
calculation of cost. 

The expense of a double line, including the land, 
may be assumed at £6.^000 : but this sum is not ub- 
mitted as an estimate ; it is merely inlcDded to «ra 
a general idea of cost. 

I have not enOtcieat data to enable me to decide 
how far thia lino would pay, but I holiovB it wmild 
pay working expenses, and perhaps the yearly interest 
on tbe capital also. 

The silo is not advantageous ftir a goods station; it 
is 82 feet above the level of the Circular Quay, tha 
gradient to which would neceaasrily be steep, and the 

to facilitate the transit of goods between the Harboai 
and Itailvray. 



HAGAZINE Of SCIENCE AND ART. 



>!' building: 



TliU migbt be effected, and the caaveoieiice of Ilia 
truTelJiD; public alao inet,bj- the conatraation of an 
irdu tronimy teCwwa die two pluces, especially if 
IherebeaDobjeotion tainterfbre-witti the Park. 

The DHtoral line far anoh a [ramwin- ot railway 
rrom Eedfera to Svdnej- Cove wnnld pttBs along Piti- 
itTHt; the nula aliDnldbe laidao as not to inifrt'era 
with tiie ordinary traffic. Uld tJie cairiagca and Ii-uclia 
be moved b; boiBe-piM«r. A loading Hhed and book- 
ing olHre centrally placed At tbe wbatC and three or 
fear comer shops,' ichera piu»ngers could get tickets, 
would take the place of adilitional station bnitdings. 

Seefa a system of itteet Kailway i> capable ufei- 
tension to any degree found advantajeonsi and it is 
mated Co he a Teiy general practice in America, not 
unly Tor the distribnciiin of the goodi traffic to wbuvra, 
ImtAlsoto private entablishmeaCi. 

There, however, from the peculiar coaetmctiea of 
dieir carriages, which vary fiom S8 lo 60 feel in length, 
and are aupported oa two fonr-wheelfld trucks, one at 
each end, they pOMca advantages in street traifie su- 
periec to those afforded by the ordinu'y Kailvny 
caninges. 

The cost of the tramirav, eiclus 
lent, would not exceed £10,000 in 

Should the prefereucB, however, oe gtven to carrying 
* tha Sulway into Hyde Taik. I recommend that early 
' vtflpi ahould be tven to ohtoia the necesBacy laud, 
>a4udi increases yearly in value. 

The idiort period that haa el^)3ed since my arrival 
in th« Oolony preveuta my speaking from personal 
experience, at presont, npon this subject i but on every 
aide I learn ib«t the roods of the couniiy are ilelicient 
in every tbine that cousutntes good roada. 

Originally ill laii out, ill drained, or not drained at 
all, mi never aofficiently metalled. -- ---——*'-— — 
impuaable "loughs — -■ ■" ■"—"■'- ' 
ewth roads. The _.. „ . 

mnnicalion when tho raus sol in, and too frequently 

plidi when tlieweatheiisbad three or four miles a-day, 
and bean, as best he may, in addition to great iucon- 
-tflHeace and severe loss, the inevitably besv; charges 
totha carriage of goods. 

Thns. by the returns of traffic already alluded to, 
the c»t per ten upon the Northern Soad. betweea 
Uaitland and l^ingleton. a distance of 30 miles on the 
man toad, is iiven as £6, and the aveiaga cost per ton 
ner mile ia Uie Northern District as 2^1. Upon the i 
Great Sonthem Boad, bcMpiien Piclon and Sydney, at 
£4 per ton for a distance of 50 miles, and the average 
for tllfl district at !«. Td. per ton par mile. Upon the 
Western Road from BachuiMto Oydney.a distance of 
130 miles, fiom £9 to £13 10a., and the aver^n for 
the Western Districts Is, 9d. per ton per milo. KeOce 
the produca lots npou Che ground for want of transport ; 
and the itatiadcs of 1855 shew an import into the 
colonyotgrain. *c., to the valne of £717,779, as con- 
trasted with an eipoit of £81,6M. 

Such teturni serve id represent in some degree the 
burden imposed upon the community by the badness 
of the reads. They present the subject in a tangible 



immer the rudai 



ansnort is 



be balanced by the 
traffic, or that, which 
ariae from the impr 



I spent in the improve- 
nmpnity, lo be divided 
:onBumer. On the otiier 
npon the improvement 
le interest of which will 
irived from the existing 

cannot be justifted i for 
Dse the general wealth. 



id above, there are three lead- 



^ 



6. Them 



itself. 



ig and f onitmcting differe 



n (or transport of tl 



The nuutiBfaetory character of the return of IB55-fi. 
shewing tlie existing Cradle of the rountry, haa already 
been commented on in tins Report, and tjie ooncJiaions 
founded upon them must so far be unsatisfactory also. 
I submit Co the GoveromeDt the advantages to he de- 
rived trom accurate information on this subject, and I 
recommend the immediate employ uiont, tube continued 
during an entire year, of competEnl persons, acting 
under approved instructions, to obtain it. 

As the ariioont and cliaractBr of the erisdng tra5« 
is nnrortain, the valne of the iirohabla increase 10 it, 
cannot be determined. 

It has been shewn, however, by the calculationB »l- 
readj' given, so tar as they cati lie relied on, that the . 
reoeipU from existing railways, and those at preaant 
propned. would not cover the interest on capital ei- 
pende4 iuid working expenses; ud though the advaa- 
lagcs resulting from them may be anliicient to warranC 

factory to know how they actually pay before entering 
uponstill further oitoosions; yet, there may be par- 
ticnlar diiCricta whose natural resources need only the 
advantages aflorded hy improved communications Co 
give ample relnms for any snms expended upon these. 

The Statistic* of 1865 and the Csosns ReCums of 
lSt€ tend however rather to strengthen the opinion diat 
the colouy is not yet snSciently peopled, and the em. 
renC of immigration not anfficieplly strong, to warrant 

difficult, aikd studded with large tracts either barren or 

The population on thTlat MarcMSJS. was 268,189 
persons as compared with 187,343 in 1851. giring as 
increase of 15.789 yeariy. Of the entire number 
158,843 are I'etumed as the productive population, 
equal Co 59'67 per cent, as contrasted with 109,828 in 
1851, or .58-66 per cent., ofthese 0,094 are engaged in 
trade aj corgmerce. 17,326 are artiflcers or meclianici, 
lfi,72Sara engasod in agriculture, aa eompared with 
11,808 in ISjl, but chi^r occupation is represented as 
"flifiil," 13.337 are employed in tending sbeep and 
cattle, against 15.C19 in I85l,a decrease approximating 



Thesi 

miKl . 

)US.982 parsons ofwhom 09,1 73 are La Sydney. Tbei« 
are 75-42 parsons to each square mile in Cnmberlaiid 
as GDntrasted witb an average of 307 in England and 
Wales, but in the sotllcd districts generally the popula- 
tion ia only S persons to 1 sqaare mila, and in the 
squatung districts 1 person to every 7J square miles ' 

• The Bve Countlei of— 

CumborlaBd 1DS9R9 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND AKT. 



Tha iucioaas ta tbe papulation frota tlio UE 
tSSG. Id tha 1st Jonnary. 1857, wu 1,5.613 by 
gration. and 5/HI li; the ezceti of birtlw over deaths, 
makinra total of 2m,10B peraoDB 1 but thoald tha dis- 
trict of Moreton Bay be separated, this would 
dnd»d to 368,1 6T, or 373.4B9, sccoijing m tha d 
vaa madB, 

The unmher of tf.ta in crop in 185G ii not well 
known, bat in 1855 there vien 170,070, imd 
planted with tha vine, yielding lla.614 galh 
and 1,426 gsllouB of hiand}- 1 the nninbec of hanied 
cattle was 1,858,407 1 of horses. 157,159; of 
68.1191 ; of sheep, 8,603,409. The WUl importa 
£4,668.518, M tompsred with £5,881,083. and the total 
eiports £2,384,130, as compaiad with 4,0o0,!26.— in 
1834. The incra^. however, upon 1851 being 
£%104,5S8 imports, and 1,087,218 eiports. 






Dt' the C&nadas, n 
> 1854} is often qu 
n New South Wales 



acly 1,0S 



.rople 



.nl853w 
spirits distil I 



epilgiants that landed ■■ 
and the qnantitf of pro> 



irily be^ 



iieMwi . . 
to the discrepancies of populitina and Fnltivs- 
tton in the Canadas and New South Vales, muit be 
coMidared the ndv^tnges the former anjoy in their 
eomparative vidnity, to Ihe markets of Europe and 
Ametica, kbA the roadv and remunerative outlet thus 
afforded for the sale of produce. 

Buch causes promote the rapid Battlement of a 
country, and warrant a vast ontlay nnoa internal com- 
■Bnnicatinits by the certainty they afford of a rapidly 
IDCIeasvug traffic t hot experience sug^tsthot a colony 

idcl" " 

.^BT, should ^oUoB ... .... 

Wherever the present and probable traffls does 

nilway, Ikiil form of road should fe adopted which 
be oheapest male and maintained, and .yet be suSir 
for the development of tho resources of tha calonv. 
Tha ii&plest form i? the HUnmon earth road, 
thiiiffTadod to 



* COMPAIilsOM of reiistani 
of Uoads, with the 
mataly estimatad. 



The metal should vary from 6 - . _ . . 

□HI. acuordioE to the degree of traffic; icahonld beliil 
on in two or three coata. as each becomes ct 
Raaalt, trap, and limeatmu) form eicollent 
width of 12 feet, widanad tal8on approachiiiv primraa] 
th mad on eitber side of it, is usably 



road, and is formed hy tayir 

in ilie first instance, but ilie coat of repai 

In Canada and tlie Tlnited Stataa a deaciipfiu ef 
roadway has been introduced of Uta yearn, and Msd, it 
is stated, with great success, viz., the plaak mod. 

Upon two parallet sleepers, varying from 10 in. 
in. to 14 in. by lia-scuilliag, and 16 to 20 le(( 
in length, plankn, eight fuct long and three M 
incbee thick, are laid down and spiked lo the lit 
at every four or five feet; aside track of earth, laYeal 
iride, to turn out upon, and good ditohen, 
plank road. The plapkin? sliould be coven 
nj^e with a coating, about one inch thick, of veijlM 

This has been termed tliB Fannar'a Rulmd; ) 
horse, it issaid, can draw updn it fiom two to (ba. 

mad : it aDbrds undiminished facilities for travel lllU 
osons. even whan common roads aje impaBabJe frav 
lutimied raiDE. and it penuiu of great traffic ; ftr (nt 
single eight feet track. 16LJ30O teams an (bloi ■• 
ive passed iu two years, averaging 220 teams pMdl^^ 
id during diree days 720 passed daily. 
The wood of the district through which the iti 
itaea has invariably been used to make it ; IhotilMi 
imlouk, tamarack, oak, and walnut, bave aU.^M 

BetBfien the railway worked hy loeomoliyBS »nd4i 
pEank road, stands the tramway, or railway of itOBi 
worked bv horse-power ; the reustaoce to drablibl ^na 
Ig^ileenth of tliat vf» a 



vailed 



arthro 



Placing in a tabular sb 
ruction and of milnten! 



Lpe,^ Ear tiie sake of oompaiT- 

ice to draught, nat tt-mr 

ice, of the aeveraL ToaAflfc 

ppeara reasona'ile to suppose that the Toad imm 

lid be cheapest, all thin^ included, U the raillrBy 

■ked by horses, and oeit lo this tha plaiik mad, tlir 

anneal charges being ad £670 to £815. 

But in nonsideriog the relative advanlagCT cf flwsa 
two roads, it appears to me a seiioiu objecliBa U ih* 
horse railway, that being necessarily to a gnaaK It H^ 
licnlar class uf vehicles only can travel njKm il^VtaU 
the plank r^ad permits the free use of the ordiniw «»-. 
veyanMs of the country I and the couvcnienc^ VV^ 



Conatroction of .. 



8,000 
3,045 



AlWin; £1000 per mile f 



^mmm 



M 



3IAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



that a fiw mlet of plank rood, aocl 
siMnild be lud dawn aa an Di|>arin: 
of diffarenb wfKHk, with a vie# of j 
■sited fi>r roadi. ^ 

. I )an indeed bpea told that the 
'HOutji IFalis At far anch a parposi 



uauurbulince snj dif- 

qf tho GovBromant. 
I u 1 have deacribed, 

UKertsiuiiig that ' 



najt perLaps, prove of much service to tire puhl 



Forwhi 
nulea hero, and a fuw 
lystem of Intel 



ea tliore, of the very 

diataDoes to be reckoned by hundreds 
■a loaat auoi, in thfl qoickeat ^mo, they oan 



'• 



liberal aa the country la, and considorj 
teaoornea. it coo scarcely be eipecitd to v 
a larger anox tlian ^vill be aabmiCttidrorthi 
and paaintenance of Intomal Commimical 
year. 

Seventy miles a year 






L. may be takm. as the ei- 
Mg roada would be replaced 
Y rainooaa, at a oum, luclunive of rolling- stock, of 
:7T0,(KK> a year. In ten years time the arietial com- 
moaicBllons would be eoimdeTably advanred, but 
dnring'tliat period, in all probability, thajnterBit opon 
the cajHlal «npended muat be voteiJ by the Legiilacnte, 
amd in addition, the sums required to keep in something 
Jilce order existing roads. 

Bnt £770^00 a vear wonM be snffieient to make 
MinDallT33GrailBs(ifplank road, for example; andin 
two or three years after the steam and saw machinery 
arrivad from Englmd tlie TUO miles coild be made ; 
-while the capital eijiended would be £1,610.000, in 
place of £T.700,0CO ; and the annnal interest and ei- 
penditore, (wtuch should bo covered by the receipta 
trom the irafiic on the road,) be £670.500, in place of 
iei;155,0O0. 

The more rapidly good communications can be fbnncd 
bepeea the ports ofNew South Wales and Uw interim', 
tlf^more aertainly will tiie traffic dow to thera. in place 
dfiaeking nthet outleta, and from them in return, and 
those oomnxercial connections he established or 
strengthened frith other lands that give wealth and im- 
portance cu a nation; and the more cheaply these 

ried aloDB »he», the moto durable tUose cooneiiona 



In America o 



!S have bcon induced U 



fuya by the pant of lands lying in allemaCo sec> 
s along tho line to be made ; the Stats usually re- 
ins to itself a [ler-centaga on the gross receipts. 
the ordinary prita of new land is a dollar 



.andw 



re the i 



Thi 

through praitit . . .__ 

abundant crops, for whidi the sun'oundiug country at 
£ni'ope gives a ready market, and where emigraats Sow 
in by tens of thousands, this plan has met with great 
success ; but I am under the impression that along the 

Crincipal linos of commnnicatioB in this colony land 
as not been retained by the OovemmeDl 



It otherwise 
d be felt in aljoiuting it 
possesaee many pointi w 



nnsiderable relm 
dl worti^of'ton 



before leaving the subject of Railways, 
inconvenieDCe that may ultimately 
of the' linos; tho 



and Sonlb Australia, in the gai; 

the gauge here beiogf 4 feet Bi inthes, am 

Colonies. I am informiMl» tlie decidedly 



already propoaed. tho aohject will then lave no im- 

I do not feel in a position, witiont better informalinn 
on tho statistics of traffic, a thorough study of the re- 
ports and plana of the Surveyors, and an inapaction of 
the country itself, upon the charatist of which the cost 
of construction and maintenance depends, absolutely to 
advise the Qovenmient aa to the particalar dBSCiiptioa 
of roadway to adopt, beyond tho suggestions I have al- 
ready snbmitlBd: my present itnpresaion is, it should 
vary with dilforont localities. 

With a view, however, to datermining aa early as 
practicable snimpurtaut a matter,, to employ aa effec- 
tively ai possible the sarveyon placed under me by 
yoot letter ol the 2i)th ultiaio, and to ensure that the 
money ^ent upon those parla of casting roads tho 
management of which has Seen intmatod to me bv your 
instructions dated 2Sth ultimo is spent so aa to con- 
tribute as iar as possible to one genei-al end, I have to 
submit ^c yonr consideration the foUo*Tng arrange- 

divido the country into districts, and 

ir the charge of an Assistaat Bnginowv" 

i-Chief being consulting Bupneer for 

and having also the immediate charge of 



I propose 
ace each u 
e Enginci 



the 

En- J 
aci. 3 



the Railway) 

To place under their orders the Road Snrvoyots 
Railway Smveyora, iuid the men of Uie Boyol 
ginoors,in such proportions as the necBiajtiaa of eac.„ 
district reqijitB. To obtain from the Enrinoers early 
reports uiion the existing roads and tho improvemanW 
that can be effected in them, and also upon tiie line »f 
country best adapted in each ^strict for 3 railway, to- 
gether with such infonaation as (hey may be enabled 
to foTQish of the geological character, and agricultural, 
pastoral, mineral, or other resources of & country 
passed through. 

To aianiine the country b person, so far as otLec 

duties may permit, and after receiving tho teporta of 

Engineers, and consultation with them and the 

ineer-in chief, to direct what lines shaO be levelled 

what plana and seotions prepared, 

submit the plans and sections obtained, together 

1 a detailed report on the conntry generally, and 
upon the description and course of the roadways pro- 

Tliia I should be the bettor enabled to do as I re- 
ceived the monthly re^rtsofthe persons suggested to 
bo employed in ascartauung the existing traSiu. 
The Engineei-s would be also charged with super- 
tending generally the repairs of tlie roads eiecuted 
ider the Road Surveyors, and of assisting them with 
ofesaional advice. 

Aa the Electric Tel^[raph progressta, which yon 

■ve informed mo is also to form an intj-egal part of 

e department of inlomat coDnnimicalioiis, it will ha 

necessary to have a anb-dii«clnr with a working staff 

The Secretary, the Solicilor, and the Acconntanl of 
le Railway Department would take tlieir share also 
fthe additional duties devolved upon it. 

The necessity for increased office accommodation I 

The system I have proposed would, I anticipate, be 

lat Bvery effort -was being made to ascertain and meet 

I trust tho Government irill overlook the deflcienciea 
f a report prepawd at so early a period after my 
rrival in the country, and amidst tho inci 
ressure of pabtic duty. 



jvry of Lands and Public Wor 




r 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



MARKHAM'S DIGGING MACHINE, 

At Ihe meeting of the Horticultural So- 
ciety, held Novembers, 1857, Hia Excel- 
lency the Governor- General forwarded a 
model of a Dig^ng Machine, coQBtructed 
by Mr. Lewis Markham, of Arniidale, — 
the same gentleman whoae description of a 
Heaping Machine appears in rhis number 
of our Journal. According to the promise 
made in our last number, we now give the 
inventor's own description of the machine. 
Petmit me to oETer to your notice the model of 
« digging machine, constructed for the purpose of 
working cultivated land in general, but more es. 
peciallj alluvial Boila. It is built an the principle 
of a vertical saw mill, with douhle power on the 
downward atroke— that is to say, the power ii em- 
ployed in propelling the machine and litling the 
spades, which are mppased to he sufliciently 
weighted as that hy Iheir fall they ihall penetrate 
Ihe soil, and are also levered out by the aaaistance 
of the machinery, but principally hy their own 
weight. 

Being conscious of the fact that doctors differ, 1 
desire to give no opinion as to its prohable success 
with sniiDal power, hut with steam power I will 
venture to as; that it could be broogbl to a state 
of perfection not to he surpaased by anything ever 
yet offered for the purpose for which it is intended, 
and in order that it may he better understood I 
will give its description on a large scale. 

Fora two-horse machine:— Length of frame, U 
feel 1 the hind portion consiiits of a spade frame 7 
feet broad, S feel long, and 5 feet high ; the breadth 
includes two broad wheels, to support the frai 
The remainder of the machine is 4 feet broad e 
2i feet high. The spades are S in number, am 
inohei in depth, extending scross the breadth of 
tlie inner space of the frame (3 feet). They are 
bolted to a handle B jncbes s<)Uare and 6 feet long, 
and are propelled by a orank and fulcrum, the 
latter working in a slide, so as to admit of the 
spades rising and falling, and performing the work 
in a simiiar manner to a spade in the hands of a 
man, but without turning the sod. From the end 
of the spades to the fulcrum, IJ foot; from the 
fulcrum to the top of the handle, G feet ; depth of 
crank, 9 inches ; two fly-wheela attached, 3 feet 
each in diameter ; motive power, 3 united vrheels 
within the frame — the 2 outside wheels 5 feet in 
diameter, spiked, the centre wheel 41 feel in dia- 
meter, grooved, and Dairying a hell which com- 
municates indirectly with the fly-wheels and spades. 
Weight above the spades, 200 lbs. ; of By wheels, 
150 Ihs. each i Mrain of horses, on the downward 
stroke, 300 lbs. This would gire the spades a fall 
of 9 inehcB, with a probable weight of 700 lbs. 
One revoluUoD of the main wheel (15 feel), gives 
15 revolutions to the liy wheels, and the apace dug 
would thus be 15 feel by 3. There are two small 
wheels in front, which are placed for use in bring, 
ing the machine into the field i they are then fas- 
tened up, free from interference with the action of 
the machine. 

Hany may be anxious to know the result of the 
■padea coming in contact with rock or Blone. Sup- 
posing the spades set to dig any given depth, and 
that they come in oontut with i substoDce -which 



' the weight described \> not suRicienl to cause them 
la penelrale, the machinery slops, and the whole 
weight of the madiine is instantly brought t 
on the spades, snd if the substance is still too hard, 
the spades, instead of penetrating, will lift the ma. 
chine, and so on till they come to softer soil. To 
adapt this machine to animal power was the great 
difficulty I had to contend with, as slowness of 
motion was only to be obtained from the greater 
diameter, while velocity was to bo procured from 
the smaller, but aay person who will loolt at the 
model of the machine will see that by removing 
the large wheels, bolting an engine on to the frames 
bringing the piston directly in contact with the 
crank wheel that works the spades, and propelling . 
the machine by the shaiV of the fly wheels, that 
power for the cultivation of any description of soil 
might be given, and be equal to an almost incte- 
dible amount of work. 

LEWIS MARKHAl 
Arniidale, October 15, 1857. 



-Those of our readers 



I 



Burs in this popular branch of Art, will d( 
I pleasurefrom an inspection of some remailt- 
line photographic portraits exhibited by Mr. 
. Glaisler, in Pitl-street. The peculiit^ 
: theiu is iheir targe size, being as neubfaa 
poBsibia life-tiie. They are Gollodiolype*. A «e«t 
"' glass, 17 inches by 32 inches, is evenly coated 
th a film of Collodion, upon which image is im- 
pressed. Mr. Glaisler possesses some fine speoi- 
mens. There is one of the Rev. W. Cuthbertaon. 
which surpasses all that we ever saw in portralltire. 

come to our knowledge, in which portiaitijtakea lu 
the various phoiographic artists in this city, mA 
sent to England, have created astonishment there 
by Iheir extraordinary beauty' of manipulation. 
We have received assurances, from arlisls of repute 
at home, that the London photographers are ^oilD 
eclipsed by our Sydney proctitionera.' Up^emfte 
auperiarity of photographs done here (we allade 
only to CO I Iodic types) is ascribed to the influence 
of the climate, and it is reasonable to suppow ^t 
the superior intensity of the sun's rays should litre 
given us an advantoge over those taken beneath the 
sickly sun that has lo force its way throngh a 
murky London atmosphere. At all events, Mesm, 
Dallon, Freeman, or Glaister have nothing to fent 
by comparison with any English photographic ar. 
lists. Wehopetosee a Photographic Exhibitioii 
in Sydney before long. It would be very otttui- 

Edible Nusts OF Swallows. — M. Hutan, 
chief physician of the Invalides at Paris, states that 
these nests, collected in Java, are conaidersd by 
the inhabitants as formed from fish spawn. The 
viscid filamenla alien seen hanging from the bills 
of the birds are said to be derived from the spawn. 

Errata. — In Noiember nimihcr — in the paper 
>n " Silurian Fossils," p. 13d, column 2, 6>i " par- 
allel," read paroi/ai ,- for " Bliunanbaehii," read 
BlHmenbiKhH I for ■' Yarrulumlo," read YaTrabtmla. 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



Regiiirar GeneraVs Office, 

Sydney; Uk December, 1857. 

HEALTH OF SYDNEY. 

The number of De»ths registered at the Central Office durmg the mmtth of November 
is 1 16, viz., 62 males and 54 females, of which 64 were under 5 years of age. 

The Deaths registered during the corre^onding month in last year aie 90. 

Tlie number of Births registered during November, is 181, vis. : 105 males and 76 
females, being an excess of 65 over the Deaths of the mouA. 



SUMMARY OF DEATHS of both sexes Re^stered w Sydney, from Ut to WKA 
November, 1857. 



CADflKS OF DbaTB. 


I 


1 

1 


i 
1 


S 

1 
1 


1 


1 


i 

1 

1 


i 

1 


a 

1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
1 

=5 


i 


1 

1 

3 


1 
1 


1 

i 

3 


1 
i 


i 

i 

s 


i 

I 
1 


1 

i 


1 

j 


1 

£ 


1 
1 


1 
1 


1 
i 

s 


i 
1 


! 


"5, 


» ZVHOtIO DlSKlSBS. 

V Enikinic Epidemic. & Con 


4 

6 

12 

S 


S 

a 


i 


2 


1 


13 

■15 
S 

20 
2 




... 

... 




1 


3 

2 


■ 


4 


1 
1 




= 




1 


a 


















Of Umetrtain &o<.— Dropsv 
md eAer DI»u» of Yan- 


















Of Ntrvma Si/item.c. Dia- 




Of Eespiralory &/iimt.— 

Of Ctradaiary ^ilmi.— 
Disease* of Ob Heart and 


... 


. 


















8 


1 
1 


■■ 


2 


















Of Digalim Organi. Pis- 
ettet of tlia Stomach 


■■ 


... 




2 
2 




2 
























Of Urinary Oroa™.— Dis- 
eaH» of &e Kidneys, Ac.. 

Of Otneraliee Orgam 

the Bona, jQinlB, &c 






























































1 


... 


... 


1 






1 






... 














Old Age 

External Camei. Tiolencec, 

l/n>p4eified. 






•■ 
























■ 












1 


1 


Total Irom all Canue .. 


36 


16 


B 


2 


5 


61 


2 






6 


" 


4 




2j3 


4 






d 








■^ 






I 


116 



CHRIS. ROLLEBTON, BtjutriLr Gsmt*1. 




METEBOLOGICAL REPOKT. 

SrnsEr. Munth of Novembih, 1B57. 
Trom observations taken at 9 a.m. and 9 p.m, each day. 



i 


A. 


TsilPEBATnBEOFAla. 


MOISTITBB 


Ciodh. 




Wisna. 


4 














1 




^ 


li 


n 


s 


:1 


1 


r 


il 


1 


1 


\ 


IJ 


Weather.^(<3S 


IS|-S9«17 


SB'fi 


72.2 


41-3 


300 


49'4 


■00 


T 


Cu. Cu-St. 


86 


WSff. 


Pine. 


2 
3 


■30070 
■305 


61 '6 
626 


70-8 


430 


24'5 


51-5 


■(!■ 


1 


Cu! 


3li 
107 


South 


Strong dry irii^i. 


17 8 


553 


4 


■534 


67-1 


5.4.5. 


M-5 


20a 


56-T 


■0 




Ca. 


100 


NG. 


Very ^raeabU 

weather. 
Light cloud, uid, 


6 




67-0 


78-4 


580 


304 


69-3 




1 


a. 


139 


NB 


e 


■002 


69^1 


78 7 


.*-l 


19'6 


60'1 




8 


Cu. 


130 


NE. SE, 


7 


.001 


07 -9 


75-6 


60'7 




50-5 


■It 


4 


CSi. 


120 


NNE. 


SB 


■079 


70'9 


811 




175 


64-3 


-01 


1 


Chi. 


130 


N,B 


moderate sea 


« 


■04r 


701 


61 '2 


531 


28-1 


e4'jt 






(S. 


130 




10 


29-Hl'' 


70^0 


82-B 


57-5 




63-8 


■01 


1 


«- 


1.1fl 


ne: 






-083 


65-S 


72'8 


60'3 


12'5 


59'5 




10 


Cn -Ni, 


51 


SSE. 


■Rain anil Ihaoder. 


12 


, -gg? 


E55 


69-1 


S8-4 


10-7 


61 'S 


-24 




Cn.-Ni. 




NB. 


Dark clouflj. 


■ 18 


■568 


70^4 


78-2 




]9'9 


50-0 


.33 





Cn. Ni. 


10: 


West 


SliDwers. 




■M7 


57^6 


72-9 


513 


216 


41-3 


■00 










Drv winds. 


198 


■850 


678 


BOO 




393 


486 


■ft 






is; 


nb! 


Sheet ligiitoiug 


' 16 


■905 


61 ■» 


780 


52-4 


25-6 


433 









IM 


ssw. 




.17 


30-OOS 




716 


41-3 


30-3 


47-5 


■01 







116 


NB. 


Very fine Weatlier. 


'■ J8 


■028 


66^5 


808 


47'.'5 




57-3 


■01 





C!.-St- 


131 


NB. 




19 


■07a 


67-6 


77-S 


54,4 


231 


60-3 




2 


Ci.-St. Ob 




SB. 


oltrv. 


SO 


■116 


67^0 


739 


E5-4 


18-5 


30-0 


■01 


ID 


Cu. 


i>' 


SB. NNB. 


Squally winds. 


21 


2B'790 


67'a 


61-5 


61-6 


19'0 


622 


■04 





Ci,-St 


IS 


NB. 




328 


■80S 


701 


77.9 


55a 


22'8 


60fi 




4 


Ci, 




a. NE. 




23 




ca-2 


788 


61-3 




647 


■66 




Cu-3t. Ni. 




HE. SW. 


Terrific sqnilL. * 




■870 


63'7 




490 


20-2 


47'6 


■05 


6 


Cu.- 




Sonth 


Strong winds. 


, M 


a0'156 


S7^0 


673 


48-3 


19-0 


47-0 


■00 


a 


Cu, 




BSE. 


FinT 


i SB 


■141 


67-1 


74'8 


42-4. 


ai-i 


BOB 


■00 








NE. 




' ST 


■09O 




87-8 


47 5 


40-3 


61 '2 


-00 





'Gi. 




NE. SSE, 


'WarmsuuiLrwaa 


28 


-083 


67.8 


TOO 


58'6 


204 


600 






Cu. CI.- St. 




NB. SSE. 




!98 


■lei 


64-9 


71-8 


57'4 


144 


568 


■01 


10 


Cu. 




SE. 


Gloomy. ^^^^1 


30 


■276 


638 


72-4 


58'a 


13'6 


500 


•00 





Cd. 


86 


SE. NE. 


0,../ ^M 




30 SOU 


79-5 


87 8 




4fl-5 


05-4 




io" 


Highest 1 ofaingle readings ''^^ffB 




29'541 


510 




4i'3 




400 







Lowest 1 at fl a,in , or fl p jn. ^^^ 




:tB'DOU l^'O 


;.';-3 


"53^ 


~^ 


56-2 


"TsT 


■36 


Means 


and sama. November, 1857. 1 




29936 1 64-B 


75'0 


535 


21-5 


54'4 


"Tog" 


■58 


Means of November. 1866, 18B5. | 






r.mge TliB piindpal inatrnmenls have been compared 
at Greenwuli, and l]ie readings are all rednred ac- 


full «poaure to aun and -winJ U b-'A inchea 


OmittinB four days. 


KiruAiW,— ThenDmbersintbeelevenlli column iebHOt 


i'rMwm.— The baroniBter is 1 1 fral ahoTe the Bea-kvel 




the greatest rajgo ofprMsnre is -768 inch. The 
mean gawooe preasnre of dry ait i« 2B-547 inrlita. 


heat fallen darin? ea«b day, as measnred hr tliB 
nm^mys dacribed in the Sydmy Magaane 6r 


The average weight of a cubic foot of ^t ia m gn. 


Augnat. 
Clav.d.—Ttui extent of cloud is expressed by the IcpllM 
of tha whole BhT coveted by it. 
The forms of clouds are denNled as follom. tb*.|iDm~ 
betofdaysonwhicb each kind occuired during 
the month being added in figure!. 
Cu. Cnmnlua 17 Ci-Cn. Cirro-cnmnloa. ... 9 


majiinia and mimma ia E47 dpurea. The adoplfil 
■mean tanperehire of the month is, therefore, Sh-3 


for the two previflua years in 04'6 degreea. 


MvitlVTi. — The ilaw-pDint is calcnlaled from readiDgs of 




Nemtti-iiaiid ZaiHlm's drv and «et bulii thermome- 


St. Stratus Cn.-St. Cnmulo-stralos ... 2 


tflis, bj-theflseof GlaiahefaUblet Bnd Bdn. 
Bji.ui.i»60r) decrees. The mean elastic force of 


Ni. Nimbua,...4. 


Viailn. — The winds mar be Ihns summed nB. 


West 1 day 


SE 3 dan. 1 


vapour is -453 inch. The averaire proportional 




SB 4i „ 1 


biAniditr of tho air i» deuoled by 71. perfectly dry 


w a w 1 „ 


^ 1 


air being taken at U, and saturated damp air as 100. 


BW IJ „ 


NE 14 ., J 


.ffafn.— Mote or less rain fell on 8 davi dnrinj; the 
month. The total d^ptli heinp: 1 -51 inches. It is 




NNK li „ fl 


amlh 2J „ 


f 


inllecied at one lout above the L'round, and mcaiured 


W. 8. JETONS. V 


a 


3 p.m. 














Joubl 


Bay. near 


^Jdi 


ey,6 


.Sff. 





hiM 



MAOAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



159 



INTERNAL COMMUNICATION. 

Under the above title, we offered to our 
readers in our last issue a plan for the 
construction of a cheap railway, for horse 
traction. It was soon after demonstrated 
to us, that the plan we suggested had been 
anticipated, and patented in England. 
Under these circumstances, althouglr we 
tenaciously maintain, that the scheme was 
our own unaided invention, we felt it to be 
our duty to disclaim the merit of having 
been the first to suggest it, and accordingly 
published a letter to that effect in the 
Sydney Morning Herald of December 26th, 
1857. As many of our readers may not 
have observed it in that journal, and may 
still attribute a larger share of merit than 
properly belongs to us, wfe feel it to be 
also our duty to state the fi^ct in the same 
pages in which the article first appeared. 

On reference to the plan that appeared 
in our last issue, and comparing it with 
the extract which follows, it will be seen 
that it is nearly identic^ in all respects. 
The description will be found in "Ue- 
bert'B Engineers and Mechanics' Cyclopae- 
dia, vol. 2, pp. 425. 

We now introduce to the reader aa entirely diflbrcnt 
description of ndlway conveyance, invented by Mr. H. R. 
Palmer, at present the Engineer to the London Dock 
Company, and which was patented by him on the 22nd of 
November, 1821. Instead of two linM of nil laid upon 
the ground as heretofiyre, Mr. Palmoi'f rulway consists of 
only one, whidi is elevated on pillars and carried in a 
straight line across the country howwer undulating and 
rugged, over Ulls, valleys, brooks, and riven : the pillars 
being longer or shorter to suit the height of the rail alx)vc 
the surface of the ground, so as to preserve the line of rail 
(dwai/s atraighty whether the plane be horizontal or 
Inclined, The waggons or receptacles for the goods travel 
in pairs : one of a pair being suspended on one side of the 
rail and the other on the opposite side, like puiLnicrx 
from the hack of a horse. By this arrangement, only 
two wheels, instead of eight, are employed to convey a 
pair of waggons. The two wheels are placed one before 
the other on the rail, and the axletrees on which thuy 
revolve are made of sufficient length and strength to form 
extended arms of support, to which are suspended the 
waggons or receptacles, on each side of the rail, tht r.i'iitre 
of gravity heiruj alwaifs below the surface of tie mil. 
Although an equal distribution of the weight on both 
sides is desirable, it is not necessary. A number of 
carriages are linked together, and towed along the rail by 
a horse, as barges on a canal. Owing to the undulation of 
the country, the horse will sometimes bo much below tlie 
rail, in consequence of which he is provided with a sufli- 
cent length of rope to preserve a proper angle of draught." 
Here follow a whole series of plans of sections, with a view 
of railway in operation, and it is further stated that ''a 
line of railway on this principle was erected in 1825, at 
Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire, chiefly for conveying bricks 
from that town across the marshes for shipment in the 
river Lea. By this rail, in the level, one horse seemed to 
be capable of drawing, at the usual pai-e. about fourteen 
t'jns, including the carriage." The writer goes on to say 
that the eminent Mr. Tredgold, *' whose oploion in these 
matters will be ever entitled to attentive consideration, 
expressed himscli very favourably to this invention. *' We 

No. 8. Jan. 1858. 



expect,** says Tredgold, " that this single railroad will be 
found far superior to any other for the conveyance of the 
mails and those light carriages of which speed is the 
principal ol))ect, because we are satisfied that a road for 
such carriages must be raised, so as to be Aree from the 
interruptions and crossings of an ordinary railway." 

After this corroboration of the practica- 
bility of our plan, we have no hesitation 
in urging its adoption on the government 
of the country. The necessity is urgent, 
and the remedy is rapid of accomplish- 
ment, and cheap in execution. 

We have been promised the assistance 
of practical engineers to make out a de- 
tailed estimate of the expense at which a 
railway on this principle could be con- 
structed. In our next issue this shall 
appear, together with engravings of the 
plans, sections, and elevation, as designed 
by the original patentee. The plan has 
now excited considerable attention, and 
has secured the favourable consideration of 
several scientific gentlemen, under whose 
auspices, we believe, experiments will be 
made. 

THE RIVERS OF AUSTRALIA. 

We are indebted to Mr. F. S. Peppercome, 
C.E., for the following interesting paper 
on the rivers of this colony. 

The rivers of Australia are amongst the most interest- 
ing features of this vast country ; they are the reser- 
voirs in which is stored the superabundant moisture 
wliich supplies nutriment to the herbage ajid ridmefis 
to the soil. 

The most eminent explorers, as Mitchell, Stroleski, 
and LeicLhai'dt, all dwell with pleasure on the invaltt'- 
able and, for the most part, unfailing streams fbond in 
Victoria, in Gipps' Land, and in the country to the 
north of Moreton Bay. 

An opinion, however, seems to prevail in some qaar- 
ters that the colony is destitute of navigable rivers, and 
it has even been stated at a meeting of the Fliilosophi- 
cal Society of New South Wales, that "there is no 
river in New South Wales of sufficient capacity to float 
a canoe I" 

That this statement is totally at variance with truth 
appears at once, by reference to the known fact, that 
tlivi riluvray ^including the lakes) is navigable for 
nearly 2000 miles, lOOO of which arc included within 
the bonndaries of New South Wales. Its affluents, the 
Edwards, the Wakool, &c., arc navigable lor 400 miles. 
The ilurrumbid^ee, with its lakes (langa, Lala, Wal- 
deira, &(•., is naviuablc for lOOtl miles, and the Darling 
is navigable for 8(H> miles. Thus making no less than 
4,200 miles of navigable livers in a single district of 
Australia ! 

By reference also to the Table of Rivers which ac- 
companies this paper, it will be seen that there are no 
loss than 26 rivers which empty themselves into the 
Pacific, to the south of Moreton Bay, a great number of 
wliich are capable of beinsr navigated by steamers and 
vessels of considerable tonnage. 

It is no douht true that many of these rivers have 
* bars" at their embouclmrcs ; and when rivers are de- 
scrihed as having at their mouths bars, some persons 
may think that, owing to this cause, they are unim- 
portant, and unfit even to float a canoe* But if they 
advert to the numerous bar-harbours on the British and 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



French eoBfits^ to the mifl^rabW small cue^ujis od wliioh 
Calaii. BoulaEDB, Dieppe, Rye, Dover, NevbaTen. 
ShDreham, Chich«ter. LinlehaiDphin, &c., are ImilC. 
thsy will find Ihat their gancloaiona ate anooeQUa, aud 
thejr ^11 become senaihlo of the faCnre imjiortfiniv of 
maoy of the bar-mouthea riven on lljo oiait of Ao^ 
triUia, Hiioe of which ire nnvigible for mimy milos. 

Let theui,.-liawevet, travel s little farther in their 
range of enqoiry, And ask what is the form»tioii of the 
rivert nf the Ualtic, upon which the gri.-al uommerriaJ 
to»fu of StcUin, Wiemar, Dintiic. Klling, Konings- 
burc. LiebEiu, Der-Windaa, Siockhohn, &c., tm sitn- 
Bted! 

ThBsejre all bar harboora, witk ihoal water bb- 

Aiftviiig a depth varying ■ ~. ■-' - i- 

tTiig gcOBTsilv tf' --■-'- 

ll and populi 

E OSes of trade and commoroe. It appears unwise, therc- 
ire, as tvell as unreasonable, to depreuats or ni^r- 
Tilue the rivers of Australia, because some of tbem are 
of email dimeaiioDs or am bar-mouthe[). Many d^ 
tl^m will bear a compariain with tho moat importjuit 
rivers in Enrope. 

Foe inWanoe. the total len|;th of Ibe Muna^. 'nant' 

which distoif e 1 7<0 miles are navigable by ateam-boslB 
finring at least ai months of the year. It will, there- 
fore, hear a comparison with the three largest rivers in 

■ Bnrope, vii., tbe Danube, the Wolga, and thii Rhine ; 
dielenfth of the fifat being 1700 miles, of the second 
BlOfl iidli'S, and of the third 737 miles. 

Wiih iliL. L'iception, therelbre, of the Wolga,the river 
31iiiT:,y -ntmh in length any of the rivets of Europe : 
and it m;Lv be obBorvod of these, that althoogh Kurope 
is beautifullv mitered by numerous riven, few of them 
aca naluralfy narigabie tn anv donsiderable eitBii% the 

. three liveis above named being the chief eiceplions. 
- - abodyof freah water 






The following table of the distimiies of seve: 
OD the Mnrray from each othar, "hich has b 
piM witii «>me trouble, it from llie South AuslTOUmt 
Keghta: 
Comparative Table Of Distance! of moat remarkable 

[limes along tbe MnrraT,fPoailleGoolwaio Alhury. 

Compiled October. 1856. 



Distance fi'om 






that of m 



yEui 






nuplished fact, a^d : 



oC Che Bdnards, the Billibong, the Lachlan, and tht 

The Hte^mera Leichhardt. Lady Augusta, Alburv. 
Hvolgewauk, Gemini, Melbouime, and Gunda^ai, art 
■mol^ the number no» employed in navigaliM (hi 
Murray and its tribataries, BBjouniing in all W tei 
steamers, and nine boata, representing a capacity of 
2313 tons, sod ■MO horse power. 

The navigable character of the Murray^ and tlfe 

Sring up nlon| its hanks, are atnon^t tXe qnestjoos of 
B day most imlUGdiatBly interesting to New SontU 
Walea, as weli ai to the adjacent colonies of South 
Anstralia and Vicltpria. 

It may, therefore, bs well to madEinse here tl 
mlla of Bone inqnirie! into this subject. 

The di»t»nce from the Goolwa to Albury bv 
may be set down as nearly 1»I0 miles, aod cerl 
iiot'leM than 1740 miles, sll navigable hv ateam during 
nil mouths ofChe year, notwithstanding tlie little thai 
has yet been effected in clearing the chaiincl. Tbi 
junction of tho Darling ia distant from the GuolwJ 
about 940 miles, that of the Jlurrumbldgee 900 miles 
Bwan Bill 10SO miles, Alaidcn's Punt I3S0, and thi 
Ovens Siver 1592 milai. 

From the Goolwa to CThowilla, near the boundarv 
line, tbo Murray floua for 4Ba miles through Boull 
■Anitrnlii!.D territory, sn* aboi-e Wellington, and foi 
300 iTiik-5 liiL-ljer, it- w,,(t.is, both when low and whec 
fli-xle^, !.Tf i-niivM In W,fh bmks from 50 to 100 feel 
in L(.'ii,'ht, wlurli iLlttrii iLi'l' recede from, and approach 



The Goolwi 
Point Start 
Pt. PommoDdo 
Wellington . 
Beedy Creek . 
■iloorondee 
N. W. liend 
" rland Cor- 



( Lvon's) 
The Darl. Ri 
Mildura 

Do(M-tirath'sl 
Kuston (U\ ■■ 
Sfecalma 

(Boss's) ... 
Marmiubidgue 
Windomal ' 
. (Phelps-s). 



(Junction).. 
Teelima 

(McDonald's 
Cobram (C 

Hairhet-s) .. 
MnU^vta 

(Punt) ., 
Oieoa Biver 



Eeachworth) 
Owloug 



11 



N.S.W. 16 



»1^ 



9951291 [3 
9101206 ? 



SUSM. 



131 a 

IS 

13BS 


7in 
730 


3S 


1411 


768 


63 


i4ai 


787 


57 


1S2S 


m 


im 


I6TS 


m 


217 


1699 


951 


241 


!BU 


966 


259 


IBS 
ITS 

im 


lOOO 
1041 

11D( 


s 



S76| STS 
3ie| 819 



ceptihle bevund the I>arliiig. There the waters ofUie 
Lachlan, tie Wakool, the Murrumbidgee, add the Ed- 
ward, connected lor a great portion of Che year Ir • 
network of creeLs, rafdei a lacja ponioD of !)■• N«)t 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



SoDth Walts le 

■apjwnuig vuc aumben of either sheep 

great diatrict niaj be regardsd as extending for 600 

tiou of tbe MtHTumljidgce to the Edward, ood ii gene- 
rally alluded to as the MurtninhidgeB diBtriot. 

About SSO milo boforB reaching Alburf a mulfbst 
impTDvement takes pWe in the charaoter of the countr; 
adjoining the river. The climiiM also chaQgea for the 
tf'tter, 3ad the coantry In the bank grouad gives pro- 
mise of a flue agricnltnral district. 

TheinlluL'nce which the wat«n of a aavifahle river 
have anoD the welfare and dviliiatioo of a people mnst 
at all times be coniiderable ia Aastralia. 

Citltivacisn and jnpiilatian gradaallj- bnt surely 
ascend it; villa^^ are formed at Iha ci " 
streams and riven, and Dhede aaaa bflconiP 
nties, the centrea'of civilijaliDn and of 
Wliereas, lookiDg at those parts of Aoitralia which 
have mado the least progreaa, we shall find 
the Ulterior, where tlie country in not inienecled by 
anjrJeDauderable stream or river, and where, in qonsB- 
quteW, there elisls bat a scanty popalation who follow 
putbhl jmrsuiu, «. state by no moaoi conducive to the 
proifreBB of civiliEation- 

:f we extend nnr survey of the rivers of Aastralla 
along the Eastern cD^, wo lind (hat into Shoalhaven 
there falls a river of considerable tnMnitndo, but the 
entrance is difficult and abstmcted -wilk ahoals, and the 
^ i^auatry for some distance along the hanks ia tow and 

I Bonrce about 30 miloa from the 
lortherly course of atwut loO mllec, 
Shoalhaven. 
Oully on the Shoalhaven rtnu 
le gcologicej fifaturc. It is laid to 
I 2 miles deep, iQ depth being thua 
.1 ..i : probably 



minus of vt'jJjjf conveyance from Syd&ey, and of land- 
carriage from tiiu interior In consequence, however, 
of flats and shooJa in the river, the steauiera are oflen 
liable )a detentioii, ia smCe of their light di'aught of 
water i_ and several plans have been proposed for 
dsepening the channel over tbe flats. 

m ashert " Memoir relative to the improvement of 
Harhoors and Rivers in Australia." published by the 
-■-■•-- '- 1856, lhe_following passages rci-*^— •■■ •*- 

""oTaii 



-" Tliua 



in the low 
■raed, in s 




it these dim 
nndonbted fact tlmt 






Surx'eyoHJene 
! — " Tills tiemaDdoiis 



,1) ,1. 



rVft^xIny, '^miijf nearly North andSouth'^ its brej 
at die bottom 9oes not apparently exceed 100 or 
feet, while the separaliDn of the outer edges is &om 
U) throo miles. 

^^ 1 am intain that in perpendicular depth it exceeds 
300O feet. *Trom ■other aide of this abyss, smaller 
"* ravines, of nrnilai character,. divarged; the ^sumce 
t hetwMo which seldeni eiteBded half a mile." 

Viat ravine was the bed of the river Apaley, and it 
■e^s Jirobable that it was farmed by the working of 
f£e stream, during many ages. 

The rivem that fall into Botany Bay and Port 
J^ksnn are of very trifling dimenuona, and it h 
pAbably to these rivers tbU the writer of the l>aper, 
lead at the PhilDaD|ihical SocJecr, referred, when he 
stated that "there is no river in New South Walas of 
■olficifint cnpncity to float a canoe 1" 

ThaHawkesbnij liver which fiills into Bnken Bff 
is a river of considerable magnitu^. It risis n>tt 
lake George, runs flir some distance pnrallc 
Shoalhaven river, but its conrae is very circuii: 
its wnirte it it called Uie Wolloodilly, then the Warrn 
eumba. next the Nepeon. and lastly the BawliEsbary. 
This practice of calling the same river by diiferont 
□amea prevails in other parts of the colony, and leads 
to mush confasion of rurma, if not of idess- 

The next river of importance ia the Hunter, and 
this river, with its tribntiuies, waters an extensive and 
fertile district, comprised within Che valley of the 
Hunter, whiuh includes the valley of ilie Wil'liaui and 
the Pateison. 

"nie Banter river being Racigable for sea-going 
vuaels as Ikr ai Uorpeth, Uat plaw is wade the lei- 



. At 



eared, b 
endeavoots to remove them by d 
increased velocity can be given to laa Dn>now]ng 
stream, by confining its current within certain limiD, 
by such means as dams or weirs on the braocha, and 
longitadioal dykes or "levees" in thestream, bdng 
embankments carried in a parallel direction witb ^a 
river's niune, and formed of^ permanent materials, for 
the pnrpose of contracting tbe tidal cnnent. and of 
increasing tho scouring power." (Pago 11.) 

Ajid afain at page Z5 : — " The lower part of the 
HlUiter nver divides itself into several smaJl hranches,- 
whidi are only navigable for boats, and by dosing' - 
these branches by dams or weirs, n larger body of water. 
would be thrown into the main channel, thug deepening 
it hv tile additional scour thus produced ; and tbis 
woii!<i be still further augmented by the umstractjon of, 
a longitudinal dyku or levee, to contract the ohaonel 

the loH'or Qunter are based upon Che principtes heroia 
snfpeated i and that moans have been adopted to direct • 



irough thou 



that improvemi 

be based on a knowledge of the chan|fea in the ifei' 

the river, the soil of the bunks, and the toloutnof/' 



it also of a permanent c 



toloutnof tluh ' 
not only ja^M^i 



plain of Nerttam9 
Italy, aflnrds an instructive example of the efleCta ffD^ ^ 
duced by the Italian engineers. According to IiyMl, ■ 
the changes gradually effected in the channoltf dd^ 
river have been considerable. Extensive lakcB m^ 
naisbes have been gradually filled up, ta tkua mil 
Faima, Placsntia, and Cremona, and many have baot 
drained naturally by the deepening of the river's hsd,' 
which frequently deviated from its course and inVadei 

system of embanking this river was adoptad by ike 
early Italian engineers ao far back as the tbirteentb 
eeutury. andthe Po, the Adige, and almwt all their 

banks. The increased velocity of the mirrent acquiried 
by streams thas closed in enables them to cany amuiji 
larger proporrion of foreign matter to the sea. 

r.'ii:u T'ort Stephens to Port Maoquarie the piiuripsl 
river is the Mnnmng, which empties itself into the lea 
by two moutlis at Harrington and Farquhar lolels. It 
has, bowBVB^A dangerous bar with only 7 to 8 feet nf 
water at low lide. The Hastings Biver, wbich falU 
into Port Macqnarie, has also a bar at its entrance, and 
Hows through a very niouotainous country, an elevated 
peak nf which, called Sen- View Hill, is said to have an 
' *■ ' aarlt 60O0 feeli 

ly Fiver falls into Trial Bay in lat. 30 



The Mac; 

nd fertile district, the sources of this 
le table laud of New England, 
From hence ta Slioat Bay there are fei 
lairnitiide. 



rersofaijj^_ 



d is one of tbo uost important riven in ibia > 
fiv Bjlony. It is distant from Si'dnev 38ff 
d lis head wateis lalte their rise in the ^tvijl 
I near Uouut linduy, which localily giitiia 
lo the Richmond and the Logan ri vers. 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ABT. 



Tho north houd of the Olaronce, like lljU of Iho 
Hunter, roTuisIa of nBaiidT spit on which the wia hceaks 
huarilr dnring csitmlj gala ; the mn«t south huaiLiB 
formed bj a boaati^) (rraEay hill, to the north of which 
is a reef of n>ckfl, vhich, in thtjicpreBflnt state, reader 
tlm eaaasita somewhat difflrult. The sonodings on tho 
biLT laiy from 2 lo 3 fathama, and fur about lH milca 
up (he river tho aoondingH vary from 3 to 4 fj^lhomTi, 
the aTorage width being rather more than a qaartor of 
■ udie ; bat aboie tbia poiat the river widens into n 
magnilleent reach, ueaily 18 miles 1dD|[ and half a mile 
wide — the breadth and depth being aofiicimt to work a 
ship of lar^ tonnage as hifh aaOraRon, about 45 miles 
from the mouth. The lawn of Grafton hiu been laid 
oat on both sidcB of theOlarantoRiver.anditia rapidly 
uiaa iu populatiDn. It must ovButnally become 
:eofi ' ■■ ■■-.-- 



a place of arasiderable commt 



li New Eoi;lan 



the : 



Then 



the Cluence 

_ The next river of importoniie is thi? Richmond, the 
'mgoihofwhi^iaBituatedin laC 2S dog. 50 mia.OT 
Hiereaboals. The north head of the Rithinood ia a bold 
"headland of basaltic formatioa. wldlst the Houth head is 
B low sandir apil^ thus revening the conformation of the 
entrance to the Clarence. Oniog to tlie set uf the cur- 
rent, and to Dthec canaea, a dangeroua '^ ' ' 



mora than 



. The ri 



r thote . 



aeldon 



a cJo[itIi of 13 
, tor aaistaace of45miiea irora its nionoi at wLuh 
jloiBt it ia joined by the North Richoiond. the rhannol 
of the river preserves an almost nniform depth and 

nage. Tho NurOi ffichmond liaa a length of more than 

ta milo^ and ia navigable for that diataaCe. 

' 4-t the vill^ of losmoro, which has been laid oat 

- 'mi ^ Hotth Kithmond Rivar, at a distmce hy water 

^ of 76 nulea ftom the Heads at Ballioa, «iisaela of 150 

(•*ra»4™ijieu are in the liahjt of diacharging and taking 

liiriheiT cargoes. No less than sii vesKla' loaded here 

in ibn month of November, 1B5T 

The Richmond Kiver itself is uavjgibln for about 60 
milea ftom the entrance, nnd a lun^idevablu naviiiable 
-litreani tailed the South Creek Hows into it, toi;et1iBi' 
with numorouE small crt'iika and Btroams, and a "better 
wMered diatrict it would be difficult lo find in the whole 

TIlB banks of these rivers and atreams comprise also 
■omeofthericheKt landin thocolonv. and little appre- 
entertaineil of their affording abnndant 



ion of maize, tobaoco, c 
e plant, and other plai 

10 serions drawback to 
imond liiver diatriet o 
a at tho mouth of the ri 









the advancoment of tho 
onsiits in the bar which 
ver, anil vv-liidi [irecludes 



r, that a poruianent deep-water channel 
ed by the construrtion of a mole oreovar- 



i 



— ^ ,---., , ., outh Head^'jand carried 

BOawarda in the directUiit «/ the ebli-tide. This would 
hive the effect of increasing the strength of the Rorrent 
during the ebb, and cuoEHsquentl^ of deepening the 

In this manner it is believed that (he ontblla of 
many of the rivers emptying themselves into the Pacific 
might bo permanentlv improved- Thus the bat which 
Giuta at die mouth of the Clarence is capable of ^it 
improvement, at no very considerable outlay. The 
cotuiition of tliia river is V(?rv favourable, a reef of rocks 
pmiefliniFfrmi tliaimur South Head, and offeringa 



Between tiie (Jlarence Kiver and Moreton Bay Hie' 
are not less than the following riveis, vii, : the Rici 
mond, the Brviiswick, the Tweed, tho Parry, the Ga 



.he AmiMtmith, the Logan, the Pine, the Cahoal' 
. ... tho Brisbane, and the Bremer, besidesinnamerahle 
smaller creeks ; and many of iheae riven) are navi- 
gable. 

It is a miaCake, tlieretbre, to aunposo that we bare no 
navigable rivers in Australia, and it is the chief object 
of this paper to draw attention to some of these rivoi^ 
and to advocate the cause of their improvement. At 
the same time tlie writer wishes it to be clearly undor- 
stood that he is not one of those " misgTiidoil" indi- 
vidmili who would dejirecate the fbimation of cheap 
railways in the oolonj. 

The accornponying Cahlo atforda a, general view of 



The lengths given 
winding iUid,oircn 



I the paiaJleL of Uoreton Bt-y. 
however, to he taken aOlj' aa the 
I, aa, owing » tho extremely 
lurae of Daftt of Ihae rivflcs. 



diftcull to asceltaju their lengths with accuracy. 

Table of Australian Itiveis, doHing to the Bast of the 

Dividing Range. 



IHQrij&Ven":: 

.13 Out 

14 BUanbocoogh. 

Iciioulbara 



Logan R. ... 
Macleay R. 
Uaoning R. 



Moreton Bay ... 
"he sea. Cape 

Eamhoka R- ... 



'Kamah..., 
24 lindadown 

Macleay'.','.' 
Macdonald 
Manning . 

Hitchell"! 



Paubula .... 
Partiunatta . 



IhoseaatNek- 

Pasa^. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
Port Stephens 
Harrisgloninlt. 

Thssca 

Trial Bay 

Hawkesbniy K. 
Farqnhar'siulel 
Hastingi R, ... 
Clarence B. ... 
Shoalhaven R. 
Thes.atMoruya 
Myall Lake ... 
Hawkeihur)' K. 

~ dlingerRl '.'.'. 

Hunter R. 

Tho sea at Pas- 
Port Jackson... 

HnnlarR 

These! 

WollombaE..,. 

ss.atBallina 
jalliaven Bay 

Logan R- ... 

"■ "lid Bay 



The 



I Point 



H£; 



4«^ 
3fff 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



163 



Tweed 

WarraeaTuba... 

"olElly ... 

Wollomba: 



, FREDERICK S- PBPPERCORNE, 

Civil Hngioeer aod Survayor. 
HiehmoiKl EiTer, Dec. Ist, 1857. 



PHILOSOPfflCAL SOCIETT OP 
NEW SOUTH WALES. 

At the monthly meeting, held Wednesday, 
December 9th, the following ititerceting 
paper was read hy Mr. W, S. Jevons, 
whose contributions to the Meteorology of 
this country have been so numerous and 
so highly esteemed. The paper we here 
publish will add largely to his reputation, 
and will, we are sure, excite the earnest 
B 'JBttentiou of Meteorologists in England. 
ON CLOUDS ; 



With Eijierimeatat Illaitratioaa, ^c. 

1. Clouds, though resulting from very complex 
chtBgea, are uniformly composed of minute parti- 
clel of water euspended in the air. The only vari- 
ations, therefore, which they present are in their 

, quantity ot mass, and in the peculiar forms into 
'■.which their mass is shaped. Direct ohservations 
on the oonditiona of the atmoapliere in and ahout 
a cloud, or actual experiment upon the mode of its 
formation are, except in rare cases, quite ontof the 
question ; a little reflection will show, I think, 
that the external form of a cloud, together with a 
few other phenomena, such as rain or lightning 
proceeding from it, or any peculiar motions which 
it may exhibit, are almost the only available &cts 
upon which to raise an inductive theory of its 
formation. 

2, Now, the means by which I take the first 
slep to explain the form of a cloud, is to produce 
experimentally, with liquids, a sUniature reprueo- 
Inlioa of it, under conditions in which the imme- 
diate causes can be certainly known. If it ia 
found that given portions of liquids of ascertained 
specific gravities, when placed together, or vari- 
ously set in motion upon each other, produce 
peculiar appearances which exactly resemble in 
form some of the more distinct kinds of clouds, 1 
assume with complete confidence that similar mo. 
tions and differences of specific gravity have 
operated in the production of those atmospheric 
clouds. 

It must be distinctly understood that in this first 
step we are dealing only with dynamical causes, 
that is, with simple force and moOon. Liquids are, 
in many respeets, very unlike gases, the latt«r be- 
ing chiefly distinguished by the property of elasti. 
city; but in the atmosphere this property cannot 
be directly productive of motion or force, or even 



the modtflcBlion of motion or force, because the 
air being only confined by the superincumbent air 
ia always at perfect freedom to assume the density 
and elastic force due to the pressure of that air. 
Elasticity is, as it were, always te^-a^utting, and 
never called into play, so that free air will resemble 
in its motions a very rare liquid, and any part of 
the atmosphere will be subject, I Heel confident, to 
the same hydrodynamical laws as the interior of a 
body of liquid. 

3. But it ia quite another thing to show whence 
the forces which modify the forms of clouds are 
derived. In our miniature experiments such con- 
ditions are known beforehand, because wa have 
prepared our liquids of difierenl specific gravities, 
by dissolving various weighed quantities of some 
heaTy soluble substance in water, and we can pro- 
ject the solutions thus prepared into each other, 
with any desirable velocity or direction, by the aid 
of a simple apparatus, to be presently described.., 
But to explain, according to the known but com- 
plex properties of the almoBphere, the origin of 
those differences of specific gravily, and of those 
motions which we have established to exist in the 
formation of a cloud, is a distinct and more dilfi. 
cult part of the subject. 

4. In the atmosphere we deal with what we may 
term the three lUftearologiral Elements, (the term 
element, of course, not being used in its restricted 
or chemical sense) via. — 

1. AlB. 2. WaTBB. f 3. HEAt. 

Every complicated change which heat, .itself only 
a mode or disguised form of force, may occasion m 
air or water, and every disturbing efiect which air ■ 
and water, the latter in no less than three distinot 
forms, the solid, liquid, and gaseous, may mutually ■ 
have upon each other, will have to be taken into 
consideration before we can lay down the tWfl 
causa of an atmospberie cloud, as completely •» wa 
can announce the conditions of our miniature OMU 
I will, first of ail, describe the construetioa of 
my apparatus, and the mode in which the liquid 
experiments are ronducled ; after which we mnit, 
I am afraid, go over the principal properties 'irf' ait 
and water in relation to heat. We shall then be in 
a position to discuss in particular several of tha 
more distinct forms of clouds, attaining finally to 
that sublime phenomenon, a thundercloud. 
Thb Section-Olass. 

5. The instrument which I employ may be con- 
veniently termed a Seclion-glau, because it contains 
a thin section of liquid, which ia supposed to repre- 
sent a section of the atmosphere. It condsts of 
two sheets of plate-glass (about 18 inches by 14), 
which, being let into two plain wooden frames, can 
be so screwed together, face to face, as to form a 
water-tight vessel, containing an internal space of 
the uniform width of about § inch. This being 
filled with water, we have a thin layer or section of 
liquid, of which the minutest motions or changes 
can be conveniently detected and observed, ei^er 
by means of the small particles of sediment floating 
in it, or by the production of a precipitate of chio. 
ride of silver, of which the component parts, silver 
and chlorine, are contained in distinct portions of 
ibe liquid. In the latter case, a pure white film, 
or streak of cloud, will appear wherever the two 
solutions undergo mixture, or merely come into 
contact ; and the almost infinite variety of grace- 
fully curved lines, and of curious and complicated 
Forms thus produced, give, I think, a lively interest 



MA0A2INE OP SCIBNCE AND AET. 



to these experiinenU, nhil? leading us, aa I hope 
In ahoK, to the Dnderstnniling of analogoua moTc- 






e imporlanl 



6. One 01 mote g[ssa lubaa may be inlroduced 
in any desimble paaitioDs into the 8eclitiQ-glt».i, 
through 4ptnvea cut in the appoaite fnecs of iht 
wooden frame ; and numeroua currenta of liquid, 
varying aa required in velocity, volume, or quaalitj, 
direction, temperature, density, 8!c., may tliuE be 
introduced, so that their eomplei motions and re- 
action! may be observed in the most convenient 
manner. It is found very easy to render the whole 
^(ertight, if a thin continued band of comnai 
slaliera putti/ he laid round between the level aur 
&ee« of the wooden frames before they are sersvn 
together — the tubes required for the experiment ii 

- preparation being likewiae embedded in the aame 
^Ooe of Ihe glass < plates has heen engraved by 
means of hydrofluono acid, with two aeries of recl- 
aiigular linea at the uuifotm distance of one inch ; 
these affbrd in every part a Eied line of reference 
to detect the ilighteat motiaos of the enclosed 
' Uquld, ai nell aa to meaaure the ral« or extent of 

that motion, if -— , 

*The accesBory apparatua, auch aa tubes, flinnela. 
atop-oooka, &o., will be at once understood bom 
Fig. I., in which the instrument is arranged 
ft chiefly employed. 

7. The liquids uaed conalst of the following 
dilute solutioiia, 

cr contnininz one vat ,. 

(Na. C 2). 
ainmg one part in SOOO of 
of silver (Ag. O. No. 5). 
aol'ution, containing one- 
lighl of ordinary white sugar, 
of about the same specific gra.- 
Bhen they mis, a white preoipi- 
£ of silver (chemical cymbot Ag C 1), 
which, |}ii}uj:1i perfectly diMlnot, ia so thin and im- 
p.ilpabk' as tu remain a long time suspended in the 
water, the motinns of which its weight doea not 
perceptibly influence. Known quantities o^Ihe 
rhinl Bululion arc, however, ,idded to either oFthe 
two former, with Ihe object of producing such dif- 
ferences of apeoiflo gravity aa farm the required 
ooDditions of the experiment. 

S- A little reflcclion will shew that the whole 

variety of pheilomeua which may be produced by 

the experimental anangenients described nhove, 

reiuh from only twO tsspitial tariable conditiona. 

Ist. Originally impressed mfmrntuni or i-e- 

2a(i. Grmilg, which ia called into play when- 
ever we use two liquids differing, however 
slighily, in apecific gravity, but which doei nol 
in tht least i^cet the infernal motiont of aper- 
* fimtly hemogerUBus fluid. 

It is true we employ certain chemical aalta, and 

<|re,fhAll kiso work with liquids of different temper. 

I 1^^ ; but it muat be borne in mind throughout 

^^^ there are mere dn^jcei for rendering the motions 

^^^e liquids visible, or the latter for altering their 

-StSiSe giAvitiei temporarily. What T wish to iin- 

Wcw is, thai all experiments which I ahall deaoribe 

^^gonaltatu ttie reault of the 

jjwejcaloni-. ^Vilh this objei 

.jCifher chenitiiil or phyaical forces is, as far . 

Bible, cxclmleil. nnd it is neceasary that Ihey 




raaeERTiEa of the Atmospdei 

9. Having uow described the apparatus, 'hy the 
uae of which we may discover what conditions of 
force and motion produce a given appcaranoe ii: 
liquid, a aecond step still remaina to be consider 
with reapGot to the clouds, namely, how to tranilale 
these conditiona, so to speak, into the langiuge of 
the atmosphere. In other words, we must s ' 
data for the minor prnaiso of every syllogism, 
which wc would prove the real nature of a cloud. 
Given motiona will produce a given form of cUiOd. 
What ace the meteorological CDnditionsDf th^«t- ' 
mospbere which will occasion sueh 'motion, add, 
therefore, lead to iTie appearance of auch a oloud ? 

"The data upon which we must do this can only 
be those for the most part long established aud 1 
widely known, but so complex ate the caiOeB and 
elfecta which operate in the atmosphere, that even ' 
if all members of the society were acquainted with 
the subject, it would still ba an ad' ^ ^ 

over the chief points suecinctly before entering 
upon a discussion in which they are involved. 

10. It ia by th« reactions of Ihe three meteor 
logical elemenls. Air. Water, and Heat, that a 
only all Ihe phenomena of clouda, but alao.Ae 
whole body of facts of which Ihe science of Meteo- 
rology is composed, are occasioned. We mkf boa- 
aider them as follows ; — ' 

lat. The action of heat upon Air, " ^_ 

Znd. The action of heat upon Waier. r,_j- ' 

3rd. The mutual iater&rcDce;) of Air ai ' 

Water, ' 

1 1. The flhirf property of air, a permajien(^»i^ 
is its e(BJii(!iis). by virtue of which il c"~*'~ "" 
tands to ^ead itself out in ever j 

measure trfthia elaalielty, or the el . , _ 

reotly proportional to the degree in which the (endd 
is restricted, or to the amalltwaa of the apace ml 
which the air is confined, 01, as It may also lie ^- 
pressed, the elaatie force is proportion to Sh^ 
Bpeoiflc gravity or density, because the yeif^jj^tr. 
given portion, of air always remains Ihe santt,*!)^ ' 
ever apace it roav occupy. 

Thus in a vast body of air, like the 1 
the weight of ihe upper parli compress 
parts, and increases their elastic force and densiQ'. 
In aacending into Ihe almosphcre, therefore, the si 
will ahvays be found to become less and less densi , 
and the barometer, which measures the elastic Ji|ree| 1 
wiU fell at some regular rale. The simple rule u, 
that at each point the elaatic force ia prOpordpaal 
to the weight of that part of the atmosphere iSieh 
lies above the point, and il would, therrfore, be 
very easy to calculate the exact density and elutic 
force of the atmosphere at every elevation, 1ml for 
the complex interference of the element hsat, 
which wc muat now conaider. 

.12. The only action of heat upon air, is lo cauae 

inchea of air, at 32 degrees, become 492 inches at 
S3 degrees, 403 at 34 degrees, and so on ; that ia to 
aay, air, as well aa all other gaseous bodies, expand 
for each degree of Fahrenheit's themiometer 
I -4H1sl part of the volume they would have at the 
freezing paint. But thia expansion only takes 
place, of contae, it they are allowed additional 
space to expand into, so that their elastic force 
shall remain the aame. Suppoaing one cubic loot 
r to be eneloaed in an air-tight vessel, and to 
lied ; aa the weight of Ihe air, and the aisa of 
pace remain unchanged, the density of the air 
u eannol vary, but in lending lo expand for- 



^^ ther t; 



HA&AZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



thet thufl before the el as 

against the aidea ol 

n opening he niide i 

aCil its eUalio Soicn 

I natnisl amount i 



irwill n 



. ;f 



been redueed 
it is plain that Che 
specific graiily at' the air has diminislied, since, 
while the IoIrI space remains the same, the weight 
of air within it has been iteeteased by the quantity 
whiah has nished out. Such are the simple, but 
often perpiciing, relations of volume or Epaoe, 
elaalic force or pcesaui'e, and specific graviQr or 
density, aa afieoted by graiity arm hy heat, 

13. But we must eonsider not only the natuie of 
Ae efieet* of heat, but also the degree, quantita- 
tively, in which any given amount of calaric or 
he*t will produce dieee efTects. Each substance 
h^ a particular capacity, or so to speak, an appe- 
tite' for heat, called, in scientific language, its 
ipecific heat. These capaeities for heat express (lie 
relative quantities of caloric or heating power, 
which are required to produce equal apparent effects 
in difi*erent substances, as measured by the Iher. 

Now, the specific heat of air is not always the 

«ame, it dependB entirely npon the rarity or den- 

iii^ of the air, and increoBea in some ratio as the 

density decreases. If wo take two equal weights of 

!■ ait, and enclosing the one in a vessel of one cubic 

foot of space, allow the other to expand into a vcs- 

U ^1 0^ say, twice the size, and if we then apply a 

) ^^niform source of heat tn both, it would be found, 

supposing a sufficient delicacy attainable in so 

rough an refinement, that the vessel in which the 

air was most expanded (viz., the two cubic-foot 

Tessel) would take a longer time thui the other, to 

. ■ 9Be through 1 degrees of Fahrenheif* scale for 

.milanoe. Dense air has less appetite /or, or ab- 

aorhs less heat than "rarefied air, but the ratio in 

/which the specific heat thus inereaaas with the 

, Varety is so difficult to determine experimentally, 

1 "dat I beEeve it has never yet been satii&eCorily 

, Jsicomnliahed, or perhaps scarcely attempted, 

* 14. But what will be the efl'ect. now, of this vari. 
■tion of the specific heat, if, instead of applying 
heat or cold, we merely vary the density of a bpdy 
oCair, by applying or withdrawing pressure. When 
the air is compressed, its capacity for heal is dimin- 
ished ; it can no longer contain as much as before, 
sjid a portion of heat may be actually said to be 
iqutezrd oBt. What was befbre latent heat, becomes 
sensible heat, and causes a rise of temperature, or 
intaneify of heat, as measured by the thennoineter. 
Air, in fact, closely resembles a moist sponge, 
whiob may look as if almost dry, until, on being 
pteased, water appears at every part, and perhaps 
TUns off it. The moisture which nas latent, or 
hidden in the sponge, beoomea sensible, when the 
^sarptivenesB is decreased. 

But what, on the other hand, will be the effect 
Opon air if we withdraw pressare, and allow it to 
eipand Bum its own elastic force! Obviously tlic 
reverse. Its capacity tor beat will increase, and 
the same apparent temperature cannot be main, 
tained, because it would, therefore, indicate an in. 
cieased total amount of caloric, a supply of which 
is not forthcoming. The sensible temperature 
must, thcrefotf, fall, and heat will appear to be ab- 
lorbed, oi tttn^lered latent, just as muiilure is again 
absorbed wSeA pressure is withdrawn fi-om the 
sponge. The one becoming apparently dry, is ana- 
logoiu to the other beconijug apparently cold. 
IS, We can now understand the iulerfetence 



which the variation of specific heat occasions in 
the almospliere, which, as 1 have said, uniformly 
diminishes in density tlie higher vre ascend into it- 
A eubio foot of air, if gradually raised tiom the 
surface, would as gradually tend to increase in vo- 
lume, G-nm the diminution of pressure, until on 
arriving at the upper limit of the- atmosphere, it 
would expand into an almost indefinite space. Ita 
specific heat would, eoneequeotly, rise in a verj 
great ratio, heat would be absorbed in large quan- 
tities, and the sensible temperature fall gradually, 
but to an almost indefiuite extent. It is commonly 
said, that the temperature decreases in the atmos- 
phere at the rate of one degree Fahrenheit for eieiy 
100 yards of ascent; but this rule probably does 
not hold true to any great height. Aa it is clear, 
that the variation qf temperature must affeot the 
otherwise simple relation of apecifie gravity luelaa. 
tic force, it will be seen that the gradation of all 
the properties of the atmosphere are mutually de- 
pendent in so complicated a manner, as almost ti> 
defy the solution of the problem. Philosophers 
are even now divided, like two parties of poLiti- 
ciana, upon the rather fundaiuental point, whether 
the atmosphere is definitely terminated above, or 
indefinitely extended. 

16. The similitude of a moial sponge may be, 
with advantage, further dwelt upon. It is usual to 
liken the atmosphere to a huge pile of eottoa.wool, 
of which the higher portions, though light and 
flocky, compress the lower parts, by their accumu- 
lated weight, into dense layers. UwE can imagine 
a vast heap of moist sponges, we shall have a rough 
analogy, not only to the gradation of pressure, but 
also to the gradation of temperature, for the lower 
layers of sponge, strongly compressed by Che super-, 
inoumbent weight, will exhibit much apparent 
' ' the lower parts of the atmoapheie 



jxhibit 



■ appari 



The V 



presaible nature of water would retard ths i 
presaion in the lower layers of sponge, just as Qis 
increased sensible temperature must tend to do in 
the ut. 

IJ. Having now Explained the relation of heat 
tojiir, we must eonsider the eyen more complex 
eifecta which heat produces in the condition of 

Whatever the temperature of water, or of ice, it 
always exhibits a tendency lu expand into ths 
gaseous form, or to give off aqueous vapour. This 
expansive tendency, or eiaitic fora, is, howeTsr, of 
an exactly limited amount; at the freezing point it 
is just equal to two-tentha of an inch depth of mer- 
cury, or to the l-150th part of the average pressure 
of the Btmosphero at the surface of the earth. It 
increases, however, very rapidly with the tempera, 
ture, in fact, at a very much quicker ratio than the 
latter, so that 212 degrees, the elastic force of ( 
taponr, is equal lo 30 inches of mercury, or to the ■ 
whole pressure of the atmosphere, and the water is 
an the point of bailiiig. 

18. There is a point of the Bobjccl here which it 
is of the utmost importance to understand com- 
pletely, although it is by no means easy to explain 
it clearly, namely, that the elastic force with which 
the surface of liquid or solid wnttr ttnd^ to thrttu 
of oapour, is quite di-tinct ftoin the elastic force 
which that rapour, after once attaiiiing thL' gasecus 
ion, and becoming removed from the contaiil 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



with the 



1 alascia 



liKat, it. will tenii to expand 

pcratiire at esuctlj the aanie rale lHal Bit 

paad, or, Ha ic 19 oouftued, will eiarb 

ioiea, iaareased at (hs ernna coiiBtaiit ta 

pens with air, or ftDyother permiinonii gas. This 

19, howaTer,_ a very different thing from the rapid 
nte at vhicfa the force risen wheu additiauol 
mtar U preaeut, baoame in this oaee a aiaab 
larger qaontity of wiitsr U leaUj coaeerted into 
Tapour, instead of the finit taken portion of vu- 
ponr BSBrting its own inoreaBed oxpaiiBiva foroa 
alone. By the elrtslir favce of mpaur at moh-Mid- 
eneh a tempetatiiro, it, thocafore, always moant, 
the foroa with which it ia thrown oS from the 
ptirfioB of water at that tampemturo, which is 
tho same, of conrae, sa the masimam force which 
it will ultiniatel; exert agaiuBt thtt eidoi of any 
canGning veaaal. 

It may be well to dlKtingnieh tho two Boneaa of 
eltintic force, aa the iielual elaatio foroe, and the 
posiihie elntlic force, the lattar being, of coucja. 
iha marimum foroo, duo to a given tampocatni . . 

IB. Bat what if wo take a quantity of gaaeona 
Tspoor, and cool it! If its elastic force irero 
originally lesa than the maximum, wiiich it might 
and would be, were water preBSnt, it may for 
some lima remain in the gaeeona state. Bat ta 
the temperature falU, tho m^zimnm force due to 
BQeli tomperature also falls very rapidly, while 
tbe actaal elastic force of any given quantity of 
vapont only diminiehm, at tha alow and consUnt 
rate of a permanent gas. It is, therefore, avi- 
evident, that at sume doterminotB temperature, 
the acliml force will equal, and afterwHrds begin 
to eiOBCii the imulmmn puuibte foroa. The result 
which inovitabl; fallows ii, that a determinate 
portion of the aqueous vapour \a conden^d inta 
tha liquid form, and the elaetic preBBore of the 
temajnder being, aa it were, thereby relieved, this 
remainder may continue gaseoua, exerting of 
CaaiM tha ma-rhiiam jirmare due to the tempera- 
ture, natilafartber reduction of the latter nocea- 
sitaM B further condeusation. 

20. All theee effects are produced solely by 
heat; but we must also notice bow muoh hiut'iti 
required to produce them. When water is onii- 
verted into aqueoua vapour, a large quantity of 
beat is absorbed and reduced to a latent or imper. 
capCible aondiCioti. Tba oxaot amount of this 
latent heat varioa somewhat according to t' 
porature at which the converaion takes pit 
it is sufficient for as to remember that it ii 
large amouatg and that, in fact, as mnch heat 
would be requirad to convert a cubic iach of 
tar into Taponr as would roLie it, if it could be 
retained in the liquid form, by 1000 degrees of 
FahrenheitVi Boale. 

When a body of water throwa off aqneotts va- 
pnur, it must supply this Intent heat by the 
reduotion of its own sensible temperature. And 
in order that vapoar may again be condensed, it 
Is necessary that there should be some cold bod; 
presont to withdraw this heat. To show the im. 
portaut bearing of this point, I will just remark 
that, wben a given quantity of rata water fiills to 
the surface of the aarth, it mtut have left behind 
it in the air, a very large but detorminate quan- 
tity of heat, the effects of which are inteiesiinif 
and important to the subjec'. 

So long as vapour retains its gateous form, tho 
qaanl^tits ot heat rpi^uired to raiso its totiipern- 
tare are oipieased, relatively to ulhrr gnwi, by 



it. spociGc heat, or oapacity for heat ; butwoni 
only romenjbar. that when aquBoos vapour is i 
panded ur compreniBed, tbespeuiSa beat duesi 
altar so much as with uir, whtoh likewise osTi<iea 
tha sensible t«nperatare not i 
rapidly. For instance, if the wbota atmosphere 
were eompoied of aqueous vaponra, it ii eaid its 
temperatara would i.ot fall more than 3 dej^ses 
for every 5000 feet of aacent, instead of I dagrwa 
for every 300 feet, as is the case with air. (Danioll.) 

21. Having now a sufficient oomprehenrit 
the changes whinh air and water nndergo hj tba 
indnonue of heat. We have only to oonaidor their 
mutual relation. 

Of course, when water is either in the liquid 
or the solid state, it is of so much higher a speui- 
liu ^avitj than air, that it will always tend to 
link rapidly through tha latter. If the liquid 
water be divided, however, into vary minute pur- 
ticles, these will subside so elnwly, as to appear 
Huspended. and alojost sCationerj in the ur. This 
is, I think, the whole mystery of the euapension 
of olouds in tho air, thonj-h Bome eminent persona 
have thought it neceasary to propound various 
peculiar theories en the subject. Indeed, auy 
alight difficulty of conception which may be felt 
ia completely got over, it a diligent examina^n 
of the clouds discloses, as, I think, many appear- 
ances which prove that cloud -par tides do eubsido 
wherever there are no oountaraoting foroes. 

22. It is again not an easy task to make clear 
the relation of gaaeona air to gaseous vapour. It 
Ts generally said that they are independent of each . 
other, and that the one does not fill the roinn of 
thu other. This is no doubt true, ullimately. ThuA . 
almost the aame quantity of vapour will rise ?titt?>' 
a cubic Ibot of space, whether that apace be prat. ■ 
yiouBly vacuous or filled with air of any dciuitri i 
in both cases the vapour will ultimately press /j 
against the aides of the containing vessel, with. il« t. , 
iximum force appropriate to the temperatufef > 
! oaae this elaaHe force will constitute the 
jreSBure within the veasel ; in the other cas?* 
be added to the original elastic force of the 
wever great that may be. 
though it would thus appear that air and 
vapour do not m the least inlerBominunicate their 
presanres, they have the power of impeding each 
[liber's motions to an indefinite extent. If walei* 
he placed in a vacuum, vapour will rise from it, 
and inatantaneously fill the whole space; and 
although nearly the same quantity of vapour would 
undoubtedly rise were air present, the evaportttiim 
ivould, in diis case, go on comparatively slowly, 
ind the more slowly, the greater the density of tho 
lir. Particles of air, we may suppose, impede the 
moving particles of vapour, muoh like particles of, 
land in a filter impede but do not aotnally restrain 
*■" "- flowing between thi 



I. The 



1 of i 






iphere ia hast expressed, I tbin^, by saying 
that tliey are entangled together i and that, thongh 
quite independent so far aa ultimate uniform 
difliision and equiliTirinm are concemeil, diey 
impede each other in arriving at this condition of 

The general effect of thia in the atmosphere is, 
that whatever change befalls a portion of ' ' 
change nmst likewise affect the 



■M 



1 



Straiobe Cioiid. 
21. Having now ouncluded s stnteiuuDl uf those 
properties of ihs ■tmoHphtn-e wliicli fuim the tan- 
daxneutnt dati uf Meleoiology, I might allenipt to 
expisin in a >;rBlemsl!a and d friori manner the 
scries of phenaiiiena which must ennie. To draw 
out, in fiiDt, BBort of history of the movement anrf 
changes which ft particle of water usually under- 
goea, or might undergo, tVom its flrat evapnration 
at the nufaceof the earth 01 sea, to its final pre. 
cipitation as rain or dew, in a high or low region 
of the air, a hig:her oi lower latitude n( the nrth't 
SarhcB, or in a multitude of varying circumstancea. 

tD-night, witli debcribing a few pliaiet of this 
physioal hietury, with regard to which I have some 
BUggCBtions, derived from expeiimeats with the 
sectioii glass to offer. 

2S. OfthainimeJiatc causes of the precipitation 
of aqueous vapour intn watery pirtiolea or cloud 
(for the sate of that great desideratum In a cam- 
plicated subject like the present, na>inety,ilutiBC(iieH 
of expraaon, I ehall always use the adjective, 
aqueous, when speaking of walei in the ga«euus, 
and watery, when in the liquid state) one of the 
most important is that first eirplained long since by 
Dt; Hulton, namely, that when two portions of 
«ir, eaturated or nearly saturated with vapour, but 
of different temperatures, are mixed together, the 
\ whole of the vapour can nu longer be maintained 
in the gaseous state, 

.28. It has been stated (17) that the poaeible 
plastio foree of aqueous vapour increases with the 
tamperatuie, but at a much more rapid pace than 
Ae latter. If, then, a cubic foot of aqueuus 
lapour at tiO degrees be mixed with a cubic foot of 
v^oui at 40 degrees, the mixed vapour will, we 
should BuppoBe, possess the el.iatic force which is 



denEntion of a part will have much !?es effect iu 
warming the whole mixture of air and vapour than 
it had beforu in warming the vapour alone, or we 
may say, with very little eiTor, that the elastic 
force of the vapour in the mixed air must be 
reduced tilt it e^nala that due to the mean tem- 
perature, which the air alone Mould natarally 
assume. This reduction will be seen above tA 
equal '022-iDch of Mercurial pressure (about l.ZOftth 
part of the whole) which represents the qumtity of 
vapour Doadeiiaed into cloudy matter. 

28. Having now a distinol physical cause for 
the production of cloud, it remalna ibr expertinenta 
with the tieotiun-glass to show what form or forms 
such cloud may assume. Mixture cannot go on. 
without motion, and every form thus depending- 
upon dynamical considerations alone may nn- , 
doubledly be initialed with liquids. 

Now the only t\^o distinct cases of mixtuie are 



s follows 



if fluid moving 01 



force at the highest te 
' great, the mean elastic lorce cann 
the mean temperature (50), but ti 
nearly two degrees higher: thus — 

Elastic force at fiO dcg. -618 in. Mer. 



isdispropnrlionately 
1 temperature 



Mean ela 
Elas.Corc, 
Differe 



, (va 



.-■to , 



,n.) 



■247 

■022 



If the vapour were to remain entirely unoon- 
densed, it would behave with regard lo temperature 
like any other gas. The mixed gas would assume 
the meau temperature (£0 deg.) of the two equal 
eoniponent portions. We have here, then, this 
incompatibility, that the elastic force of the mixed 
vapour Dorresponds to the full elastic force of the 
temperature of 61'6 degrees, while the actual 
temperitture of the mixture is only SO'O degrees. 
Under these circumstances, a certain proportioa of 
the vapour must necessarily be condensed into 
watery particles. The elHstie force of the remaining 
vapour is thus relieved, and its sensible tempera- 
ture Is at the same time raised by the latent heat 
given out in condensation, and the two discordant 
amounts, meeting each other half-way, so to speak, 
soon come to i^reemsnt. 

27. But this ia not exactly the case, if the two 
Filbiu feet of vapour he mixed or evtaaghd, as 1 
have said, (3li) with two cubic feet of air, at the 
temperatu'ea of 60 and 40 degrees. The mixed 
air, of course, BsaumeB the mean temperature of 
50 d^eea, and the vapour in contact nith it must 
have Ihe same leinperatute. In Ihis case the coa- 



2nd. A dense stratum placed above a lower 
one of less specific gravity. 
2fl. Tha Brat oaae is represantad in fig. II. A 
oitoular glass vecael (employed merely instead of 
the Esotiou -glass) oonCains two strata of water, of 
whioh the upper ono. cantaining only a trace of 
commna salt in solntion, was Grstponred in ; the 
BBOond Btrattim, whiah contains about 2 parts in 
lU.DOU of Bu^ar, in addition to a trace of nitrats 
of silver, being then cirofully introduced beneath 
it, b; toeans of a tnhe funnel properly adjitited. 

30. Tha quantity of sngar, though miunte, tbs, 
ittlScient to produce a diiTerence of BpeciSc 
gravity in favonc of the stratum last added, 
which, therefore, lies in a tranqnil harinontal 
layer at tbe bottom of the glass. Bat it is im- ,. 
possible (hat the two strata Bhonld not benomu 
more or less mechanically mixed, in the opera- 
tion of pouring in; and the mixed liijnjd, 
posHeBsing, of ooaiiss, intermediate compositloli 
and iatermediata speciSc gravity, wilt settia 
itself into a horizontal intermediate stratum. 
The white praoipitate of chloride of eilver, whioh 
is neoessarily extended through it, form a hori- 
zontal ttriilose or sheft-like clnod. The dynamical 
cooditiaQH of this form of cloud, wo may theraCore 
announce to ba two strata, such as will cania 
olond by their inCermixturo, arranged in etutile 
equilibrinm, bnt aioBed to pine at their hori- 
zaotal dividing snrfLUia by friction or other me- 
ohanical meoas. 

31. This niiniatnrB olood reprosanta wbat 
meteorologists call by Howard's expressive nams 
of ':tralits. Miste, nbich lie in their horizonUiI 
sheets above the gronnd at night are all that 
are nsuailj comprehonded nnder the term, as 
far as I can understand, and these are produced 
by air, alter being; cooled by powerful terrestrial 
radiation from (he tops of the hills, fiuwiof; 
down into the Tallies by virtne of iU iaoreascd 
BpeoiQc giavitj, and (here mixing with other 
moist bub less cooled portians of air. Btit aa 
olonds Tory frequently appear at Rreab elevatioua 
iu tha atmosphere, possessing tha same sheet- 
like form, and invariably horizaatal portion, I 
do not hesitate to asoribe them to (he same 
produaing caose, viz., the Mc(ional mixtnrs of 
onrrents, and to inolnde Chem tmder the term 

U will be uadpratood that thery is nothing 



168 



MA0AZIN8 OF SCIBSOE AND AST. 



•mentiilty new in whiC I bivo anid abnat the 
si.ratn*. The eKplnoBtiun of IliiB olnnd hoB lonr 
bevn given, nud il U nnly iotrndnced bero for 
tbs rak« uf Eihilffing tbnt tha Motioa-gluu 
[lii]iilir»ia i kiiawii ^T., bef^irn CmHtlng to 
giildanoe in tineiplured part* of the xubject. I 
■uv pniceed In a aloud of graaler beast; and ii 
liriiiir. nnmelj. tba Cirrui, 

32. The aeDDnd case in wbirh Qr. Hotton's tbeoi; i 

Dpper of twD HtTata bappenA to bave tlie trrsater qpecitk 
gravity. II IB here evident Ibai equiulitium caooot 
(ontinue for soy length of timr ; the npper stratum 
ibeibU £'mm tbe efl'ect of mere gravitr, desi^nd ChroB^h 
aud r1»|ilare the lower one. caanng; at leut paitul 
miitnre of iho two. The nppearencea which will result 
are cuncJusively fib^urtained irom tbe foUevriag e^eci- 
«.«. (8»«,.m,l 

JW, A liquid is prepared consisting of pure watei 
with itr;u:euf commuaEalt,aiidl part in lOOOof Bugai 
dUsolvfd in it, Alwr this bus been heati^d to tbe tem- 
;•! of abont 100 dcg. F.ihrenlieit, it is plBced in a 



>n-glas; 



d by D 



,uid is carefnUy 
introdDiKd at tbe bellDm of the glaas, being pnie water, 
at tbe eidinary tcmpemtore and containing mily a tiace 
of nicrnte ofmlTei inaolDtiao, 

34 A white precipitate uf dilaride of silver, of pa- 
cn]iarap]>eBrance.wilUtoDce begin to form. Bmail 
sti-eams in the shape of threads or cnrious bands will 

fa! manner. After a time the middle of the glass wiM 
be filled by a dense and fonfused, btrt still libroas. ruass 
efclond. which will prabably soon extend itself to thq 
bottom : bnt Uierc will now also be seen witbtbe ;reat- 
«t dktinctneM numbera of theae small patallol Ihreadi 
BKending and reaching nearly to the anr&c« of the 

I Bpiiec itralam, nf considerable lengtb, and ending to 

> evanocent ixiints. The ■lightest circular motion or 

ditCnrbance commnnicated to tho strata will canse tbese 

fibres to assume ail sorts of curced iiad fleiuons forma, 

'vMcb, bowBVer. in general still maintain their parallel- 
ism. Any pDlson whs has remarked tbe common ap- 
jiearancB of tha Cirma in tho atmospbore cannot balp 

tri^tb of the theorr which I am explaining mnst hb uL' 
lowed almost enttrel]' to rest. 

35. If we corapnre this mim'Htnre cirma with tbe 
ministDi'e stratnB (fig, ii. 29) before ei]ilained. the 

contritions consists in the inversion nf the light and 
dense strata, wo are at oaix led to the conclusiun that 
difierent portions of liquids may from tbe effects of lory 
slight differences of specifio giavity alooo be caused to 
mix and pass into each other in tbe form of minute 
etrroae stream Iota. In the eiiieriment this happens in 
the following manner :— The dpnuitv of the first added 
liqnid is not so much increased bv tho addition of sugar 
as it is diminished liy being w'Brmed to 100 deg. of 
tempcratore. and it the crforo lies at first in a tranquii 
boria>ntal stratum above the eold liquid. Bnt It can- 
not long remain so, for wherever tbe two strata are in 
contact they must communicate their heat and tend to 
tasume a mean temperature ; and it is evident chat 
wbeuBvar this is the case, tbe pottiDtiB of liquid oon- 
taining sa^ must always be sbgbtly denser than those 
which are free from it, and moat consequently sink 
below and displace tbe latter. We ebatl thus have 

lower, and corresponding portions of the lower rising 
through ike upper. Thus are produced peculiar small 
liqmd threads or streamletB, which represent, I believe, 
the distinct fibres of cirrose cloud. Tbe scCtoti may 
best be described as tbe inifr-fiitrolion of ttrala. 
3G. It should be clearly nndcrstfloil that ^e diffar- 






nce of temperature of the strata in thi 
lot a matanal point, being simply a n 
mployed to enable us tu lay one stiali 
ipon another of a aligbtlv greolat dem 
nay alteiiiardg sbserro the miiing process and changi 



beyond its narrow and Icgitjoate 
and the farces producing those 

least analogy between the origin c 



'o translate, indeed, tli 



e drive 



le nngle supposttii 
tbe higher Is sligl 



. Lgher IS slightly the colder. 

nitration of the two will then iwdoubtedly ensi 

will produce cirrose fibres of cloud according to tbo ' 

Sinclple a( pTfCipiliition iy mtitur;, discovert byb. 
ntton. It might be thanfht tbat this theory of the 
cirrus should also include the cause or variety of cauaea 
which may dispose a body of air with tbe colder and 
' ' ' idilion of things which it is, I 



mate cause in the case of tbe pure and isolated c ._ 
which often appKU in very elavated paiis of the al- 
tnospbeie in the infinitely varied fiirms of fibrona 4 
tahiips, branchee, icralh, Ac, Bak when the ci 
appears in connection with other clouds, and forma ( 

tfaunderclood. I hope to offer some reasonable sag; 
iditions of its jirodnction. 



: ought to 



' oppon 



expressed upo' 
England ; but from tlie 
on which it is fonnded, ' 
substantial truth, as not 
but to follow out the sat 
exienmvfl and dilBi 



Philosophical Magasiue," i 
ire it is supported by argnm 
^ven above. I have unfortanUely 
I of learning what oninion, if my, 
circles of 
itursi prininpIcB 



confiden 

it forward »gaa. 



Cdbuldb. 

frequently than any other kind, a 
structure and nsually large volume 
large proportion of the b 



irolofflcal w 



ire, I believe, mor 
complete, I thinli it 
, to enter fully ' 



_,..,, , nuj with th« 

umulaa, we cannot possibly underftond tbe Gnmnln- 
tiatusortbethnndercloud. 

39. Tbe pure cnmulu: is a simple raundish or hemu- 
berical heap of cUnd-matter extending itself inwards 
mm a horiiontal base, and appearing myaterionBly 
iispended quite apart from all other clouds at a mode- 
ite distance iiam tha surface of (ha eaith. In thiB 
lire form it occurs only during tha day, aud tlus fart 
>ads to the supposition, well supported by the observa- 
.on of its usual form, and tbe cuiioas internal nfotiuis 
birh it often exhibits, that it is occasioned by upward 
arrenta of airnriginatang itthe surface of the earth, 
ha air leceivES from the surface with which it is in 
mtact beat and moisture, which have both tbe eSect of 
iduciog its dsaaity i the first, of course, by expansion. 
IS second by reason of the low specific gravity of 
aqueous vapour. This warm air at tbe surface will, 
therefore, tend to rise upwards througb tbe cold aod 
denser stratum immodiatelir abovo it, and cold ur tron 
tust simultaneously sink downwards towards the 






npply tl 






hm 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



40, Bm tliia double notion cannot take place nnj- 

cannot pau directlj throagh evib othor. As must al- 
mosl cerlainl;' happen, >oms Utile drcnmsttscs vill 
uLuse thi) wnna ud ligbt ajr to aciiamiilata at aome 
paiticuJax spot mors than over the surroanding Bni&ce. 
Atthatipot ita bnojant teadencf Kill Is bd Tar in- 
croB«d m to soablo it to foita iM way npwarii Uirough 
thi> ^perincurabQoc atratum of «>ld air, and chrimgh 
&u jiaflsaire, once formed, other nnghbniiiing portions 
of warmer, colleOitig themselves tagettier by a Uteral 
motina, nill Bow in a, raetirmoia. nscendiag stream, 
Adjoitiinir void and dense air wiU at ths Kame time 
descend IP eentrarj distinct onmatfi to the Burfiice. 



oil! nil Che I 



va<:atsd b; 



wanned by contact with that aatiacs. 

Urity than might tie bupiuned, as loog aa'tho iariaca of 
the earth commanicatea lieat to tho air above it, and 
fnrniBboa auffitiant supplies of warm and buoyant air to 
the ascending currents. Such currants may ibrce their 
way upwards thraogh the atrnDsphere to a voiy ^at 
heii^ht. flowing honneen watle. as it wore, of eold and 
denser (dr almost as they micht How np the cbininey of 
a hooso. Similar curranta, 1 should observe, inay he 

trodueed in any body of liquid by applying heal to fbe 
iwar part ; and if we insert a glass tube acniai the 
lower part of the setlion-gtasB and pass hot water 
Ibrongb it. the motions of the liquid within the section- 

cnlatingaction vtiiicb goes ou in the lower parts of the 
Btmorohera daring the day, resulting, except dnring 
"Wry drv weafiier, m the productiun of tumulus. 

■tl. Now what are the changes whieh the 
ternnl condition uf the ait mnat undei^o, 
aseeuding ? As a body of air tises, the cotumn of 
the atmospliete pressing upou it hecottics less and 
less; and therefore presses with s rapidly dimin- 
ishing; weight. The elastii! force of the ascendiog 
»ir, of COilrie, causes it to expand, and to diminish 
in density at about the same uniform rule which 
the density of the atmosphere exhibits in every 
other locality. Expansion, as hai before been 
■hewn, (14) occasions the abaorplion 
that a volume of warm air rising upv 
atmosphere must alowjy sink in tempi 
aweils in volume. The rate of this decrease of 
temperate has been rougly asccrlaiiied for a long 
time, and is said to be about one degree for every 
100 yards. But inasmuch as a correapnuding 
expansion of volume and diminution of denait; 
takes place in every part of the atmosphere, . 
unifotm corresponding lail of temperature mu! 
also be everywhere found. Thus the walls of ai 
which surround the ascending column, and wer 
cold with regard to it at the surface, must suflei. 
in every part of its nourw, an equal diminution of 
temperature, proportioned to the height at which 
we leat it. In fact, however high the colnmn 
air ascend, it will fall continuously in temperata 



Hiding ail on the sn 



e level. 






o become broken 



ind di 






might thus be porpetuatjjd up to the luniting 
mriace of the atmosphere, but for i\nforeacei 
jiausei, or for the necessary interlarence of the con. 
tained aqueous vapour, which we must dov 
aonaider. 

42. It is evident that the aqueous vapour, whicl 
i| always entangled in greater or leaa quantity with 
the tir, must experience exactly correiponding 
«bai)gei of (olume and density. When thi 
exuDded into twice its for^ner volume, or i 
t« half ita fbrmer elastic force, the gaseous 



uniformly and inextricably diffused through it, 
must also be spread thronnh twice the space ; and, 
supposing the temperature to remain unchanged, 
ita actual elastic force inusi be reduced to half ita 
former amount. In the same proportion, therefore, 
that the air expands in rising, does the aqaeous 
diminish in actual elastic force, 
have seen that the tetnperature of the air 



It the 1 



tt the I 



L the tame ri 



100 yards ; and though i 

- " mlinued at any great elevation, we 
assume that the temperatwe fslla 
as the volume of air expands, 
■emember, too, that Uie posiiblt 
iilic/ara which ia the greatest which vapour wui 
ppurt at any given temperature, decreases or 
creases in some ratio much more rapid than that 
of the simple arithmetical aeries expressing the 
degrees of temperature by the Ihetmometer. 
Although, therefore, the actual elastic force of the 
vapour does diminish, under all citcumstjUieca. 
when air rises in the atmosphere and expands, it 
does not diminish as rapidly as the regufer fall of 
the temperature and the rapid decrease of the 
possible elastic force require. There mnst always 
arrive a moment at which the actual elastic force of 
the contained vapours is exactly equal to the 
greatest possible force which can be sustained at 
that temperature, and if the motion be continued 
ever so short a distance higher, the posiible will 
overtake the eetual force, and the whole of the 
vapour can no longer he maintained in the gaseous 
state. Asmall part will be condensed into watery 
particles : the remainder of the vapour thus 
relieved of the surplua pressure being enabled to 
retain its gaseous form. A further increase of 
elevHtion, however small, will, of course, necessitate 
a repetition of thia action, and the condeuaatiou of 
a further portion of the contained vapour. 

43. Now what will be the form assumed by this 
condensed vapour? If a column of onifoRn 
heated air BScenJ, the sondeuaatton ought to evm- 
mence throughout its area at exactly the sane 
elevation, or we should expect, i priori, that tlie 
base of the cloud would he horizontal, as it is 
always seen to be, more or less, in nature. The 
cumulus will also present the circular form in a 
horizontal section, and the columnar form, nhen 
viewed in elevation, will most prohahly represent 
the form of an ascending current in the atmosphere. 
But if it is Bskei to what height the cloud will 
extend, it ia not easy to return an a privri 

44. I have shewn (41) that diaregarding the 
contained aqueous vapour, there is no apparent 
essential cause to prevent a column of vtarm ur 
rising to the utmost limit of the atmosphere, sup- _ 
posing, of course, that it is not disaipated by 1 
gradual minture with surrounding air. In spite of 

all regular ohanges of temperature and elastic 
force, it will always maintain its superiority of 
temperature and ita consequent buoyancy, just as 
in a body of liquid which does not possess the 
property of elaatioity, any part which is warmer 
and of leas apeciflc gravity than the reat, mitat 
continue rising till it reaches the aurface. 

Yet it is evident that the uprising column of aii 
is actually terminated for the reason that the 
cunnfui.as continually occurring in the atmoaphere, 
ia alwaya of a moderate elevation, and terminates 
in a sharply defined ipheriOal or ma-melloid head. 
To judge solely bom the Klipearance of Ihe cloud 



170 



JUGAZINE OF SCIENCE ASD AKT, 



itaeJf, (sue figure 4) we should at once say Ilial just 
nbore that level where conileneacion of vapour 
commDDCaa, the rising coliiaia is suddeuly checked, 
Sows Dier in a fountain-like head, and then «nki 
1)11 eiecy nide in dunnward currents beneath tlie 
level of precipitation. AH changes take place, of 

lieseendiug:, instead of ascending.' The aensihle 
tenipetfttute rieea, and though the actnal elastiij 
force of the aqueoiu vapour increases, the pniiiliii 
force hicreaws atill more quickly, so that the pre. 
cipitatcd water; purticles begin to evaporate again, 
and when the sir icaches the same level where 
precipitation began in the upward motion, ail 
cloudiuflBB disappears in the downward motion. 

45. The general form and the interoil motionF 
of the cumulus are ahewn in fig. 4, and may be 
illustr.-tted with some approach to accuracy by a 
simple experiment in the nection-glass, being, in 
lae^ a ibuntain-llke jet of liquid, of which the 
weight or gravity is redneed to an exceedingly 
smull amount, ralatiiely to the aurraunding liquid. 
(S.. «g. J.) 

Fill the leetion-glaas with water containing only 
a trace of common ealt, and then introduce from 
the centre of Ihe lower side a slow vertical current 
of distilled water, of the same (ordinary) tem- 
perature, and containing a trace of nitrate of silver, 
<tnd I part in 5000 of its weight of sugar in 
aolatioQ. The specific gravity of the latter liquid 
is very aligbtly greater Ihan that of the first, 
owing to the minute quantity of sugar, but the 
original raorneutum of the jet causes it to ascend 
slowly, forcing its way upward in a peculiar 
fQ|mUin-like form. Now the action of gravity, 
b6wever slight its force, gradually retards its 
Telocity, and at last checks its upward motion 
altogether, just fis in the case of a stone thrown 
'upwards into the air. The jet, then, after collecting 
in asomewhalglobular head, eommeneea descending 
either side in a regular and gracefiil founlain-like 
Blinn, which ia at^erwards maintained, essentially 
unchanged. 

These motions, which, it is evident, are Ihe 
simple effects of gravity acting against momentum, 
are, I believe, more or leas closely analagons to 
the iDtemnl motions of a pure cumulose uloud, 
nllhough the latter are even more sluggish, hut (he 
analogy only holds above the vapour-plane at 
which the eidatenee of watery cloud-particles 
begins, and ends in the atmosphjric cloud. 

m. But we must now take into account the 
reaction of the aqueous vapours, or the changes of 
temperature and density which may he occasioned 
in the air by its changes of conditioo. 

The large amount of latent heat which aqueous 
vapour gives out when condensed into watery 
particles, must be communicated to the air. The 
precipitation of eloud psrtiolea will,, therefore, tend 
to prevent the temperature of the air Irnm Kinking 
as rapidly as it would otherwise do ; bnl as the 
column of air continues ascending through colder 
Bad colder layers of surrounding air, the effect of 
the vapour, as it becomes condensed, is actuajly to 
increase the relative warmth of the ascending air, 
and to increase consequently its bHoyimi force. 
Indeed, if this were its only effect, it is sufliciently 
evident that precipitation once commenced would, 
increase nnd perpetiiate the cause which oeoasioned 



I now oonie to a point, a moat simple and evident 
one. I should imagine, which nevertheless soems to 
have heen overlooked by meteorologists, or, al all 
events, its direct efTecIs neglected. 
' It should not be fiirgotten that precipilatton Of 
watery particles, while it has the eflect of wanning 
the air, whether in the ouiuulus or in any other 
form of cloud, has also the contrary effect in 
another and more direct manner of increasing tbe 
density of the whole. A certain portion of gaseous 
vapour which possessed only six-tenths of the 
specific gravity of common air is reduced to liquid 
water, which is 81B times as denae as air.> It is 
true Chat this water is in the form of minute loB- 
pended particles or vesicles which are not at rest, 
and must always tend to siibude, bat it doel not 
follow that l^ir weight must not he added to the 
weight of the air to obtain the weight of the vholr 
mass. Indeed, it ia an almoat self-evident me- 
chanical proposition that the weight of any ^ven. 
body will not be affected by any motions merely 
inlenial and relative. Thus it is plain that a given 
quantity of nioirt air will possess the same ajiaolate 
weight, whether the moisture it contains be a gaa 
or a liquid ; but it is also plain that as vapour fill* 
nearly 1000 limes the space of the water fTosL 
which it ia deriied, the total volume of the moiat 
air will be greater — the pressure and Cempecatiue' 
being supposed onchangad when the water ia nuenua, 
than when it ia liquid. Id short, the aimplo bet I refer , 



of B 









ute, the heat riven ont in the pie- 
m nf watery pavticlea ten^ toeipand th^Bir,^. 
cotmCer-eSect ia also producnl by tlie diojiniaEiB^ 
Tolnme of tJieaqueDus ]>art. It is nut uossible to te- 
tennina whether precijutation will really decrsiue or 
increase tbe den^ty of the air and accslerate or apnl 
Uie upward motion of the cnmnlosa 
exactly ralculatin^ ot 
effects, and thas djECo 

tends. The data upon wlucli anch a caJcnlatioa nndL 
rest are very uumarum and complei, and with ng^t^ . 
ceneuially to the sueciiii: beet of gasea, are very tuus-f 



se current. <acept Iq* 
ita of the two oppod^^ 
lich way the reaoltant 



; all ol. 



sable. 



have ubtained tend Co a coni'luaion quite the reveiaa^ 
what thia theory requires : thus I liad that, with the" 
temperaCare and dew point both at IXI deg'r and Ufa 
barometer at 300 inches, if the whole vaponr eontaintd 
be suddenlv coodenaed, tbe latent heat evolved will ai- 
pand the air in the rati - 
of vapouis will at tbe e 



10 time diminiah tbe viteia 



1041: 

49- But tbe point is nnt to he derided in this mn^ 
manner, and I give very little credit to this calcuUtim. ' 
I bave, iaderd, tailed toprove train die linown aid 
already ex[dained prapertias of the atmosphere wboAor' 
a cumulosQ^rendmg current will be checked by thtf 
preripitatiDn of vapooi's j hut if we i c^-ard the cloud 
itaolf in the sky. we can have no possible doubt that 
some cause must exist to check it, for tlie simple reason 
ihal it u checkid. Tbe pare camnlns a nsnally of a 
very small vertical height, and is as definitely tonni- 
natcd above as the fountain-like head scan in the afi^ 
tion glass (Dg-v.) Itis indeed not altogether tieett' 
sary to the theory to suppose that the predpitatioa of 
vapor actually locreaaes Cba density of the air, wit 
will bo shown at a later part of this paper (6T-nl Oat 
it must ini'reaae Ihe doisity of Ihe cumnlosa cnrrent 
relatively to surrouuding air. 

.SO. The theory of the cutaulus which I adopt » iMa-* 



lailtablc conBrmalion of the o 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



171 



A body of air ascending in the atmosphere by virtue of 
its comparative warmth and buoyancy will, if it force 
its way to a sufficient height, reach a plane above whicli 
it cannot pass without a part of tiie aqueous vapour it 
-contains becoming condensed into cloud-particles. Some 
cause exists, simultaneously with the precipitation of 
the vapour, by which the density of die rising air is 
sensibly increased in comparison with the surrounding 
air on the same level ; thus the ascending current is 
not only checked, but usually caused to re-descend 
below the plane at which precipitation commenced. 

Thus is produced the regular detached pure cumulus, 
that roundish, well-defined, but ever changing cloud 
which usually dots the sky faring the pleasantest days. 
Its pure and brilliant upper surface, reflecting the direct 
rays of the sun, is strongly contrasted wim its dark 
base, and both with the clear blue of the intervals of 
sky beyond, giving a cheerful yet half-shady aspect to 
the scene. But we must pass on to connder how the 
same action which in fine weather yields the simple 
cumulus mcay, if proceeding to an excessive extent, 
cover the sky by an unbroken and gloomy sheet of, 
cloud, or when modified by other simple causes, produce 
all the phenomena of storm-clouds. 

CuMULOSE Sheets of Cloud. 

- 51. Though meteorologists are somewhat acquainted 
with two or three of the more distinct and regular forms 
of cloud, it must be acknowledged they have scarcely 
ventured to approach the subject of the enormous masses 
of confused cloud, which in realitf yield us the greater 
part of our supply of rain. I allude at present to those 
gloomy unbroken coverings of cloud which produce 
what we should term a rainy day. But following out 
ihe above discussion as to the changes which the s|)ecific 
$[ravity of a body of air ma^ undergo during precipita- 
tion, &c., we may meet, I think, with some slight clue 
to the explanation ev^n of such phenomena. 

For instance, supposing the above theory of the 
cumulus to be correct, cases may occur in which the 
warmth, moisture, and consequent buoyancy of the as- 
cending air are so great that the first precipitation of 
watery particles does not increase^ its specific gravity 
above that of the surrounding air at the same level ; its 
upward motion will therefore continue until further 
precipitation produces this effect, and the air overflows 
in a fountain-like head and descends. But it will not 
now descend below that plane at which precipitation 
commenced, but will, on the contraay, be able to retain 
a part of its moisture in the form of cloud-particles, 
and yet remain suspended stationarily at a determinate 
elevation in the atmosphere . The pure rounded cumu- 
lus will now appear surrounded by flattish projections, 
•extending from its lower part and resting upon the same 
horizontal base. 

52. If copious supplies of warm and moist air con- 
tinue to' ascend from below, these jlat cumuli will so 
increase in size as to join each other, and we shall have 
a continued cloudy stratum, terminated below by a 
rough dark horizontal surface, but presenting above 
many large rounded or mamelloid projections which 
prove the cumulose action to be still going on through- 
out the whole mass, though it bo not apparent from 
below. 

Thus M. Arago learned from some French officers 
engaged in surveying at great elevations in the Pyre- 
nees, that when a stratum of cloud appears perfectly 
smooth and uniform on its under surface, its upper sur- 



the severe hot wind of December 24th, 1857» a large 
column of smoke (probably firom a bush fire) was seen 
rising into the atmosphere. After attaining a certain ele- 
vation this was sharply terminated by a nearly level plane 
beneath which the smolse seemed to spread out on all sides. 
But in several places small bodies of cumulose cloud pro- 
jected up above this plane so as to present almost as dis- 
tinct an illustration of the mode in which it was formed 
as the imaginary drawing (fig. iv) could do. 



face consists wholly of high protuberances and deep 
cavities. (Essay on Thunder and Lightning, page 8. ) 

53. Again, a widely extended stratum of loose cloud 
might be produced in another and a slightly difiereut 
maimer. When the air which has ascended and pro- 
duced a cumulus sinks again by reason of its increased 
density below the plane of precipitation the cloud par- 
ticles indeed evaporate, but the air, though clear and 
transparent, retains the warmth and moisture which 
originally caused its ascent. It will, therefore, leave 
no tendency to descend lower, but will spread out and 
accumulate in successive layers just beneath the plane 
of precipitation. We may conceive, in fact, that the 
part of the atmosphere between the surface of the eslrth 
and the plane of precipitation forms a distinct stratum, 
in which, as in any other stratum of gas or liquid, the 
warmest and > lightest parts will occupy the highest 
position. Now, if any general cause, such as a fjul of 
the^ barometer occasioned by changes in the loftier 
regions of the atmosphere, or an access of cgld and dense 
air beneath, tends to raise this stratum bodily, the 
higher layers will expand and sink in temperature in 
such a manner as to produce precipitation over their 
whole area at once, and a thick uniform stratum of 
cloud will be the result. 

54. It is, indeed, general changes of the barometrical 
pressure occasioning the ascent of large masses of the 
atmosphere at once which must produce in general the 
extensive strata of cloud we are now considering. It is 
quite certain that such upward and downward move- 
ments must go on, since from them alone can originate 
those horizontal movements which we continuallv ex- 
perience as wind at the surface. Whenever there is up- 
ward motion, there we shall assuredly have, in general, 
the production of clouds, which must then either termi» "^ 
nate in rain, or evaporate again by reason of a contrary 
downward motion. 

55. I would remark,that the cause of much bad success 
in such subjects as the present, is, I think, the wrong idea 
which is generally entertained of the nature of a cloud. 
So long as the watery particles of which it is composed 
do not descend as rain, they are suspended in a very . 
minute state of division in the air, and are inseparable 
from it, except by the slow process of subsidence. This 
is not in the least inconceivable or anomalous ; for in- 
stance, precipitated gold (specific gravity, 19*5) is rften 
in such a minute state of division, that it remains 
suspended in a glass of water for many days, merely 
communicating to it a peculiar bluish colour. The 
mechanical properties of such a fluid are not in the 
least altered by the suspended solid, except that its 
specific gravity, as a whole, is slight ly increased. In 
the same manner, although the density ot air in a cloud 
is undoubtedly increased by the weight of the watery 
particles included in it, it is to all intents and purposes 

a gas merely rendered opaque by an extraneous sub- 
stance. A stratum of cloud is merely a stratum of air 
in a peculiar condition, and all difficulties as to the 
forms and suspensions of clouds are resolved into prob- 
lem of ariel motions depending on changes of tempera- 
ture, density, precipitation, evaporation, &c. 

Cumulo-Stratus. 

66. We have always hitherto considered the watery 
particles of clouds as inextrically mingled with the air, 
so that a cloud merely resembled opaque air nf a 
■lightly increased specific gravity. The supposition 
that the cloud particles increase in size, so as to subside 
through the air, or eventually become amalgamated 
together into large drops of rain i which then descend 
rapidly to the surface of the earth, will now lead to 
many conclusions of interest. 

It is evident that the immediate eflect will be to 
diminish specific gravity of the cloud as a whole, for 
the aerial part must become lighter and more buoyant 
when the heavy watery particles, which before weighed 
it down, subside and are separated off. It is scarcely 
possible that I am the first to notice that the fall of rain 
must relieve the atmosphere, or some particular portion 
of the atmosphere, of weight, and thus cause changes 



MA'iAZINE OF SCIENCE AND ART. 



or cpeciSc gravity and vertioil motitnu ; Int chs efiect 
uf surji diBnges dq dtB focna of cloaia tuivs cttnainly 
not been dtdy aoruideTed. 

57. It had bean ahown hoir the precipitation a 



poor 



in the in(«raal u 






«i,™ 



a tL-mpcratnte of ^ air, 
r tban the nDrroimdm? air of the Bamn 
Itvtl. Tha upper morion nvuld, ttiewfiira, be acco- 
leraied, oc " pBrpatuafed." were it not that some conn 
tflfacting causa (pTohahl^ the weight of the witi^ 
jiacdoles) increases theapecilic gmvity of the nsra. ant 
aj^ssU its motion. Bat when the waterr particles Ml 
aivay frotn the air, a part at least of this - - .^ 

infliamra is reiuovBd 1 the 



lighter 



B befon 



mitain-l^ fi 
IT iTonld be OE 



It is not likely tJiat thai 
frani watery pardcle^. If so, n miu lu ui^i 
ua aceannt of its gtijaJ: buoyaacv.tnu trreatei 
in 'iFhich upward motion all tbo plionon 
CbtanlDs 'wonld be again pniduceJ. The ^ 

' " ' ~ ' dennty ii ei; ' _ ' 

strata beneftlh, but above whicb eievauon icisonot nse, 
because unmulDse precipitation iraald then incceaae its 
den^iy. and cause it tn re-desccnd. as in the cnmnlaH. 

The cloud will, therefore, extend itself ootwards at 
that point where it can rest at eqDilibroni. and the tall 
colnmnoA eninalus will appear with those widely ex- 
tended stratifarm projcdious which give it the name of 

, ^ I am confident that any one nlio closely observes 
the nataral form and j^narat phenotncna of a cumnlo- 
sky, will allow that this theory very 
rants for them. The nanal shape, in- 
iiopi, Biion^lj BofttesO tie rising and spreoiUng out of 
a body of air, wnich has not the tendency to descend 
, Afain. Imt the truth of this mav be made more appa- 
rent by a si mple einerimental illuBtration, 

Place in the Beclion-f lass a atralum of water, con- 
tatning only a trace of common salt, and ^radaally 
inttoduce below it a second layer, containing the same 
Wioe of common salt, tOgedier with two parts in 1000 
df snorar. Tha latter stratum, pasEesun^ the greatest 
specific (jcanty, will lie tranquilly below i!ie other. 
Then projert np slowly from the lower side of the glass, 
a jet of water conlaimng a trace of ailvor, tugother with 
about one part in 1000 of supar. 

Se. The last meationed liqaid is oF a specific gra- 
vis, intermediate to the other two. and will rise up- 
wards with a enninloie head, thronjib the lower stratnm, 
and ap to a cerl^n elevation in the htgbor stratum. 
There its superior gtavity will overcome itamomeutnm, 
and it vitU overflow and redescend, as in the cumulus, 
into the lower stratnm. But here acaln its dounward 
motion will be checked far a similar canw, and, in 
fccl, it ciaaot attain equilibrinm, eiceptjjy spreading 

inturmedlBlo to the other two. A cloud of chloride of 
silver is thna proilnced, of which Mine of the vaiaeries 
of rotm are shewn in 6g. vi. and vii. 

The teaemblance of this miniature cloud to the real 
form, ii ufUn, indeed, very strikinif, hut though I be- 
lieve that the analogy is always esieniiaUt/ true, 1 need 
■canelj explain that in this, as in the otber eiperi- 
menta, the conditions ai«, in niimy respects, so diflerent 
tP tiiose of the atmospheric do 
perTMl: resemblance cannot oR 

evident that in this eipet^menc we do not represent the 
ae|iaration of the aqueous particles u rain, bnt only the 
motions ihcDce resalling. The jet of liquid projected 
npwards, ihmugb a stratum of greater deuaity. repro- 
ascendinit air warmed by predj>italioa yet 
a the wei^t of the precipitated particles, imd 
ig a short distance into the highest and lighttHt 










60, The camnlostratns may, therefore, be deflnad m 
a cumuios, in which a separation of the watery puti' 
clesfrom the air is tiiking; place lo some extent. M Alt 
the aerial part rising Dpw»ds, and retaining the latent 

heat of the condensed vapour, has no taade " ' " 

scend, but coUects and apreada flat at some 
it is in eqnilibrinm with the surrounding 
form prujections may thni he formed, e 
summit, or any lower point of thqcolnmn 

[The name aimila-alriUui might mislead peMon 
into tha idea that it had somethiDg to do wM ft« 
limiiis, at the pricipitalian i,v mixture, eiplaintd 1ft 
a tepatate pwt of this paper (24. 31), but the t^msa— 
merely descriptive of the forma, and there is no Mu 
nection whnlbver betwecD tbcir producing cauiet.] 

Tqh Niuaca Rain-Clodd, on TavsoKa-OLOtm: 

Gl. It will probably he tbonght rather preemninj Ml 
extend the present method of iutestigatioo, andlllepI«-^ 
■-'■-■ Dffttt 



method of in 
noo, the i/ninder'-cliiad, n( ■» 



derfnl ohe , 

ire hundreds of theories have, no doubt, been fb 

t proved satisGuliMy. ■ 



iiHi. aan Lue samemoaBV^ 
me to eifer an eiplBR^gH 
)f the Cirrns, tjia CamiillilM 
ads me so directly sad las^ 1 



would not. itideed. enter lightly upon 

aoVnowledged difficulty, and would 

consideration, ran the risk of adding 

theoty tn the already long list. 

enquiry which has lead 

on the simplest principles 

and the rDmnlo-atratus. leads me so directly i 

tably to the Girro-Cum ale .strains, ar thnr 

that to shrink from attempting the oiorc cm 

striking case, would only be to acknowledge 

confidence in the oiplanitions uf the aimplo i 

theory of the thunder-cloud is, indeed, nothing nun 

than that uf the comnlositatDs combined with that if 

the cirrus, and Che same combinatiou of experimcMiL' 

canditions gives what I shall offer as a miniaCors repM^ 

senlation of a ihnnder-clond. 



from 



imnlosE 



cloud, f 






moist air. The cumi 

clond 'will collect to 
projections, which lie 
from the agitated j: 






L.-cl1a 



,uneq, 




of ^ cm 
further suppose, thi 

the watery particles to continue IbruogL , . 

h»dy of these projoctiona. their speeifto gtavi^ 
diminish by degrees. Now, these stratose projf" 
had assumed a determinate porition and efVvflt 
the atmosphere, where alnne they could lie 
brinm, because tlieir siiecifio gravity wot elacd*' 
tothatofthesnrroundingurnntheaamelB*-' ' 
Ihrir specific gravity h decreased by Euhsidei 
tery particles, Iheycanao longer remain in ejnilibl 
hut mnat rise upwards to a higher levt ' 
we meet the precise condition, which we proved f jT] 
produce tbo cirrus. The upper parts of '*- 
clond, after once coming to rest, will aeai 
tendeUE'v to ascend, and filtering upwards, 

above, we shall undoubtedly obt«n a en 
ireading crest of "' '■'■'■ ' 



03. We 
llustrato the form 
ememberiug. howe 



rirro-stratns, or thunder-c 




thus prudnced. oarafolly 
Lothing but tha mere mt^ 



jis about two parts in 1000 uf s 
omon salt, and the temperature 
. t? aboul 100 decrees of Fahret 
fully introduce boneatn it a second kt]atDm,at the 



if water, which 
Lr. with a bww 
which hu h*an. 



heudi- 1 



nary tampenttura of ■bont BO dffraes. ami conta 
the same tCRca of Gunimni: ^ait, tugediiT u'itii ii para 
flf ■og»r in lOOU. Lastly, project upwnrds, frouw tliB 
lower edge r>f tLiggUra, a jet of diatjlled water, at the 
ordinary tempe»tar«i cpnlai mnf f muroly jl Iraco of 
nitnWe of ailsev in wlution. 

The jet of tha liurt-niined lionid forces its way ra- 
pdly np tJuoaE^h tJie lowest cold and denae straEcm. 
»ith [heosuilcnmnlosBtpraiinalJoii, by lirtae both of 
its mooieiLtDm and ita rudaiderahle buoyaney. The 
heated upper Httfitaju^ however^ :Uthou^h cootaiiuiig 
sngar, is of less specilic i;ra>ily than pitre water at the 
Mmpotatnto of 60 degroea, and, therefore, on enterin* 
^tdi atratnm, tho upiier pragress of tho jot is checked, 
dna flowing over in t]ieIiiaDtain-li)[e,orcumuLHe fonn. 
it ledenceudi into the deoaer BtraCnm. A cnmulostra- 
(oao clnod ia thnj formed for tho flrat faw momcnls, ai 
in a fanner Dxpoiiment {SJ), bat the heat of tbf highest 
stratnm isai«u comaLUiicatAd. to the hif^kVparffi. por- 
tions of the tDJerti^ liqold, and docreaaeh their speLihc 
gravity. Htnro ihoy uili acquire tlio power (as ai- 
' piaiaed in 35J of hltoring upwurds in cuioBe streamlels 
to tbe aurhee, and the pecu&u form is produced which 
is shewn in fig. viii. 

[It may be noticed that the cutose tbreids obtained 
;• in tbe aertion glass are muth larger and coarser, or 
' «ven Aomewhat difEerevt in ulipeajaneo (rom thoae pru- 
si^Qced in a roond glus yesA^ but tho difference does 

)i^«Bad eWirely bv the iHtioH fiirni of ap|iaraius.] 
^ M. n «U1. doubtless, be difficult tor pa-KDi DM Kiui- 
ftmiDd to otamiH the clauila, ■nd conrider Iholr apparent 



MAGAZINE OP SCIENCE AND ART. 



id cao'ciiicotty illuited in the iliy. 

;. ph^JundK >D luflnltB vuioty of condition, .n inflniie 

■ oilna null «M>c!ie upon ihoe ■ promi. of iibstraction In 

tiil; Such, 1 IjelltvB, ore reptwciited OS wmpleiely and 
tmgifDlly M could be eipeded in the roinialuiB e.speil- 
■unn jut explained. 

IBI, mftldi In (bat oaic generally sahibiia, sooner or lain. 



^Ityofraln bUin 


and i 


*Udl tt ii eully 




>mld««pt»..oa 




■BMhmhlcfitheu 














alien, 1 


icsuiately the upi 








dpltDlion. 








siKpcndad In Ihe . 








thl.™bri»tng actio 


n a lull 



lih whldi they aie loaded. Th»e are ai Bcv of a dli- 
nclIy-Urmlnated bng-like toira; but ioonec or later 



1 Hie aggregaiion of 



ooie violent pronu. of ng. 

e.ilzed volume if I werelo 
of Iheu iheorid, to mention 
! slight difficulty [liat msy 



w proceed with further gem 



one eS^t of rain north noticing, and 
(he touipeiatuie of tho higber itrataof 



retard louibly the diminution of lem- 

e should be so cold as flmlell'i ihwiy, 
r on the absorplion of heat, teqnirei. Vat 



Tward. 


^hlbll a 


h"h"".;^ 


btI" 


rcT 


posillon will 


.ryre<iu 
















our 


rcgula 




eUr, 


ocality It ii 
nlaaU bU of 


-pbete; 


lJ!^"i 


y ' 


:iS;2 


ilUMtlty of JUinl 



MAGAZINE OF 8CIENCK AND ABT. 



1st cvnywhero hnw 1 
liiBipmiacgrgTily. 



:h Air In irhidi the aquci 



isvity cnJMB^holoii 



h pTi!cipllaliOD eoc 



prciOc giriif ity Uun t^^iir uir it tbeumo horjEonutlpUnc 
If th«. iitQK»ph«e, and vlU thncfbtE tend to ilnk uatil 
he cloudy puUcln eiapunue ; Snd. Wlten the eloudir 
iaiUd« f eparatc ab rain, Ihli tndenc; ta dH^oyad. 



later «uw it todocend agaLn. If the partkclu 
subridv, IbE ait which bat BKaiticd may pouess 
(hefeame temperature and ipodfic gravity as th«B 



GLECTIttCAL TsEOUT 



:eax which dialJpguiAlm 

E THnUDBnCLOUD, 



hundreds of Iheoties 
n Imagiued to eiplaln 



rcQ carried out my Dtlginsl plan, abd pMdueed 
ictlon in ny liearon tliat ttie foims of einudii 
explained In dynamlml pHnci|i1ea only, and are 



leopabte ol jUTbrding eii 



I might nen 
If ricctrictty al 

nted a<ieDrdiDe 
r imdmlood. 



nonlBe with, or even to be deduced from ths rar^ojjt^ 
7a PosMHlne, M I atinme we do, a clear sad cohem. 
Tumului, uid thereTorea Ihundeidand, wblvhiimi 
LI It were, orr/anhei/ lyttem otcltri and Btralua, I 



! cf quickly lepmted duehargn. 
this cxplanatiun appear thai I 



a body of uceudhig 



Iclty probably exist! in the atmnpliBrs pneliih 

r lurfacE of Ihe excited glan plate of the elHUtoJ 

There are hitga iiiumlilles of the eleCtilal lulf 



perfect noo-conductot, the eleotrlelty li ohliBedlon 

aurfaea paiBEi doie to a iciiei of laetailic poInCi wtalA '. 

eoUccu and uoiiei opgo llieie paints, and upon the nSi 
of tneoonducloi, Leyden Jan, *c„ which are nefailli 
connected with them. L'on»iiUBntly the wholechug 
electricity which was IWmerly.tujipinlngmnnynTolui 
of the machine to tiare betoTnade, spread ovcranali 



75. Now natcr la an CMellenl confluet 
and it li pretty eUdcol that cloudy or wai 
t^ldl; collect gpon Ibeir mifacei, if anyi 
all Ihe electricity of the air in which they 
Indefiollely imall inlcrvali. But it is tbeGbar«iMttH|(af 

separated from thcalri Uiey subside, sink, and hh^bc 
Inioraio, »hlle theaiiftced from chnr ttelgbt rlaea lilla 
higher strata. Surely this air wiU also be dcpri.ed of in 
electricity, ai was the case with the glan plate in paMIH 
neat the metallic conductor. The waHnydoud wtUM^ 
infect, tilie avail conductor, doUecting the whcda^d*^ 
trlclly of the current of ali whleh touU It frois beoBHff 
and, passing through It, la evolved at Iheinmmlt. 

Now, ai the panicics of thLi clou* graduall; toOmit 

nuiacE 19 vastly dlmlnisbed. and the teniio 



^:»l 



€ 



-!^ 









.^ 



i 



i 
V 



MAGAZINE OF SCIENCE ANJ) AKT. 



IT;") 



clouds, or perhaps only in cumulosc clouds in which 
suosidenceof aggre»»ation of the cloudy particles is going 
on. becau<e the curaulose action is the sole cause of the 
collection and concentration ot the electricity. This 
agrees well, so far as I can understand, with the con- 
clusions of Arago in his " Essay on Thunder and Light- 
ning." 

The atmosphere is almost always electrical in one kind 
or the other. Whenever cumulose precipitation takes 
place in a very excessive and concentrated manner, we may 
therefore expert lightning, but this will not necessarily 
follow, since the air may not, at the time, happen to be 
sufficiently electrified. 

77. Of all physical subjects, one of the most backward 
and (iiscurely understood is that of atmospheric electricity. 
Any theory of thunderstorms must, therefore, be very 
crude as regards the electrical part of the phenomena, and 
we must not be discouraged, if a theory of the clouds, 
constructed upon dynamical principles and the known re- 
actions of air, water, and heat, although giving a plausible 
{general explanation of another class of ill -understood 
lihcnomena, docs not, at firsts comprehend every fact or 
reconcile every difficulty of the latter. 

Thus a serious objection to the above theoiy will at 
once suggest itself to many persons, namely, that in a 
thunderstorm the kind or fiffn of the electricity often 
changes in a most capricious and Inexplicable manner from 
positive to negative, or frdm negatve to positive. My 
theory certainly does not include or presuppose such 
changes, but 1 cannot see that it excludes them. A great 
thunderstorm is a very extensive a£fjir. There are 
probably many /'or? or paits of the cloud where the 
ascending or cumulose action goes on with greatest 
energy. In the intermediate parts the action is different. 
Some of the air which has ascended at the foci may b%re 
descend or perhaps carry down bodie& of air from higher 
parts of the atmosphere, where the elect